job search by navneet.patel


Defining the terms

• Recruitment is often the first contact
 between the organization and a
 prospective employee
  – Create a positive first impression
• Whether people respond to the
 recruiting effort depends on the
 attitudes they have toward:
  – The tasks
  – The organization
Recruiting Requirements

• The process begins with a detailed
 job description and job specification
  – Without these, it is impossible for recruiters to
    determine how well any applicant fits the job
  – The recruiter must know which requirements
    are essential and which are merely desirable
     • This helps avoid unrealistic expectations
Preferences of Recruits

• Recruits often have a set of job
  – Education and skill levels
  – Geographic location
  – Salary levels
  – Advancement opportunities
• Occupational choice is most heavily
 influenced by parents, followed by:
  – Teachers
  – Career counselors
  – Friends
  – Relatives

• Organizational choice is influenced
  – Corporate image
  – Corporate size
Job Search: The Recruit
• People who successfully find the
 “right job” tend to follow similar job
 search processes:
  – Self-assessment
  – Information gathering
  – Networking
  – Targeting specific jobs
  – Successful self-presentation
Methods of Recruiting
• Most organizations must use both
 internal and external sources to
 generate sufficient applicants
  – When there is an inadequate supply within
    the organization, it must seek external
  – The choice of a recruiting method can make
    all the difference in the success of the
    recruiting effort
Internal Recruiting
• Job Posting
  – Skills inventories can be used to identify internal
    applicants for job vacancies
  – It is hard to identify everyone who might be
    interested in the opening, so firms use job posting
    and bidding
     • Today, postings are computerized and easily accessible
       to employees via the company’s intranet
     • Software allows employees to match an available job
       with their skills and experience
     • It may also highlight where gaps exist
• Inside Moonlighting and Employees’
  – Inside moonlighting may be used when there
    • A short-term shortage
    • No great amount of additional work
  – Workers can be enticed to take a ―second‖ job
    with bonuses
  – Moonlighting is so common at some
    organizations that HR departments issue
    moonlighting policies
• Inside Moonlighting and Employees’
  – Before going outside to recruit, many
    organizations ask employees to encourage
    friends and relatives to apply
  – Some offer ―finders fees‖ for successful
  – Employee referrals should be used cautiously,
    especially if the workforce is already racially
    or culturally imbalanced
External Recruiting
• Walk-ins are an important source of
  – As labor shortages increase, however, organizations
    must become more proactive in their recruiting efforts

• External recruiting can be done through:
  –   Media advertising
  –   E-recruiting
  –   Employment agencies
  –   Executive search firms
  –   Special-events recruiting
  –   Internships
Media Advertising
• Media include:
• Newspapers
• Trade/professional publications
• Billboards
• Subway and bus cards
• Radio
• Telephone
• Television
• The Internet has revolutionized
 organizational recruitment practices
  – 30,000 websites are devoted to job posting activities
  – However, 71 percent of all job listings are on a
    handful of the ―big boards‖
  – These websites saw huge increases in resumes
    posted and visitors in the first month of 2005
  – Over 96 percent of all U.S. companies,36% of Indian
    Companies now use the Internet for recruitment
Employment Agencies/Executive Search

 • Executive search firms:
    – Focus on higher-level managerial
      positions with salaries of $50,000+
    – Are on retainer
    – Charge higher fees

 • Employment agencies:
    – Deal primarily with middle-level
      management and below
    – Are paid only when they have
      provided a new hire
Special Events Recruiting
• Organizations attract applicants with
    special events:
•   Open houses
•   Scheduled visits to headquarters
•   Informative literature
•   Hospitality suites
•   Speeches
•   Job fairs
Job fairs:
 – Can reduce recruiting costs by up to 80
 – May be scheduled on holidays or weekends to
   reach college students and the currently
 – Are especially useful for smaller, less well
   known employers
 – Appeal to job seekers who wish to locate in a
   particular area and those wanting to minimize
   travel and interview time
Summer Internships
• Internship programs have a number of
  – Allows organizations to get specific projects done
  – Exposes organizations to talented, potential
    employees who may become ―recruiters‖ at school
  – Provides trial-run employment
  – Can attract the best people where there are labor
  – Can improve diversity
From the student’s point of
 – An internship means a job with pay
 – It provides real work experience
 – There is the potential of a future job
 – It offers a chance to use one’s talents in a
   realistic environment
 – It may offer course credit hours
• There are costs to internships:
  – Interns take up a lot of supervisory time
  – Their work is not always the best

• Some students expect everything to
 be perfect
  – When it is not, they become disillusioned
  – Disillusioned students become reverse
College Recruiting
• College recruiting can be difficult, time
  consuming, and expensive
  – The typical recruiting sequence:
     • Students register at the college placement office
     • During the recruiting season, candidates are told of
       scheduled visits
     • At the placement service, they reserve interviews and
       pick up brochures/literature about the firms
     • The preliminary interviews are held
     • Before leaving campus, the recruiter invites chosen
       candidates to make a site visit
• Students who are invited to the site:
  – Are given more job information
  – Meet potential supervisors and other
  – Are entertained
  – May be tested
• If the visit goes well:
  – The student is given an offer
  – Bargaining may take place on salary and
  – The candidate accepts or rejects the offer
Alternatives to Recruitment

• Overtime
  – Organizations avoid the cost of recruiting and
    having additional employees
  – Employees earn additional income
  – Potential problems include fatigue, higher
    accident rates, and increased absenteeism
  – Continuous overtime often results in higher
    labor costs and reduced productivity
 – Sometimes called ―staff sourcing‖
 – Involves paying a fee to a leasing company or
   professional employer organization (PEO) that
   handles payroll, benefits, and routine HRM
 – Especially attractive to small and midsize firms
   that can’t afford a full-service HR department
 – Can save 15 to 30 percent of benefit costs
 – Exercise care when choosing a leasing
   company; many are financially unstable
Temporary Employment
 – One of the most noticeable effects of the
   downsizing epidemic and labor shortages of
   the past two decades
 – ―Just-in-time‖ employees staff all types of jobs
   (professional, technical, and executive
 – Nearly 7,000 temporary employment agencies
   in the U.S. have been in business for more
   than one year
Major advantages of using
temporary workers:

  – Relatively low labor costs
  – Easily accessible source of experience labor
  – Flexibility

• The cost advantage stems from the fact
 that temporary workers do not receive:
  – Fringe benefits
  – Training
  – A compensation and career plan

    Temp workers do not know the culture or work flow of the firm
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Recruiting

• Many aspects of recruitment can be
  – Recruiters can be assigned goals by type of employee
  – Sources of recruits can be evaluated by dividing the
    number of job acceptances by the number of campus
  – Methods of recruiting can be evaluated along various
    dimensions, such as the cost of the method divided
    by the number of job offer acceptances
• The quality of a new hire can be evaluated
 using the formula QH = (PR + HP + HR)/N
    QH = quality of recruits hired
    PR = average job performance ratings
    HP = percent of new hires promoted within one year
    HR = percent of hires retained after one year
    N = number of indicators used

• Use caution when using the quality-of-hire
 measure to evaluate the recruitment
  – Good employees can be lost for reasons that have
    nothing to do with recruiter effectiveness

• Selection is the process by which
 an organization chooses the person(s)
 who best meets the selection criteria
 for the position available
  – Selection programs try to identify applicants
    with the best chance of meeting or exceeding
    the organization’s standards of performance
• Performance refers to more than
 quantity of output
  – It can also mean quality of output, good
    attendance, and honesty
• Successful selection doesn’t always
 mean finding someone with the most
 of a given quality
  – The goal is an optimal match between the job
    the characteristics an applicant possesses
  – Identify which characteristics are the most
    important for the circumstances
Internal Environmental Influences

 – Size
 – Complexity
 – Technological volatility
 – Development and implementation of
   large-scale selection efforts can be
External Environmental Influences

• Employment laws/regulations affect
  what an organization can do in its
  selection system
• When unemployment rates are low, it
  may be hard to attract and hire the
  number of people needed
• When there is an oversupply of qualified
  applicants, selection strategies differ
External Environmental Influences
• Human resource specialists evaluate the
  effects of the labor market on selection by
  using a selection ratio:
  – Selection ratio =
    Number of applicants hired ·\· Total applicants
• When the selection ratio is close to 1:1, it
  is a
  high selection ratio
  – The lower the selection ratio, the more detailed the
    selection process
  – The organization can be more selective, but the
    selection decision will require more time and money
Selection Criteria
• Understanding the characteristics essential for
  high performance
   – The characteristics are identified during job analysis
   – They must be reflected in the job specification
• The goal of any selection system is to:
   – Determine which applicants possess the knowledge, skills,
     abilities, and KSAOs dictated by the job
• The system must distinguish between
  characteristics that are:
   – Needed at the time of hiring, acquired during training, and
     developed on the job
Categories of Criteria

• Criteria for making selection
 decisions fall into these broad
  – Education
  – Experience
  – Physical characteristics
  – Other personal characteristics
The Selection Process

• The selection decision is a series of
 steps through which applicants pass
  – At each step, more applicants
    are screened out
Step 1: Preliminary Screening
 – Application blanks vary in length and
 – The application eliminates the need for
   interviewers to gather basic information
 – Application blanks are subject to the same
   legal standards as any other selection method
 – They generally limit questions that imply
   something about the applicant’s physical
Step 1: Preliminary Screening
• The biographical information blank (BIB):
  – Contains more items than typical application blanks
  – Asks for information related to a wider array of
    attitudes and experiences
• BIB items are based on an assumption
 that prior experiences are related to future
  – Example: People who preferred English in school will
    perform differently on a given job than people who
    preferred science or math
Step 2: Employment Interview

• The interview is the selection
 technique most often encountered by
 persons applying for jobs
  – Interview should be structured to be
    reliable and valid
  – Managers should be trained to use good
    interviewing techniques
Types of Interviews
• Structured
• And Unstructured
• An unstructured interview has no
 predetermined script or protocol
  – Structured interviews are more reliable and valid than
    unstructured interviews
  – Standardization lowers the possibility that biases have
    been introduced by the interviewer
• Two types of structured interviews
 have gained popularity :
  – Behavioral interview—applicants are asked to
    relate actual incidents from their past work
    experience to the job for which they are
  – Situational interview—seeks to identify
    whether an applicant possesses relevant job
    knowledge and motivation by asking
    hypothetical questions
Step 3: Employment Tests

• An employment test attempts to
 measure certain characteristics, such
  – Aptitudes
  – Manual dexterity
  – Intelligence
  – Personality
Step 4: Reference Checks
• When applying for a job, you may be
 asked for a list of references
  – Rarely does someone knowingly include the
    name of a reference who will give a negative
  – This built-in bias is why references are
  – Fears of being sued have led many
    managers to refuse to provide
    references for former employees
Selection of Managers

• The employment tests used vary with the type of
  employee being hired
  – Organizations frequently spend more time, effort,
    and money hiring middle- to upper-level executives
• One of the best-known multiple selection
  methods used for this purpose is the assessment
  – First used by the German military in World War II
  – Used by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in the U.S. in the
  – Introduced to the business world in the 1950s by AT&T
• An assessment center uses a variety
 of testing methods, including:
  – Interviews
  – Work samples and simulations
  – Paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and
• Assessment centers are similar in a
 number of areas:
  – Groups of approx. 12 individuals are
  – Individual and group activities are observed
    and evaluated
  – Multiple methods of assessment are used
  – Assessors are usually a panel of line
    managers for the organization, consultants, or
    outsiders trained to conduct assessments
  – Assessment centers are relevant to the job
• Assessors then evaluate each
 individual on a number of
 dimensions, such as:
  – Organizational and planning ability
  – Decisiveness
  – Flexibility
  – Resistance to stress
  – Poise
  – Personal style
• Rater’s judgments are consolidated
 and developed into a final report
• Assessment center reports permit the
 organization to determine:
  – Qualifications for particular positions
  – Promotability
  – How individuals function in a group
  – Type of training/development needed
  – How good assessors are at observing,
    evaluating, and reporting on the performance
    of others
Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis
• Whether a selection system should be
 developed and used depends on whether it
 saves more money than it costs
  – A cost-vs-benefits analysis requires estimates of the
    direct and indirect costs associated with the system
     • Direct costs: the price of the tests, the salary paid to an
       interviewer, the equipment used, and so on
     • Indirect costs: such things as changes in public image
       associated with implementing drug testing
Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis
• An organization must also estimate how
 much money it saves by hiring more
 qualified employees
  –   Higher levels of quality or quantity
  –   Reduced absenteeism
  –   Lower accident rates
  –   Less turnover
• Valid selection procedures can
 yield huge benefits
  – This is especially true where the
    costs of hiring a poor performer are high
  – Putting more money into selection can reduce the
    amount that must be spent on training

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