The History of Forensic
What is Forensic Science?
The application of science to criminal
and civil laws that are enforced by
police agencies in a criminal justice
In this class we will focus on services
that have popularly known as the
Sir Author Conan Doyle’s Books made
many crime detection methods popular.
Sherlock Holmes used fingerprinting,
firearm identification, and he
examination in his
Alphonse Bertillion (1853-1914)
Anthropometry- taking body
measurements to distinguish
Francis Galton (1822-1911)
Distinctiveness of Fingerprints
He developed a method of classifying
them for filing.
Leone Lattes (1887-1954)
Categorizes ABO blood groups
The four Blood Groups are A, B, AB,&
He developed a procedure for
determining the blood group of a
He soon began to apply this to
Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
Determined if a bullet was fired from
a particular gun.
A former U.S. army colonel
Used a comparison microscope,which
is still the indispensable tool in the
crime lab today.
J Edgar Hoover And the FBI
In 1932 a national lab that aimed to
offer Forensic service to all law
enforcement agencies in the country
This is now the world’s largest
Forensic Laboratory, performing over
1 million examinations a year.
The J. Edgar Hoover Building currently houses
the national headquarters of the Federal Bureau
of Investigation. It was completed in 1974 at a
cost of 126 million dollars. 935 Pennsylvania Ave.
FBI Forensic Research and
Opened in 1981, and gave U.S. a
facility dedicated to research in
Where is the oldest Forensic
Lab in the U.S.?
Los Angeles, California
Created in 1923
The Crime Lab
Services offered at crime labs vary
depending on the community.
There are many reasons
Variations in local laws
The different capabilities and
functions of the organization to
which a laboratory is attached
Budgetary and staffing limitations.
A full service Crime Lab
consists of several units
A Physical Science Unit
A Biological Unit
A Firearms Unit
A Photography Unit
A Toxicology Unit
Physical Science Unit
Uses Chemistry,physics,and geology
Analyzes soil and minerals
Examines trace physical evidence
Identification off Blood and Body
Comparisons of hair and other fibers
Examines guns, previously- fired
bullets, cartridge cases, shells and
Examines clothes and objects to
determine the type of gun used and
the position of the shooter
This unit examines and records
May use highly specialized
photographic techniques such as
Digital imaging, infrared, Ultra violet
and X-ray photography.
These techniques make invisible
information visible to the naked eye.
Examines Body Fluids and Organs to
determine the presence or absence
of drugs and poisons
Frequently these functions are
shared with other units.
These may be performed by other
units in a crime lab.
The services offered depend on the
necessity of the to that region.
Latent Fingerprint Unit
Processes and examines evidence for
A latent fingerprint is a fingerprint
made by the deposit of oils and/or
perspiration. It is invisible to the
A lie detector is an essential tool of
criminal investigations more so than
Document Examination Unit
Studies the handwriting and typing
on questioned documents.
Analyzes paper and ink
Examines indented writings
( the partially visible
depressions appearing on a sheet of
paper underneath the one on which
the visible writing appears.
Voiceprint Analysis Unit
Unit involved with telephone threats
or tape recorded messages.
Used in tying the voice to a particular
Evidence Collection Unit
This unit dispatches specially trained
personnel to the crime scene to
collect and preserve evidence that
will later be processed at the crime