The Client

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					The Client

 Chapter 5
              The Whole Person
• Looking at the person as a whole we have to include
  the following: psychological, biological, cultural, social,
  financial, educational, vocational, and spiritual
  components, along with life experiences such as family,
  friends, health, school, work , legal status, residence,
  safety and security, finances, play, well-being, and
• Because a whole person consists of a combination of
  the above we must be aware that this person may have
  needs in many of these areas of life.
Perceptions of the Client Problems
• Defining the problem:
  – Problems in living: 1) the problem is described as a
    situation, event or condition that is troublesome to
    the client. 2) The problem is identified and discussed,
    solutions are formulated and implemented, and the
    results are evaluated.
  – The client can lack the skills and resources to solve
    these problems or the client and helper may disagree
    about the client’s situation.
  – Just because a client knows there is a problem they do
    not always seek help.
     Perceptions of the Client Problems
 Understanding Client Problems
   It is because individuals have unmet needs that they come in
    contact with the human service delivery system.
   Models to address 4 types of problems
      A Developmental Perspective-experts suggest that human
       development is a continuous process and that there are certain
       phases and stages that individuals experience during the life span.
       Erikson and his 8 stages of development. Pg 132 and 133
      Developmental theorist view life as a process from birth until death,
       from the beginning to the end.
      In looking at development we have to take into account the person
       as a whole and how their home, family, community, culture, country,
       a persons traits, wishes and values, and childhood experiences can
       influence the way a person moves through the developmental
      How a person experiences each stage can effect how they
       experience the next stage.
      Keep in mind that as time changes the traditional stages of
       development are changing.
  Perceptions of the Client Problems
 Situational Perspective
   Problems resulting from accidents, violent crimes, natural
    disasters, and major changes in life.
   These problems usually occur because the individual is in a
    particular place at a particular time.
   These problems can lead to short term, long term difficulties or
   Individuals experiencing situation problems are sometimes
    viewed incorrectly as victims. The client needs to move to
    taking responsibility for personal actions and thoughts.
   Problems also include the unreported violence that occurs
    behind closed doors, work places, and institutions and the
    nonphysical assaults that go unreported.
   Differences in behaviors, customs and traditions that are
    cultural often cause situational problems for people.
   Another situation that can cause problems is unemployment.
  Perceptions of the Client Problems
• Meeting Human Needs
  – Another way at looking at human problems is
    identifying basic needs and which ones are and
    are not being met.
  – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs pg 137 and 138
  – Primary Consideration in the case of child abuse
    and neglect.
  – The debate continues as to whether foster care or
    family reunification is the best approach to
    meeting children’s needs.
   Perceptions of the Client Problems
 Social Change and its Effects
   Human also experience problems due to rapid social
    change, the breakdown of many traditional forms of
    society, and conflicts between old and new values.
 Homeless:
   Few people choose to be homeless and may end up
    homeless for a variety of reasons including loss of job,
    women escaping domestic violence, or alcohol or drug
   Technological society in which we live has eliminated many
    unskilled and semiskilled jobs; downsizing, the closing of
    factories and the outsourcing the production of goods to
    countries with cheaper labor have been the direct cause of
    job loss.
   Divorce and the death of a spouse have forced families or
    individuals to adapt to a lower level of survival.
    Perceptions of the Client Problems
 Environmental Issues
   Understanding the environment in which an individual
    exists is another helpful way to understand them.
   One environmental influence could include specific
    locations in which a client lives, friends and family that
    influence the client, groups to which the client belongs,
    and activities to which the client engages.
   Primary Influence-Family
   Secondary Influence-neighborhood, social organizations,
    faith based organizations.
   Physical characteristics of the environment also contribute
    a direct influence and can include living space and
    television, computers, and reading material.
Perceptions of the Client Problems
• Defining Strengths
  – Refer to positive characteristics, abilities, and
    experiences of the client.
  – It asks the client to take a new perspective on
    their difficulties.
  – Help the client to build on their successes.
Client’s as Individuals, Groups, and Populations

• There are 3 ways in which one can look at the
  term client.
  – Individual
  – Groups (Gangs)
  – Larger Groups (neighborhoods, cities or counties)
                 Getting Help
                  How Clients Get Help
• Referral
  – Self-referral: those individuals who initiate help
    themselves and may experience a more
    productive helping relationship than individuals
    who are forced into a helping situation.
  – Referral from another professional to a human
    service agency.
                 Getting Help
                 How Clients Get Help
• Involuntary Placement in the System
  – Involuntary Clients: referred by schools, prisons,
    courts, marriage counselors, protective services,
    and the juvenile justice system and are potentially
    difficult to work with because they have not
    chosen to receive services.
  – Child Abuse
  – Juvenile Offenders
  – Individuals incarcerated for crimes
                 Getting Help
                  How Clients Get Help

• Inadvertent Services
  – Being part of a larger population that is targeted
    for services. Receipt of services does not depend
    on the individuals need or ability to qualify for the
    services, and the client does not have to ask for
  – Low-cost housing
  – Neighborhood crime watch programs
  – Shelters for the homeless
  – AIDS victims
                                 Getting Help
                                   How Clients Get Help
•   Barriers To Seeking Help
     – How the client views the problem. If the client considers the problem too difficult to
        solve, too overwhelming to consider, or too embarrassing to admit, then the person is
        less likely to seek help.
     – If the client is embarrassed at having the problem, seeking help means admitting to
        others that there is a problem.
     – The individual’s perception of the human service professional. Such helpers are viewed
        as strangers and experts- 2 categories that establish immediate barriers for those in
     – Cultural factors can prohibit one from seeking help.
     – Three barriers are directly related to available client resources: money to pay for the
        services, transportation to reach the place of service delivery, and the time and distance
        involved in traveling to receive the service.
     – Psychological Cost: viewed as a loss of freedom, will make them assume responsibility
        for their actions, and may be a signal to others that they can’t solve problems on their
        own. May feel they are giving all power to the worker or caregiver.
                 Getting Help
                  How Clients Get Help
• The Reluctant Client
  – Client reluctance is to be respected.
  – Reluctance is often self protective, designed to
    maintain personal integrity.
           The Client’s Perspective
• Client Expectations
   – Many clients imagine that the helper will have an unbiased
      attitude towards them and will have experience in working with
      the problems they are experiencing.
   – Clients might also expect the helper to listen, help them decide
      what to do, and help them do whatever needs to be done.
   – Clients may also have clear expectations about the helpers
      behaviors. Helping professionals should be able to understand
      what clients say, provide them with necessary information, and
      offer an opinion of their own if it differs from the clients
   – Clients want to resolve the problem they are facing, and they
      may expect quick solutions.
     Client Evaluation of Services
• Clients’ views of services after the process are
  often consistent with their prior expectations.
• Clients often want workers who will help them
  get something, take them somewhere, talk
  with someone for them, see someone with
  them, and refer them.
• Satisfaction: Refer to page 155
• Dissatisfaction: Refer to page 156

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