Roosevelt and the New Deal 1933-1939 by yurtgc548

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									Roosevelt and
the New Deal
   1933-1939




  Chapter 23.1 &
      23.2
• Unlike Herbert Hoover, FDR was
    willing to employ deficit
  spending and greater federal
     regulation to revive the
 American economy. In response
 to his requests, Congress passed
     numerous new programs.
Millions of people received relief
to alleviate their suffering, but
the New Deal did not really end
 the Depression. It did, however,
permanently expand the federal
 government’s role in providing
    basic security for citizens.
The New Deal
 Fights the
 Depression




 Chapter 23
  Section 1
 Roosevelt’s Rise
• June 1932 to Power
 • Republicans gather in Chicago
   and nominate Herbert Hoover to
   run for a second term as President
 • Republicans knew the Depression
   had turned many voters against
   Hoover
 • Democrats also met in Chicago to
   choose their presidential
   candidate.
 • They chose the popular N.Y.
   governor Franklin Delano
   Roosevelt.
 The “New Deal”
• In an acceptance speech after receive the
 presidential nomination, one sentence in
 Roosevelt’s speech stated “I pledge you, I pledge
 myself, to a new deal for the American people.”

• From that point forward, FDR’s policies for
 ending the Depression became known as the
 “New Deal.”

• On election day in 1932, Roosevelt won the
 election in a landslide.
          Roosevelt’s
          Background
• Educated at Harvard and
  Columbia Law School
• A distant cousin to former
  President Teddy Roosevelt, he
  also married TR’s niece, Eleanor.
• After law school he started out in
  the N.Y. State Senate as a
  supporter of former President
  Woodrow Wilson
• When Wilson became President,
  he named FDR Assistant
  Secretary to the Navy
• In 1920 Democrats nominated
  Roosevelt as Alfred E. Smith’s
  Vice President
• After losing the election, he
  withdrew from politics
• A year later, he came down with
  a fever and soon felt numbness in
  both legs. He had caught the
  paralyzing disease known as
  polio.
• Roosevelt refused to give in,
  rehabbing his legs to restore
  muscle control
FDR is always seen sitting
    Governor of
        N.Y
• By the mid-1920s, Roosevelt returns to politics
• Governor Alfred E. Smith urges FDR to run for
  Governor.
• FDR becomes a popular politician. This
  popularity in N.Y. paved the way for his
  presidential nomination in 1932.
• Many Americans applauded his use of the
  government’s power to help people in economic
  distress.
• Americans saw an energy and optimism in FDR
  that gave them hope during tough times.
       Roosevelt’s
      Inauguration
• Although he won the presidency in Nov. 1932,
  Americans had to wait until March 1933 until he
  was officially inaugurated as president.
• Throughout the winter, unemployment continued to
  rise and banks continued to close because people
  withdrew all of their savings.
• Some withdrew money because they feared that
  Roosevelt would abandon the gold standard.
   • One ounce of gold equaled a set number of
    dollars. To reduce the value of the dollar, the U.S.
    would have to stop exchanging dollars for gold.
• By March 1933, over 4,000
  more banks had collapsed,
  wiping out 9 million
  savings accounts.
• In 38 states, governors
  declared bank holidays
   • Closing the remaining
     banks before bank runs
     could put them out of
     business
   • By FDR’s Inauguration,
     1 in 4 people were
     unemployed
The First New
    Deal
    The Hundred
     Days Begins
• Roosevelt and his advisers, called the BRAIN
  TRUST, came into office bursting with ideas for
  recovery from the Depression.
• Though Roosevelt had no clear agenda, he was
  willing to experiment
• Between March 9-June 16, 1933, a time known as
  the HUNDRED DAYS, FDR sent bill after bill to
  Congress.
• Congress passed 15 major acts to meet the
  economic crisis.
Origins of the
  New Deal
• The programs that Congress
  passed made up the NEW
  DEAL
• FDR was not an intellectual or
  have a strong political mind
• FDR recruited advisers with
  experience in academics,
  business, agriculture, gov’t,
  law and social work to
  generate new ideas for his new
  programs.
                 A Divided
        Administration
• Roosevelt’s advisors were divided into 3 main
  groups
   • Teddy Roosevelt (New Nationalism)-These advisors
     believed business and gov’t should work together to
     manage the economy.
   • Distrust in Big Business-These advisors blamed
     business leaders for the Depression. These advisors
     wanted government planners to run key parts of the
     economy
   • Woodrow Wilson (New Freedom)- These advisors
     wanted Roosevelt to break up big companies and
     allow competition to set prices and production levels.
     They also believed the gov’t should regulate the
     economy to keep business fair.
         New Deal
         programs
• Roosevelt’s New Deal Programs
 dealt with the following areas:
 • Banks/Stock Market
 • Farms/Industry
 • Debt Relief
 • Unemployment
 • Environment/conservation
•   Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
•   Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
•   Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
•   Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
•   National Recovery Act (NRA)
•   Public Works Administration (PWA)
•   Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
•   Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
•   Civil Works Administration (CWA)
•   Social Security Act (SSA)
•   Works Progress Administration (WPA)
  Fireside Chat
• The Fireside Chats were a series of evening radio
  talks given by FDR during his administration.
• In an attempt to give Americans a feeling of more
  pride and hope in their country during the Great
  Depression, FDR gave evening radio talks to the
  American public, straight from the White House.
• These chats explained New Deal programs and gave
  people a sense of hope and security during difficult
  times. Roosevelt needed the American people to
  understand why he was doing the things he was
  doing and how his policies and government
  programs would eventually help the American
  economy and lift the shadow of the Depression.
The second New
     Deal
     1935 – The
    Second New
        Deal

• FDR liked that progress had
  been made, but he felt not
  enough was done
• He implemented the Second New
  Deal to give more extensive relief
  to both farmers and workers
      Help for
      Farmers
• 1000s losing their farms
• Gave monetary loans to farmers
 to help them buy land
        Help for
        Workers
• Many jobs created with WPA and
  NYA
• Wagner Act allowed for better
  treatment of workers
• Social Security Act (SSA) considered
  one of the greatest programs created
  in U.S. History
   • Today, it is falling apart

								
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