19.4 Collapse of the Soviet Union

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					19.4 Collapse of the Soviet
          Union
1990’s Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, &
   Czechoslovakia break apart
• The new nations
  created as a result
  of this break-up are
  still struggling today
  to establish
  democracy
• Freedom to make
  choices in
  economics and
  political systems
  challenged social
  order
 Unrest in Soviet union
 after Eastern Europe
     gains freedom
• 100+ ethnic groups
  lived in Soviet Union
• Russians were the
  most largest, most
  powerful group in SU
• Non-Russians were a
  majority in the 14
  republics of the SU
• Ethnic tensions
  brewed unrest spread
               Lithuania


• A republic and independent state in
  between the wars-annexed by Soviets
  1940
• March 1990 declared independence
• Gorbachev ordered blockade-attacked in
  January 1991-14 killed 150 wounded
     Yeltsin Denounces
         Gorbachev


• Gorbachev’s popularity hurt by Lithuania
  experience-criticized by Boris Yeltsin
  Mayor of Moscow
• Yeltsin becomes first directly elected
  Russian republic president in June 1991
• Gorbachev and Yeltsin faced
  conservatives who opposed reform –what
  both leaders proposed
August Coup


  • August 1991 Conservatives detain
    Gorbachev in his vacation home on black
    Sea
  • Tanks and armored vehicles entered
    Moscow trying to enforce obedience to the
    party
  • Protesters gathered along with Yeltsin
    denouncing the show of force –troops
    refused to attack parliament-coup failed
• Gorbachev resigned as general
  secretary of communist party –
  Communists lost power in
                                        End of
  parliament that they controlled
  since 1917
                                      Soviet Union
• Estonia and Latvia declare
  independence –Gorbachev calls
  for unity but by December 1991 15
  republics had declared
  independence
• Yeltsin met with the leaders to
  form the Commonwealth of
  Independent States, or CIS, a
  loose federation of former Soviet
  Territories
• Formation of the CIS meant the
  death of the Soviet Union
• 1991 Gorbachev announced his
  resignation
                         The
                        Yeltsin
                         Era
• Face many problems, ailing economy, through
  political opposition and unpopular war
• Goals reform the Russian economy
• “Shock Therapy”- an abrupt shift to free-market
  economics
• Lowered trade barriers, removed price controls,
  and ended subsidies to state owned industries
• Inflation rate averaged 800 percent
• Economic problems fueled a political crisis.
                         Chechnya Rebels

• Yeltsin’s troubles included war in
  Chechnya, a largely Muslim area in
  southwestern Russia
• Yeltsin denied the region’s right to
  secede=war
• With an election coming, Yeltsin sought to
  end the war
• In August 1996, the two sides signed a
  peace treaty, and Yeltsin won re-election
• War soon broke out again
• Yeltsin resigned and named Russian
  Premier Vladimir Putin
• Putin forcefully quashed the rebellion in
Yugoslavia Falls Apart
• Ethnic conflict also plagued
  Yugoslavia
• After WWI, six major groups of
  people; Serbs, Croats, Muslims,
  Slovenes, Macedonians, and
  Montenegrins
• After WWII, Yugoslavia became
  a federation of six republics,
  each with a mixed population
Bloody Break-   • Josip Tito leader of Yugoslavia
                  from 1945-1980-kept unified
     Up         • Tito died and ethnic tensions
                  boiled over-Slovenia and
                  Croatia declared independence
                • 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina
                  declared independence
                • Bosnia ethnically mixed some
                  wanted independence and
                  some did not
                • Serbs used ethnic cleansing
                  (genocide) against Muslims of
                  area
                • UN had to intervene between
                  the three groups peace treaty
                  and three-prong presidency but
                  still very tense ethnically
                   Rebellion of Kosovo


• Province of southern Serbia
  comprised of majority of Albanians-
  Serb forces invaded
• NATO began a bombing campaign
  against Yugoslavia in the spring of
  1999
• Yugoslavia leaders finally withdrew
  their troops from Kosovo, however
  the region remains tense
 Eastern Europe Faces Problems
• Nations of Eastern
  Europe did not
  experience widespread
  violence
            Poland Votes Out
                Walesa
• President, Lech Walesa, adopted the strategy of
  shock therapy
• Inflation and employment shot up, but by the mid-
  1990s the economy was improving
• Poles were unhappy with the paces of economic
  process
• In the election of 1995 they turned Walesa out of office
  in favor of former communist, Aleksandra
  Kwasniewski
• Kwasniewski vowed to combine free market policies
  with greater social benefits
Czechoslovakia Breaks Up
• Reformers launched an economic
  program based on shock therapy
• There was a sharp rise in
  unemployment
• Unable to agree on economic
  policy, the country’s two parts -
  Slovakia and Czech Republic -
  drifted apart
• Czechoslovakia split into two
  countries on January 1, 1993.
• Havel was elected president of
  Czech Republic, and won re-
  election in 1998
• Resolving ethnic conflicts remained
  crucial, as did economic process
• If Eastern Europe and the former
  Soviet Union can improve their
  standard of living, democracy might
  have a better chance to grow

				
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