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Research Paper Title The evaluation of the Program “First Steps

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					Understanding the Dynamics of
   Difference in C.A.R.E.
Culturally Appropriate and Respectfully Engaging




        Kimberly Boyd-Starke, Ph.D.
          Virginia State University
   Objectives

 Describe  the influence of demographic,
 cultural, and social trends on care

 Recognize social and cultural
 differences in “engaging” clients

 Discuss   the dynamics of care
                                            2
    Understanding and promoting
    health
 Health:  a state of complete physical, mental
  & social well-being & not merely the
  absence of disease or infirmity (WHO
  definition).

 Health promotion – Improving the health of
  each individual, the health of communities
  and the health of the nation.

                                               3
    Public Health Principles
 Health  for all: beyond the clinician’s office
 Social justice
 Prerequisites for health: beyond health care
 Multiple strategies
 Interdependence
 Science-based work
 Prevention



                                                   4
         Prerequisites for Health
    Peace                    Stable eco-system
    Shelter                  Sustainable resources
    Education                Social justice
    Food                     Equity
    Income




                                                       5
Source: Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, WHO
         Multiple Strategies
    Buildhealthy public policy
    Create supportive environments
    Strengthen community action
    Develop personal skills
    Reorient health services
    Advocate for a commitment to health
     and equity
                                                   6
Source: Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, WHO
      Approach
 * Cross-cultural psychology is primarily concerned
  with testing possible limitations to knowledge by
         studying people of different cultures
  Cross-cultural research involves simply including
 participants from different cultural backgrounds &
       testing possible differences among them


Broader: Truth as either Universal or cultural specific

 How do we train ourselves to examine both? What
          type of heuristics do we use?

                                                          7
     Interactions:
 What   can we find out from pictures?

A   “required” use of categories………




                                          8
    Culture
 Culture – a set of attitudes, values, beliefs and
  behaviors shared by a group of people,
  communicated from one generation to the next
  via language or some other means of
  communication

Barnouw, 1985



                                                 9
 Cross-cultural  psychology is primarily concerned
  with testing possible limitations to knowledge by
  studying people of different cultures
 Cross-cultural research involves simply including
  participants from different cultural backgrounds &
  testing possible differences among them
 Broader: Truth as either Universal or cultural
  specific

                                               10
    The Influence of Happiness!
 Happiness    is the meaning and the purpose
  of life, the whole aim and end of human
  existence (Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.).
 Research suggest that most people confuse
  well-being with being well-off




                                                11
    Positive Psychology
 Positive psychology aims to understand and
  build the human strengths in an effort to
  help people thrive.
 People tend to be curious about the
  underlying causes of both good and bad
  behaviors and to wonder how much control
  we really have over our behavior

                                           12
What do you see?




                   13
 WHO
 WHAT
 WHEN and
 WHERE




…….as an investigative tool to understanding
 cross-cultural psychology
                                               14
    Who?
 Allstudies of human behaviors are
  conducted under some “conditions”
 Are you on auto-pilot with your
  selections?
 Cultural response sets (collectivism)




                                          15
      What?

   Choice of hypothesis

   What questions are you asking

   Conceptual and Empirical Definitions

   Interpretation of findings


                                           16
   Where?
 Environment    and setting

 Type    of instruments

 Unit   of analysis



                               17
  When?


 When  should you start considering
 culture




                              cheesecake   18
   Prevention Strategies
             BEHAVIOR
                        Education/Behavior
                        change




 PRODUCT                ENVIRONMENT

Technology                Legislation/
                          Enforcement
                                         19
           Questions
      What  known health disparities exist in the
        United States?

      What   does a community require (essentials)
        to be healthy?

      List2 strengths and 2 weaknesses in your
        community health approach?
                                                     20
Source: United Nations
   Future Trends in Public
   Health Practice
 Changes  in population demographic
 Increased cultural and ethnic diversity
 Changes in the family
 Changes in technology of health and
  education
 Changes in the medical care
  establishment
                                            21
   Future Trends in Public
   Health Practice
 Increased partnerships between
  medical and behavioral sciences
 Increased accountability
 Increased emphasis on impact of policy
  changes



                                       22
Questions


            23

				
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