VIEWS: 40 PAGES: 27 POSTED ON: 1/29/2012
Chapter 17 Section 3 The War in the Pacific Refer to map on page 580 Brainstorm You enter the war in 1941. You do not accomplish victory in Europe until 1945. How do you go about gaining victory over Japan in the Pacific? Objectives Identify key turning points in the war in the Pacific. Describe the Allied offensive against the Japanese. Explain both the development of the atomic bomb and debates about its use. Describe the challenges faced by the Allies in building a just and lasting peace. The War in the Pacific The War in the Pacific Leaders: MacArthur Page 583 Nimitz Hirohito April 1942, Bataan Leader: MacArthur Remember we entered war in 1941 & Germany does not fall until 1945 Allies hold out for 4 months against invading Japanese forces before abandoning peninsula 14k dead / 48k wounded April 1942, Bataan On April 3, 1942, General Homma finally launched his long-awaited (by both the Japanese high command and the Americans) final push to crush the Philippines. He easily broke through the final line of resistance of the Fil-American troops on Bataan, but he did so because of the deplorable state of the defending forces facing him. June 1942, Midway Obj #1 & 2 Leader: Nimitz Allies broke Japanese code Americans turned back Japanese invasion headed toward Hawaii Beginning of Island Hopping Strategy to take back Japanese gains in the Pacific August 1942, Guadalcanal Obj. #1 Leader: MacArthur Americans dealt Japan their first defeat on land August 1942, Guadalcanal The theme of Guadalcanal as the turning point. From the slim victories by small forces; from the discipline and ability of Marines to hold on despite hunger, fatigue and disease; from the resolution of U.S. airmen and seamen who were often outnumbered but never outfought; and from the fact that, at this ultimate single point of extension and conflict, the United States, straining its utmost, as against Japan straining its utmost, could exert a few more ounces of effort--from this aggregate came victory, not only on Guadalcanal, but ultimately in the whole Pacific October 1944, Leyte Gulf page578 Obj #1 Leader: MacArthur Japanese resort to kamikaze Entire Japanese fleet involved Japan lost 3 Battleships, 4 Aircraft Carriers & 500 planes Devastating blow to Japan’s Navy Americans retook the Philippines March 1945, Iwo Jima page 582 Obj. #1 Leader: MacArthur Fierce battle but Allies take island from Japan To the Japanese leadership, the capture of Iwo Jima meant the battle for Okinawa, and the invasion of Japan itself, was not far off. March 1945, Iwo Jima Iwo Jima, which means sulfur island, was strategically important as an air base for fighter escorts supporting long-range bombing missions against mainland Japan. Because of the distance between mainland Japan and U.S. bases in the Mariana Islands, the capture of Iwo Jima would provide an emergency landing strip for crippled B-29s returning from bombing runs. The seizure of Iwo would allow for sea and air blockades, the ability to conduct intensive air bombardment and to destroy the enemy's air and naval capabilities. June 1945, Okinawa Obj #1 Leader: MacArthur Allies take island back from Japan Map on page 580 indicates importance 7.6K Americans die 110k Japanese die / kamikaze & suicide September 1945, Tokyo Bay Obj. #3 Leaders: MacArthur / Hirohito Japan officially / unconditionally surrenders U.S. Battleship Missouri Democratic Constitution & Women vote Change Economy / occupation The Science of War The Science of War Leaders: Truman Oppenheimer July 1945, Los Alamos Obj. #3 Leader: Oppenheimer 1st Atomic bomb built completing the Manhattan Project $2 Billion Dollars 120K employees 37 different installations including US & Canada Interim Committee Other Courses Besides Dropping the Bomb Obj. #3 Massive Invasion Naval Blockade Continued Conventional Bombing “A” bomb demonstration Conditional Surrender Reasons to Drop the Bomb Obj. #3 Save lives & prevent casualties Churchill predicts 1.5M after Okinawa Save $ and supplies A dud demo bomb would be an embarrassment Display power to Russians Revenge for Pearl Harbor & war deaths August 1945, Hiroshima & Nagasaki Obj. #3 Leader: Truman 1st Atomic Bombs dropped August 6 Hiroshima: 70k dead, 70k injured, uranium, Little Boy August 9 Nagasaki: 40K dead, plutonium, Fat Man Planning the Rebuilding Peace Planning the Rebuilding Peace Leaders: FDR Stalin Churchill Jackson Truman February 1945, Yalta Obj. #4 Leaders: FDR, Stalin, Churchill Important decisions about postwar world Stalin wanted Germany separated into Occupation Zones by Allies so Germany would not threaten USSR again FDR gave into Stalin for Soviet support against Japan & promise of free elections in Poland April 1945, San Francisco United Nations Established 1945-1949, Nuremberg page 586 Leader: Jackson 24 Nazi leaders tried for wartime crimes 12/24 sentenced to death Trials were imperfect but… U.S. Supreme Ct Justice Jackson: individuals are responsible for their own actions even in times of war
"Chapter 17 Section 3 (PowerPoint)"