Voting

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					In Canada and Around the World
 Before you can understand voting you need to see the
  results so you know what we are talking about.
 The following slides show the Canadian Federal
  election of 2004 as an example.
                       PARTY         % of the
The 2004
                                      Vote
Federal Election
                    Bloc Quebecois      12.4
To the right you will
see a chart showing
the popular vote (% Conservative      29.605
of people) who
voted for each of the Liberal          36.705
major parties during
the 2004 election.
                      NDP              15.69

                    Other               5.6

                    Total              100.00
One possible
result of 2004            PARTY         % of     % of
election                                the       the
The table to the right                  Vote     seats
shows what the results
of the 2004 federal      Bloc            12.4     38.2
election would be IF     Quebecois
each party received      Conservative   29.605    91.2
the same percentage      Liberal        36.705    113.1
of seats as the          NDP             15.69    48.3
percentage of votes
that it won.             Other            5.6     17.2
                         Total          100.00    308
Actual Results
of 2004 election
The chart to the         PARTY         Number of
right shows the
actual number of                         Seats
seats that each party Bloc Quebecois      54
won during the
                      Conservative        99
2004 election.
                      Liberal             135
                      NDP                  19
                      Other                 1
                      Total               308
                         PARTY        Number % of the Change
                                      of Seats Seats by
                                      Actually Popular
The Difference                         Won       Vote
The chart to the       Bloc             54      38.2    +15.8
right shows the        Quebecois
difference between     Conservative     99      91.2    +7.8
the actual number
                       Liberal          135     113.1   +21.9
of seats won and the
number of seats that   NDP              19      48.3    -29.3
would have been        Other             1      17.2    -16.2
won based on           Total            308     308      0
popular vote.
So the question you should be asking is:
 Why is there a difference?
The answer is that Canada decides who
 represents Canadians based on
 electoral districts not popular vote.
The following slides show our electoral
 maps.
 The following slides show what type of electoral
  system Canada uses as well as several others that are
  used around the world.
 As always it is up to you to decide which one of these
  systems is best.
First Past the Post Voting (FPP)
 The voter only votes for one candidate and whoever
  gets the highest number of votes is elected.
 It is the easiest vote counting system to calculate
  results.
 The winning candidate is the one who gains more
  votes than any other candidate, but not necessarily an
  absolute majority (50% + 1).
 FPP is used in the United Kingdom, Canada, India,
  and the United States.
Preferential Voting (PV)
 Electors must rank all candidates by placing the number ‘1’
  for their preferred candidate and consecutive numbers
  from ‘2’ for their 2nd choice, ‘3’ for their 3rd choice and so
  on until all candidates are numbered.
 If no candidate has an absolute majority, the candidate
  with the lowest number of 1st preferences is eliminated,
  and their ballot papers are examined for 2nd preferences to
  be assigned to remaining candidates in the order as
  marked.
 The totals are then checked and this process is repeated
  until one candidate has an absolute majority.
 PV is used in the Australian federal House of
  Representatives and in Nauru.
Two Round System (TRS)
 The TRS is conducted in the same way as an FPP
  election and if a candidate receives an absolute
  majority of votes, they are elected.
 If no candidate receives an absolute majority a second
  round of voting is conducted, often a week or two later
  and the winner of this round is declared elected.
 The TRS is used in countries such as France, Mali,
  Togo, Egypt, Iran, Belarus and Ukraine.
List Proportional Representation
(List PR)
 List PR is used in multi-member electorates where
  votes are cast in order of preference for the parties
  which have registered a list of candidates.
 Parties receive seats in proportion to their overall share
  of the total vote and winning candidates are taken
  from the lists in order of their position.
Mixed Member Proportional
(MMP)
 A proportion of the parliament is elected by majority
  methods, usually from single-member electorates,
  while the remainder come from PR Lists.
 Under MMP systems, the List PR seats compensate for
  any disproportions produced by the district seat
  results.
 MMP is used in countries such as Germany, New
  Zealand, Italy and Venezuela.

				
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