Project Time Management

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					Project Time Management

 Third Knowledge Area of PMBOK
    Project Time Management Processes
    Project Time Management includes the Processes required to
           accomplish timely completion of the project   .
•    Define Activities
•    Sequence Activities
•    Estimated Activities Resources
•    Estimated Activity Durations
•    Develop Schedule
•    Control Schedule
                   Define Activities
• Input:
   – Scope baseline (Create WBS)
   – Enterprise Environment factors
   – Organizational Process Assets (Archive + Existing activity
     planning related policies)
• Tools & Techniques:
   –   Decomposition (PWP to activities to produce WP Deliverables)
   –   Rolling wave planning (Progressive Elaboration Planning)
   –   Templates (A standard activity list from previous project)
   –   Expert Judgment (Project Team Members & or other experts)
• Outputs:
   – Activity List (All scheduled activities required on the project)
   – Activities Attributes * next screen showing attributes
   – Milestone List (Significant point or event in a project)
                Activity Attributes
•   WBS ID
•   Activity ID
•   Activity Name
•   Activity Description
•   Predecessor Activities
•   Successor Activities
•   Logical Relationship
•   Leads and Lags
•   Resource requirements
•   Imposed Dates, Constraints
•   Assumptions
•   Person responsible for work execution
•   Geographic Area
        Sequence Activities
• Sequence activities is the process of identifying and documenting
  relationship among project activities.
• Input:
   –   Activity List
   –   Activities Attributes (Next Screen)
   –   Milestone List (a significant point or event in the project)
   –   Project Scope Statement
   –   Organizational Process Assets
• Tools & Techniques:
   –   PDM (Precedence Diagramming Method)
   –   Dependency Determination
   –   Applying Leads & Lags
   –   Schedule Network Templates
• Outputs
   – Project Schedule Network Diagrams
   – Project Document Updates
                       Sequence Activities
                               Toots & Techniques
     Precedence Diagramming Method:
     – Finish to Start (FS)
     – Finish to finish (FF)
     – Start to Start (SS)
     – Start-to-finish (SF)
     Finish to start is the most commonly used type of
       precedence relationship. The start-to-finish relationship is
       most rarely used but is included to complete list of the
       PDM relationship types.
•   FS: The initiation of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor
•   FF The completion of the successor activity depends upon the completion of the predecessor
                        PDM Examples
Start to Start:
Task (B) cannot start until task (A) starts. For example, if you have two tasks,
"Pour foundation" and "Level concrete," "Level concrete" can't begin until
"Pour foundation" begins

Finish to Finish:
Task (B) cannot finish until task (A) finishes. For example, if you have two
tasks, "Add wiring" and "Inspect electrical," "Inspect electrical" can't finish until
"Add wiring" finishes.

Can you find other examples?
               Sequence Activities
                     Toots & Techniques
• Dependency Determination
  – Mandatory Dependencies: Also referred as hard logic
  – Discretionary Dependencies: Also called as preferred logic,
    preferential logic or soft logic
  – External Dependencies: It involves a relationship between
    project activities and non-project activities. These dependencies
    are usually outside the project team controls.
• Applying Leads and Lags
  – A lead allows an acceleration of the successor activity
  – A lag directs a delay in the successor activities.
  – Example: A technical editing team can begin editing the draft of
    a large document 15 days after they began writing it. SS with 15
    day lag.
              Sequence Activities
                   Tools & Techniques

• Schedule Network Templates
  – Standardized schedule network diagram templates can be
    used to expedite the preparation of network of project
    activities. They can include an entire project or only a
    portion of it. Portions of a project schedule network
    diagram are often referred to as a subnetwork or fragment
    network. Subnetwork templates are especially useful when
    a project includes several identical or nearly identical
    deliverables, such as floors on a high rise office building.
             Sequence Activities
• Outputs:
  – Project Schedule Network Diagrams:
     • Project Schedule Network Diagrams. It can be drawn
       manually or through project management software. It
       can include full project details or have one or more
       summary activities.
  – Project Document Updates
     • Project documents that may be updated include:
        – Activity list
        – Activity attributes
   Example: Draw a Network Diagram
Activity    Precedence      Duration
  A              -               3
  B              A               15
  C              -               5
  D              C               20
  E              A               5
  F              A               1
  G              F               25
  H              G               10
  I              H,K             3
  J              B               5
  K              J               10
  L              B               1
  M              L               10
  N              E,D             10
  O              M,I,N           10
       Estimate Activity Resources

• Estimate activity Resources is the process of
  estimating the type and the quantities of
  material, people, equipment or supplies
  required to perform each activity. The
  estimate activity resource process is closely
  coordinated with the estimate cost process.
        Estimate Activity Resources
• Inputs:
   – Activity List
   – Activity Attributes
   – Resource Calendar specify when and how long identified project resources
     (people, equipment & Material) will be available during the project.
   – Enterprise environmental factors (Resource availability & Skills)
   – Organizational Process Assets (Policies & Procedures for staffing, supplies and
     equipment plus previous experience on similar projects)
• Tools & Techniques
   –   Expert Judgment
   –   Alternative Analysis (Make or buy, Machinery & Tools)
   –   Published estimating data (production rates & unit costs of resources)
   –   Bottom-up estimating (when activity cannot be estimated with confidence)
   –   Project Management Software (Plan, organize, manage resource pools and
       develop resource estimates.
• Outputs
   – Activity resource requirements
   – Resource breakdown structure
   – Project document updates (activity List, Activity attributes & Resource
                Estimate Activity Duration
•   Estimate activity duration is the process of approximating the number of work periods
    needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.
•   Input:
     – Activity List
     – Activity Attributes
     – Activity Resource Requirement (
     – Resource Calendars (
     – Project Scope Statement (
     – Enterprise environmental factors (Databases and Ref. data, Productivity metrics & published
       commercial information
     – Organizational Process Assets -Historical, Project Calendar, Scheduling methodology, LLearnt
•   Tools & Techniques
     –   Expert Judgment
     –   Analogous estimating (Duration, budget, size, weight & Complexity from a previous project)
     –   Parametric estimating (square footage – cost budget & duration)
     –   Three-point estimates (PERT) Most likely, Optimistic, Pessimistic
     –   Reserve analysis (Cater for schedule uncertainty)
•   Outputs
     – Activity duration estimates (@ weeks +- 2 days etc)
     – Project document updates (activity attributes, assumptions made in developing the activity
       Activity Duration Estimates
• Activity duration estimates are quantitative assessments of
  the likely number of work periods that will be required to
  complete a schedule activity. Activity duration estimates
  include some indication of the range of possible results. For
• •2 weeks ±2 days to indicate that the schedule activity will
  take at least eight days and no more than twelve (assuming
  a five-day workweek).
• •15 percent probability of exceeding three weeks to indicate
  a high probability—85 percent—that the schedule activity
  will take three weeks or less.
         Analogous Estimating
• It uses parameters such as duration, budget,
  size, weight and complexity from a previous
  and similar project as the basis for estimating
  the same parameters or measures of a future
                           Develop Schedule 6.5
•   Develop Schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequence, duration, resource
    requirements and constraints to create project schedules
•   Input
     –   Activity List (
     –   Activity Attributes (
     –   Project Schedule Network Diagrams (
     –   Activity Resource Requirements (
     –   Resource Calendars (
     –   Activity duration estimates (
     –   Project Scope Statement (
     –   Enterprise environment factors
     –   Organizational process assets
•   Tools & Techniques
     –   Schedule network analysis
     –   Critical path method
     –   Critical chain method
     –   Resource Leveling
     –   What-if scenario analysis
     –   Applying leads and lags
     –   Schedule compression
     –   Scheduling tool
•   Output
     –   Project Schedules (milestone chart, bar charts, project schedule network diagrams)
     –   Schedule baseline Component of project management plan with baseline start & finish dates.
     –   Schedule Data (resource requirement by time period in resource histogram best & worst case
     –   Project document updates (Activity resource requirements, activity attributes, calendar, risk
             Schedule Compression
Crashing. Schedule compression technique in which cost and schedule
   tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain the greatest amount
   of compression for the least incremental cost. Crashing does not always
   produce a viable alternative and can result in increased cost.

Fast tracking. A schedule compression technique in which phases or
   activities that normally would be done in sequence are performed in
   parallel. An example would be to construct the foundation for a building
   before all the architectural drawings are complete. Fast tracking can
   result in rework and increased risk. This approach can require work to be
   performed without completed detailed information, such as engineering
   drawings. It results in trading cost for time, and increases the risk of
   achieving the shortened project schedule.
      Critical Path & Critical Chain
• Critical Path: calculates the theoretical early start and
  finish dates for all activities, irrespective of resource
  any resource limitations by performing forward and
  backward pass analysis through the schedule
• Critical chain: is a schedule network analysis
  technique that modifies the project schedule to
  account for limited resources. The resource
  constraint critical path is known as critical chain.
                        Control Schedule
• It is the process of monitoring the status of the project
  progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline.
• It is concerned with
   –   Determine the current status of the project schedule
   –   Influencing the factors that create schedule changes
   –   Determining that the project schedule has changed
   –   Managing the actual changes as they occur
• Input:
   –   Project management Plan (
   –   Project Schedule
   –   Work performance information
   –   Organizational process assets
        • Existing formal and informal schedule control related policies, procedures &
        • Schedule control tools
        • Reporting and monitoring methods to be used
                    Control Schedule
• Tools & Techniques:
   – Performance review
      • Measures, compares, and analyzes schedule performance such as
         actual start and finish dates, percent complete and remaining
         duration of work in progress.
      • Also reviews if corrective action is required
   – Variance Analysis:
      • Schedule performance measurements are used to assess the
         magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline.
   – Project management Software
      • It provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates
         and to forecast the effects of changes to the project schedule.
                    Control Schedule
• Tools & Techniques:
   – Resource Leveling
      • To optimize the distribution of work among resources
   – What-if Scenario Analysis
      • Used to review various scenarios to bring the schedule into
        alignment with the plan
   – Adjust Leads and Lags
      • To find ways to bring project activities that are behind into
        alignment with plan
   – Schedule Compression
      • (
   – Scheduling Tool
      • Data is updated and compiled into the schedule to reflect actual
        progress of the project and remaining work to be completed.
               Control Schedule
• Outputs
  – Work performance measurements
  – Organizational Process Assets Updates
  – Change Request
  – Project management plan updates
     • Schedule Baseline
     • Schedule management plan
     • Cost baseline
  – Project Document Updates
     • Schedule data
     • Project Schedule
             Crashing Projects
• Causes:
  – Initial schedule may be too optimistic
  – Market needs change and the project is in
    demand earlier than anticipated
  – The project has considerably slipped behind the
  – The contractual situation provides more incentives
    to avoid schedule slippage
  Calculating the Cost of Crashing
• slope= crash cost – normal cost
         normal time – crash time
      Activity   Duration   Cost   C. Duration C. Cost
      A          5          1000   3           1500
      B          7          700    6           1000
      C          3          2500   2           4000
      D          5          1500   5           1500
      E          9          3750   6           9000
      F          4          1600   3           2500
      G          6          2400   4           3000
Thank you

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