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Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells Lecture Notes Outline

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A student notes outline to accompany the Powerpoint lecture on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.

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									[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                   Biology I Notes Outline

   1. What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek study?

            a. What were the organisms that he drew?

   2. State the three parts of the cell theory:




   3. The Earth formed about _________________ years ago.

            a. What happened during the first 500 million years?

   4. List the components of the early Earth atmosphere:






   5. The Miller-Urey Apparatus was a model of ___________________________________


Biology I                                                                             1
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                   Biology I Notes Outline

   6. Describe the three parts of the atmosphere this simulated:

            a. ______________________________________________________

            b. ______________________________________________________

            c. ______________________________________________________

   7. The four gases used to make the model atmosphere were:





   8. After 2 weeks, some of the carbon had been used to produce ___________________,

       ____________________, and ______________________________.

   9. Why was this discovery significant?

Biology I                                                                               2
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                   Biology I Notes Outline

The First Cells

   10. Define prokaryotic organisms -

            a. Where is the DNA located in these organisms?

            b. What else is missing in these types of organisms?

   11. Define each of these parts of a prokaryotic cell:

            a. Nucleoid –

            b. Ribosomes –

            c. Pili –

            d. Flagella –

            e. Cell Membrane –

Biology I                                                                             3
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                    Biology I Notes Outline

   12. Define eukaryotes –

            a. The DNA is _____________________________________.

            b. These organisms have ____________________________.

   13. The eukaryotic cell can be divided into two parts: _______________ and _______________.

   14. Define cytoplasm –

   15. Do prokaryotic cells have cytoplasm?

   16. Define organelles –

Biology I                                                                               4
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]      Biology I Notes Outline

Animal Cell Diagram

Biology I                                5
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]     Biology I Notes Outline

Plant Cell Diagram

Biology I                               6
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                     Biology I Notes Outline

   17. The nucleus contains: ______________________________________________________.

   18. What is the nuclear envelope?

   19. The nucleus is the ____________ ______________ of the cell.

   20. What is the purpose of nuclear pores?

   21. Define chromatin –

   22. What does the nucleolus produce?

   23. Proteins are synthesized on __________________________.

            a. Where are the two places these are found?

   24. Ribosomes are made of _______________ and ____________________.

            a. Ribosomes produce _______________________ by following instructions from


            b. Each ribosome is like a _____________________________.

   25. What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?

   26. The endoplasmic reticulum is connected to the _______________________.

Biology I                                                                                 7
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                          Biology I Notes Outline

   27. Describe each region of the E.R.:

            a. Smooth ER –

            b. Rough ER –

   28. What are the four functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?





   29. What are the two functions of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?



   30. What is the golgi apparatus?

   31. Describe the functions of the golgi apparatus:

Biology I                                                                                    8
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                       Biology I Notes Outline

Organelles that Store, Clean Up, and Support

   32. What are vesicles and vacuoles?

   33. Plant cells have _________________________.

            a. What happens when this is empty?

   34. What is the purpose of lysosomes?

            a. Lysosomes can digest __________________, ____________, _______________, and


            b. Lysosomes can also breakdown _____________________________.

   35. What is the cytoskeleton?

            a. What is the other function of the cytoskeleton?

            b. What do centrioles do?

Organelles that Capture and Release Energy

   36. All life requires _____________.

   37. The two ways organisms can get energy is by:



   38. Photosynthesis occurs in _______________________.

   39. Cell respiration occurs in _______________________.

   40. What is the function of mitochondria?

            a. Mitochondria convert ________________________________________ into

                 ______________________________ for the cell to use.
Biology I                                                                                 9
[UNIT 4 - CELLS]                                                   Biology I Notes Outline

            b. Mitochondria have two ______________________.

            c. The inner membrane is _________________________ to increase the

               ______________________ for _________________________.

   41. What is the function of chloroplasts?

            a. Where are chloroplasts found?

Plasma Membrane

   42. The plasma membrane is a _______________________________.

            a. What does the plasma membrane do?

   43. What is the structure of a plasma membrane?

   44. Draw a phospholipid below: Label the hydrophobic and hydrophilic part:

   45. What is the purpose of the cell wall?

   46. What organisms have a cell wall?

   47. The cell wall is _____________ of the cell membrane.

   48. What are plasmodesmata?

   49. What is the purpose of plasmodesmata?

Biology I                                                                             10

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