An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy (PowerPoint)

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An Overview of the History of Canadian Immigration Policy (PowerPoint) Powered By Docstoc
					Responding to Immigrants’ Settlement Needs -
         The Canadian Experience




                     Robert Vineberg
             PMC Conference, November 4, 2011
Contents
 Pre-Confederation
 Post-Confederation to 1914
 The Interwar Period
 Post World War II to 1974
 Creation of the Settlement Program
 Settlement Renewal and Devolution
 Funding Issues
 Modern Settlement Programming

                                       2
The Two Way Street
   I can scarcely imagine any obligation which it
    is more incumbent on Government to fulfill,
    than that of … securing to … persons
    disposed to emigrate every possible facility
    and assistance, from the moment of their
    intending to leave … to that of their
    comfortable establishment…
                                  Lord Durham, 1839



                                                     3
Pre-Confederation
    Early Legislation
       Protect the emigrant, protect yourself
     ◦ Quarantine Acts
       NS – 1761; Lower Canada - 1795
     ◦ Legislation for a landing fee – 1832
       All provinces raised money for the sick and
        destitute
  Emigrant Aid Societies
  1858 Province of Canada Legislation
       First legislation to specifically concerned with
        immigrants own welfare
                                                           4
Grosse Ile Quarantine Station
    Second Class Hotel




                                5
Post-Confederation – To WW I
   Sorting Out Jurisdictions
    ◦ Dominion-Provincial Conference 1868
      Dominion takes control of quarantine stations
      Dominion undertakes to prepare national
       legislation: immigrants not emigrants
   Looking After Immigrants
        Port of Entry Facilities
        Immigration Halls
        Dominion Lands Act
        Grants to many immigrant aid organizations

                                                       6
Quebec Port of Entry c.1890




                              7
Immigration Hall   Winnipeg c. 1890




                                      8
Post-Confederation – Interwar Period
     The 1920s
      ◦ Emphasis on Colonization
        Homesteading continues
      ◦ Railways Agreements
        “After Care”
      ◦ Empire Settlement Agreement
      ◦ Immigration Halls
        continue in large-scale use
     Depression and War
        Immigration comes to a halt
        Many immigration halls used for unemployed and
         then as army barracks during WW II               9
Immigration Hall No. 1
    Winnipeg – 1906-1969




                           10
Post World War II to 1974
   Settlement Service established 1949
    ◦ focused on employment and matching
      immigrants overseas to jobs in Canada
   Citizenship Branch
    ◦ funds language training and joint co-ordinating
      committees in many cities
   1966: Manpower & Immigration
      Settlement Service disbanded and programs
       transferred to Manpower division & Secretary of
       State
      Language training only for workers
                                                         11
The Settlement Program - 1
 ◦ 1974 – Cabinet realises mistake of 1966 and
   creates “Settlement Program”
   M&I assumes funding for settlement NGOs.
   1974 - ISAP program $810,000
 ◦ Indochinese Refugee Movement:
   Inspires government to rethink settlement
   Vastly increased need for NGOs and funding
   1984 - HOST program
 ◦ 1986 - Settlement Language Training Program
   (SLTP)
   for adults not destined to labour market

                                                 12
The Settlement Program - 2
   1992 – Settlement “comes home”
        Settlement moved to Immigration Division
        Occupational language merged with SLTP to create LINC
   1991-1999 – Some provinces assume
    responsibility for settlement
        1991 Quebec
        1999 BC and Manitoba
   New Programming




                                                                 13
The Settlement Program - 3
   2004-07 New Programming
          Canadian Orientation Abroad - 1998
          Enhanced Language Training – 2004
          Anti-Racism - 2005
          Foreign Credential Referral Office- 2007
          Canadian Immigrant Integration Program - 2007
   2005-08 – Vastly increased funding
        Canada-Ontario Agreement
        Expectations in other provinces
          first denied but then met
   2008 – New Terms and Conditions
        unified Settlement program

                                                           14
A Few Conclusions
   Settlement Services
       Initiated to protect the resident Canadians
       Then transformed into efforts to retain immigrants
        coming to Canada
   Integration is a two-way street
       The best settlement program will fail in the absence
        of a welcoming community.
       This is a lesson that Canada has learned, and then
        forgotten, only to rediscover again, several times
        through its history.
 Settlement and integration are „whole of
  government‟ activities
 NGOs are essential to program delivery
                                                               15
Former Immigration Hall   Edmonton
2010




                                     16
Photo Credits
   Cover: Old Immigration Hall, Edmonton, Library and Archives of Canada
    (LAC) – C042729
   Slide 5: Grosse Isle 2nd Class Hospital c1905 – LAC - c079029
   Slide 7: Immigration Sheds at Port of Quebec– LAC – a021357
   Slide 8: Winnipeg Immigration Hall c1890 – LAC – c2334
   Slide 10: Immigration Hall No. 1 Winnipeg, (Dominion Immigration Hall),
    Archives of Manitoba - N21668
   Slide 16: Edmonton Immigration Hall 1931-1971, Frank Dumont – CIC
    Edmonton




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