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Role of a Forensic Scientist

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					The History of Forensic
       Science
    What is Forensic Science?
 The application of science to criminal
  and civil laws that are enforced by
  police agencies in a criminal justice
  system.
 In this class we will focus on services
  that have popularly known as the
  crime laboratory.
          Sherlock Holmes
 Sir Author Conan Doyle’s Books made
 many crime detection methods popular.

 Sherlock Holmes used fingerprinting,

 firearm identification, and he

 questioned document

 examination in his

 investigations.
Alphonse Bertillion (1853-1914)
Anthropometry- taking body
measurements to distinguish
between people
    Francis Galton (1822-1911)
 Distinctiveness of Fingerprints
 He developed a method of classifying
  them for filing.
    Leone Lattes (1887-1954)
 Categorizes ABO blood groups
 The four Blood Groups are A, B, AB,&
  O.
 He developed a procedure for

  determining the blood group of a
  dried bloodstain.
 He soon began to apply this to

  criminal investigations.
    Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
 Determined if a bullet was fired from
  a particular gun.
 A former U.S. army colonel

 Used a comparison microscope,which

  is still the indispensable tool in the
  crime lab today.
    J Edgar Hoover And the FBI
 In 1932 a national lab that aimed to
  offer Forensic service to all law
  enforcement agencies in the country
  was organized.
 This is now the world’s largest
  Forensic Laboratory, performing over
  1 million examinations a year.
   The J. Edgar Hoover Building currently houses
    the national headquarters of the Federal Bureau
    of Investigation. It was completed in 1974 at a
    cost of 126 million dollars. 935 Pennsylvania Ave.
     FBI Forensic Research and
          Training Center


   Opened in 1981, and gave U.S. a
    facility dedicated to research in
    forensic science.
    Where is the oldest Forensic
         Lab in the U.S.?



 Los Angeles, California
 Created in 1923
          The Crime Lab


 Services offered at crime labs vary
  depending on the community.
 Why?
    There are many reasons

 Variations in local laws
 The different capabilities and
  functions of the organization to
  which a laboratory is attached
 Budgetary and staffing limitations.
       A full service Crime Lab
       consists of several units
 A   Physical Science Unit
 A   Biological Unit
 A   Firearms Unit
 A   Photography Unit
 A   Toxicology Unit
      Physical Science Unit
 Uses Chemistry,physics,and geology
 Identifies Drugs

 Analyzes soil and minerals

 Examines trace physical evidence
          Biological Unit
 Analyzes DNA
 Identification off Blood and Body
  Fluids
 Comparisons of hair and other fibers

 Botanical Comparisons
           Firearms Unit
 Examines guns, previously- fired
  bullets, cartridge cases, shells and
  ammunition
 Examines clothes and objects to

  determine the type of gun used and
  the position of the shooter
         Photography Unit
 This unit examines and records
  physical evidence.
 May use highly specialized

  photographic techniques such as
  Digital imaging, infrared, Ultra violet
  and X-ray photography.
 These techniques make invisible

  information visible to the naked eye.
         Toxicology Unit
 Examines Body Fluids and Organs to
  determine the presence or absence
  of drugs and poisons
 Frequently these functions are

  shared with other units.
        Optional Services


 These may be performed by other
  units in a crime lab.
 The services offered depend on the
  necessity of the to that region.
      Latent Fingerprint Unit
 Processes and examines evidence for
  latent fingerprints.
 A latent fingerprint is a fingerprint

  made by the deposit of oils and/or
  perspiration. It is invisible to the
  naked eye.
             Polygraph Unit
   A lie detector is an essential tool of
    criminal investigations more so than
    forensic science
    Document Examination Unit
 Studies the handwriting and typing
  on questioned documents.
 Analyzes paper and ink

 Examines indented writings

( the partially visible
depressions appearing on a sheet of
  paper underneath the one on which
  the visible writing appears.
     Voiceprint Analysis Unit
 Unit involved with telephone threats
  or tape recorded messages.
 Used in tying the voice to a particular

  suspect.
       Evidence Collection Unit
   This unit dispatches specially trained
    personnel to the crime scene to
    collect and preserve evidence that
    will later be processed at the crime
    laboratory.

				
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