Hollands Theory

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					Holland’s Theory (1997)

      Of Vocational Personalities
       and Work Environments
Holland’s Theory
 Partof the theory’s appeal is due
 to the simple and intuitively
 meaningful premises on which it
 is based.
Three fundamental questions:
ONE:
 What characteristics of persons and
  environments lead to positive vocational
  outcomes (such as satisfying career
  outcomes)?

• What characteristics of persons and
  environments lead to negative career
  outcomes?
Three fundamental questions:
TWO:

   What characteristics of persons and
    environments leads to career
    stability or change over the life-
    span?
Three fundamental questions:
THREE:

• What are the most effective ways of
  providing assistance to people with
  career concerns?
Holland’s underlying premise:

   Career choice is an expression of
    one’s personality …
    – Thus, members of an occupation have
      similar personalities and similar
      histories.
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 1 : Most individuals can be
    described in terms of their resemblance to
    six personality types:
                           Investigative

                   Realistic              Artistic

                          Holland Types

                 Conventional              Social

                           Enterprising
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 1 (Continued):
    – Each personality type has a characteristic set
      of attitudes and skills to use in response to
      problems encountered in the environment, and

    – Each encompasses preferences for vocational
      and leisure activities, life goals and values,
      beliefs about oneself, and problem-solving
      style.
Holland’s four working assumptions:

   Assumption 1 (Continued):
    – Types develop as a “product of a
      characteristic interaction among a
      variety of cultural and personal forces
      including peers, biological heredity,
      parents, social class, culture, and the
      physical environment” (Holland, 1997,
      p. 2)
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 1 (Continued):
    – These experiences lead to an individual’s
      preferring some activities over others: the
      preferences then develop into strong interests,
      which lead to related competencies.

    – Individual’s competencies form a specific
      “disposition” that allows the individual to
      “think, perceive, and act in special ways.
      (Holland, 1997, p. 2)
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 2:
    – Environments can
      be categorized as
      one of six model
                                  Investigative
      types:
                            Realistic        Artistic
                                 Holland Types
                          Conventional        Social
                                   Enterprising
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 2:
    – The environment’s type is determined
      by the dominant type of the individuals
      who compose that environment.

    – “Where people congregate, they create
      an environment that reflects the types
      they most resemble” (Holland, 1997, p.
      3).
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 3:
    – “People search for environments that will let
      them exercise their skills and abilities, express
      their attitudes and values, and take on
      agreeable problems and roles” (Holland, 1997,
      p. 4).
    – In a reciprocal manner, environments also
      search for people, through activities such as
      social interactions and recruitment and
      selection practices.
Holland’s four working assumptions:
   Assumption 4:
    – Personality and environment interact to
      produce behavior.
    – Knowing an individual’s personality
      type and the type of their environment
      allows us to make predictions about a
      range of possible outcomes, such as
      vocational choice, job tenure and
      turnover, achievement, and satisfaction.
Holland’s secondary assumptions:

				
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