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					         Teaching is . . .



a psychological endeavor.
a social science.
a profession rather than a job.
APA is used to provide a consistent
   format across a discipline.
                   APA stands for
                   American
                    Psychological
                     Association

                   The conventions of APA
                   notation have been
                   employed to provide unity
                   in the knowledge base
                   across the field. Related
                   fields, like teaching, are
                   increasingly adopting
                   APA notation.
       Why Use APA Style?
• APA style has been adopted by all 27 APA
  journals (Msetfi,2009) and 1000
  psychology journals worldwide
  (plus others) – very important!
         Why Use APA Style?
 To provide a consistent format across a
  discipline
 To allow for readers to easily cross reference
  your work
 To lend credibility to your writing
 To protect yourself from plagiarism
If we get all the correct information in
    there, why can’t we just cite our
 references any old way we choose?

                    It saves you, the
                    researcher, time
                    and toil when the
                    writer uses
                    convention in the
                    citation process.
                          Research:
                     Proper APA
                     formatting helps a
                     researcher (you)
                     follow the thread
                     of an idea back to
                     it’s source.
The references at the end of the material
you are using can provide great leads to
other source material.
Others have done this for you,

               Shouldn’t
               we pay it
               forward?
Use APA to protect yourself from
       Plagiarism!

                      The penalties
                      for plagiarism
                      can be severe
                      but so can the
                      consequences
                      for the victim.
 That’s Great . . .
so where do I start?
Now that you know why APA or another
approved style of citation is required when
doing research and other writings in
academia . . .




      Let’s talk about the how.
 There are 4 main parts
    in an APA paper
      Title page

Abstract / Author’s Note

      Main Body

      References
        Cover Sheet
  The cover sheet and the title
  page are not the same thing.
A separate title page should be
placed after the cover sheet and
before the body of the paper.
Items included on the cover
sheet vary as per instructor
requirements (Stoner M., 2006).
 Page Numbers &Running Head
Do not put your name in the header.
Instead place it after the Main Title
  with any university affiliations.

The first numbered page is the title
 page (not the cover sheet)
 beginning with the number 1.
The short title you will be using
 throughout the paper must be less
 than 50 characters.
           Title Page
The “short title” that reflects the
basic focus of the paper should be
included in the upper left of the
header in ALL CAPS, along with
running page numbers in the upper
right of the page. These items
should be separated by at least 3-5
spaces.
   This is also the page for an
authors note if applicable.
  So we have a
  page looking
something like this:
          New conventions!
• No underlining . . . Anywhere.

• Use Italics to denote book, magazine,
  journal and dissertation titles both in the
  text and in references.
               New conventions!
             Punctuation Issues

• Use one space after sentence ending
punctuation in the body of the paper.
• Use “single quotes for ‘quotes’ within a quote”.
• Block quotes are indented from the body and do
not require quotation marks but are to be included
only if they are absolutely necessary.
• Do not end a sentence with a URL unless it is
enclosed in parenthesis.
 Here are some common mistakes
            to avoid . . .
     Don’t cite a source of one type
as a source of a different type.
Know what material you are working
with. This is especially true with
sources that were retrieved from
electronic databases. A book found
online is not cited the same way as a
paper copy.
         Reference Page
   Use a hard page break inserted at the
end of the body of the paper to ensure that
the reference page(s) begin on a new
page.
         Basic Source Choice
•   Books
•   Trade or academic magazines
•   Journals
•   Periodicals
                    • NO popular magazines
                         • NO encyclopedias
                      • NO Wikipedia articles
      Main Areas Of Concern

                  References
                   **(Book)**
  Last name, First initial. (Year published).
     Title of the Book. Location: Publisher
 **(Electronic version of a Print Book)**
Last name, First initial. (Year published).
  Title of the Book[ XXX reader version].
  Retrieved from http://www.nameofsite.xxx
               Journal Article References

                            **(Journal Article)**
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Journal,
     volume(issue), pages.
(If the journal paginates continuously by volume no issue number is
     needed.)

**( Electronicly retrieved Journal Article with no doi )**
Last name, First initial. (Year published) Title of the Article. Title of the
    Journal, Volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from
    http://www.nameofsite.xxx

                      **( Journal Article with doi )**
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Journal, Volume,
  page numbers doi:xx.xxxxxxxx
Academic and Trade Magazines
                **(Magazine Article)**
Last name, first initial. (Year published/month).
  Title of the Article. Title of the Publication,
  Volume(edition), page numbers.

 **(Electronically retrieved Magazine Article)**
Last name, first initial. (Year published/ month)
  Title of the Article. Title of the Publication,
  Volume(edition), page numbers. Retrieved from
  http://www.nameofsite.xxx
     When citing a source in text:
             (Last name, year of publication)
•   Do not rename the author in the citation if you
    have attributed the work in the sentence.
•   (Incorrect) Joseph Robertshaw said in his Power
    Point presentation that double naming an author
    was not acceptable (Robertshaw, 2010).
•   (Parenthetical) Joseph Robertshaw said in his
    Power Point presentation that double naming an
    author was not acceptable (2010).
•   (Textual) In 2010, Joseph Robertshaw said in
    his Power Point presentation that double naming
    an author was not acceptable.
Why not use the full name?




        • Elimination of gender and
          racial biases.
• Gender and racial anonymity are now
  preferred. Use last names for in-text
  citations. Use initial of first names and last
  names for references rather than full
  names.
The ideas of
Steven Smith
Shirley Smith and
Shivani Smith
  all deserve equal consideration based
  upon their work.
Green, Sean P., Shriberg, Donna, & Farber, Samuel. L. (2008). What’s Gender Got To Do With
           Teachers’ Perception of Situation Severity and Requests for Assistance. Journal of
           Educational and Psychological Consultation, 18, 346-373.

Holtgraves, T. Interpreting Questions and Replies: Effects of Face-Threat, Question Form, and Gender.
           (1991)Social Psychology Quarterly, 54, 15-24.

Meyerhoff, M. (1998). Accommodating your data: the use and misuse of accommodation theory in
           sociolinguistics. Language & Communication, 18, 205-225.

Otnes, C., Kim, K. & Kim, Y. C. (1994). Yes, Virginia, There is a Gender Difference: Analyzing Children’s
            Requests to Santa Claus. Journal of Popular Culture, 28.

Oliver, B. (2000). Freud and the question of mediated social behaviour. Society in Transition, 31, 163-174.

Phillipsen, L. C. (1999) Associations Between Age, Gender, and Group Acceptance and Three
            Components of Friendship Qualities. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4(1), 438-464.

Ruzickova, E. (2007). Strong and mild requestive hints and positive-face redress in Cuban Spanish.
           Journal of Pragmatics,vol. 39, 1170-1202.

Seargeant, P. (2009). Language ideology, language theory, and the regulation of linguistic behaviour.
           Language Sciences, 31, 345-359.

Wilson, D. W. (1980). Ambiguity and Helping Behavior. New York:Penguin, The Journal of Social
           Psychology, 112, 155-156.

Wilson, T. P. (1970). Conceptions of Interaction and Forms of Sociological Explanation. American
            Sociological Review, 697-710
   Things to look for in a guide
• Second printing sixth edition or later!
  (August 2009)
• Examples of each type of reference
• Easy to read and search format
• Spiral binding so that the book can lay
  open on a flat surface.
• Size: Most people like portability.
    ONLINE Reference Guides
List of helpful links to online APA style guides
•   http://www.apastyle.org/manual/
•   http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/writers/citatio
    n/apa/
•   http://www.docstyles.com/archive/apacrib.pdf
•   http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/word-help/create-
    a-bibliography-HA010067492.aspx
•   http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
•   http://www.lib.wsc.ma.edu/apastyle.htm
•   http://www.uwsp.edu/PSYCH/apa4b.htm
•   http://www.capilanou.ca/programs/psychology/stu
    dents/apa/quick-apa.html
                           References
Dr. Crazy (2005, Nov 30) Why I bother to teach MLA Style even though . . .[text
    blog] Http://crazyphd.blogspot.com/2005/11/why-i-bother-to-teach-mla-style-
    even.html

Msetfi R. Phd. (2009) APA style, literature searching and EndNote [Power Point
   Slides] www.lancs.uk/ihr/courses/dclinpsy/documents2008-
   9/researchDocs/teachingMaterials/APAlitSearchEndNote.ppt


Stoner, M. (v 4.0, 2006) Most common APA& PERRLA Mistakes. Retrieved 1/14/2009
   from nursestoner.com/courses/APA%20and%20PERRLA.doc (mstoner@csusb.edu)

				
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