Chapter 17 Section 3 (PowerPoint)

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					Chapter 17 Section 3

  The War in the Pacific
Refer to map on page 580
                Brainstorm

   You enter the war in 1941.
   You do not accomplish victory in Europe
    until 1945.
   How do you go about gaining victory over
    Japan in the Pacific?
                Objectives

   Identify key turning points in the war in
    the Pacific.
   Describe the Allied offensive against the
    Japanese.
   Explain both the development of the
    atomic bomb and debates about its use.
   Describe the challenges faced by the
    Allies in building a just and lasting peace.
 The   War in the Pacific
        The War in the Pacific

   Leaders:
   MacArthur Page 583
   Nimitz
   Hirohito
              April 1942, Bataan

   Leader:      MacArthur
   Remember we entered war in 1941 &
    Germany does not fall until 1945
   Allies hold out for 4 months against
    invading Japanese forces before
    abandoning peninsula
   14k dead / 48k wounded
            April 1942, Bataan
   On April 3, 1942, General Homma finally
    launched his long-awaited (by both the
    Japanese high command and the
    Americans) final push to crush the
    Philippines. He easily broke through the
    final line of resistance of the Fil-American
    troops on Bataan, but he did so because
    of the deplorable state of the defending
    forces facing him.
           June 1942, Midway
              Obj #1 & 2
   Leader:       Nimitz
   Allies broke Japanese code
   Americans turned back Japanese invasion
    headed toward Hawaii
   Beginning of Island Hopping Strategy to
    take back Japanese gains in the Pacific
        August 1942, Guadalcanal
                Obj. #1
   Leader:     MacArthur
   Americans dealt Japan their first defeat on
    land
       August 1942, Guadalcanal
   The theme of Guadalcanal as the turning point. From the
    slim victories by small forces; from the discipline and
    ability of Marines to hold on despite hunger, fatigue and
    disease; from the resolution of U.S. airmen and seamen
    who were often outnumbered but never outfought; and
    from the fact that, at this ultimate single point of
    extension and conflict, the United States, straining its
    utmost, as against Japan straining its utmost, could
    exert a few more ounces of effort--from this aggregate
    came victory, not only on Guadalcanal, but ultimately in
    the whole Pacific
         October 1944, Leyte Gulf
                page578
                 Obj #1
   Leader:      MacArthur
   Japanese resort to kamikaze
   Entire Japanese fleet involved
   Japan lost 3 Battleships, 4 Aircraft Carriers
    & 500 planes
   Devastating blow to Japan’s Navy
   Americans retook the Philippines
           March 1945, Iwo Jima
                 page 582
                  Obj. #1
   Leader:       MacArthur
   Fierce battle but Allies take island from
    Japan
   To the Japanese leadership, the capture of
    Iwo Jima meant the battle for Okinawa,
    and the invasion of Japan itself, was not
    far off.
           March 1945, Iwo Jima
   Iwo Jima, which means sulfur island, was strategically
    important as an air base for fighter escorts supporting
    long-range bombing missions against mainland Japan.
    Because of the distance between mainland Japan and
    U.S. bases in the Mariana Islands, the capture of Iwo
    Jima would provide an emergency landing strip for
    crippled B-29s returning from bombing runs. The seizure
    of Iwo would allow for sea and air blockades, the ability
    to conduct intensive air bombardment and to destroy the
    enemy's air and naval capabilities.
           June 1945, Okinawa
                 Obj #1
   Leader:        MacArthur
   Allies take island back from Japan
   Map on page 580 indicates importance
   7.6K Americans die
   110k Japanese die / kamikaze & suicide
      September 1945, Tokyo Bay
              Obj. #3
   Leaders:    MacArthur / Hirohito

   Japan officially / unconditionally
    surrenders
   U.S. Battleship Missouri
   Democratic Constitution & Women vote
   Change Economy / occupation
 The   Science of War
    The Science of War
   Leaders:
   Truman
   Oppenheimer
          July 1945, Los Alamos
                 Obj. #3
   Leader: Oppenheimer
   1st Atomic bomb built completing the
    Manhattan Project
   $2 Billion Dollars
   120K employees
   37 different installations including US &
    Canada
 Interim   Committee
    Other Courses Besides Dropping
              the Bomb
               Obj. #3
   Massive Invasion
   Naval Blockade
   Continued Conventional Bombing
   “A” bomb demonstration
   Conditional Surrender
       Reasons to Drop the Bomb
                Obj. #3
   Save lives & prevent casualties
   Churchill predicts 1.5M after Okinawa
   Save $ and supplies
   A dud demo bomb would be an
    embarrassment
   Display power to Russians
   Revenge for Pearl Harbor & war deaths
August 1945, Hiroshima & Nagasaki
             Obj. #3
   Leader:      Truman
   1st Atomic Bombs dropped
   August 6 Hiroshima: 70k dead, 70k
    injured, uranium, Little Boy
   August 9 Nagasaki: 40K dead, plutonium,
    Fat Man
 Planning   the Rebuilding
             Peace
Planning the Rebuilding
        Peace
   Leaders:
   FDR
   Stalin
    Churchill
   Jackson
   Truman
           February 1945, Yalta
                 Obj. #4
   Leaders: FDR, Stalin, Churchill
   Important decisions about postwar world
   Stalin wanted Germany separated into
    Occupation Zones by Allies so Germany
    would not threaten USSR again
   FDR gave into Stalin for Soviet support
    against Japan & promise of free elections
    in Poland
       April 1945, San Francisco

   United Nations Established
          1945-1949, Nuremberg
                page 586
   Leader:       Jackson
   24 Nazi leaders tried for wartime crimes
   12/24 sentenced to death
   Trials were imperfect but…
   U.S. Supreme Ct Justice Jackson:
    individuals are responsible for their own
    actions even in times of war

				
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