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					 Pierre and Marie Curie, Henri
Becquerel and the Discovery of
         Radioactivity
                  By:
           Jolie Pepperman
          and Rachel Gordon
             Henri Becquerel
• French physicist born Antoine Henri Becquerel in Paris
  – December 15, 1852
• Family had four generations of scientists
• School of Polytechnique & National School of Bridges
  and Roads
• Died August 25, 1908 in Le Croisic (age 55)



                                     The SI unit of
                                     radioactivity is
                                     the Becquerel
 Important Work of Becquerel
• Wilhelm Rontgen’s discovery of x-ray
• 1896 – accidentally discovered spontaneous
  radioactivity studying phosphorescence luminescence
  in uranium salts
• Discovery led to research of spontaneous emission of
  nuclear radiation
 Development of Radioactivity
• Started in studying phosphorescence – materials
  charged by exposure to light
• Study phosphorescent substances and emitting rays –
  salts of uranium in black paper exposed to sunlight
  produced radiation
• Did experiment in darkness – discovered uranium is
  radioactive
• Discovered beta-ray activity with experiment
• February 1896 announced discovery of spontaneous
  radioactivity – Academy of Sciences in Paris
        Significant Work of
            Becquerel
• Accidental discovery of spontaneous radioactivity
• Led to more work on radioactivity of other scientists
  (Curies)
• Rumford Medal (1900)
• Helmholtz Medal (1901)
• Nobel Prize (1903)
• Barnard Medal (1905)
                Marie Curie
• Born Marie Sklodowska on November 7, 1867 in
  Warsaw, Poland
• Went to Paris and studied at Sorbonne University in
  1891
• Met physicist Pierre Curie, who became her husband
• Both studied a mysterious, invisible energy previously
  studied by Henri Becquerel
• Died in 1934 of pernicious anemia because of radiation
  exposure
               Pierre Curie
• Born in Paris on May 15, 1859
• Home schooled by his mother, pre-university
• Earned bachelor of science degree in 1875 when he
  was only 16
• Enrolled in the Faculty of Sciences at Sorbonne Univ.
  in Paris and earned his license of physical science
  (1877)
• Died April 19, 1906run over by a horse-drawn
  carriage
 Important Work of the Curies
• Studied uranium ore- isolate ―radioactive‖ substances
  from ore – atoms produced radioactivity
• Marie concluded that uranium ore contained other
  substances that were radioactive (polonium & radium)
• Pierre- ―Curie’s Law‖(1895) – connection between
  temperature & magnetism
• Pierre investigated properties of radium; Marie did
  chemical experiments
• Pierre & student recognized radium emits heat—
  nuclear energy
           Story of the Curies
• Pierre discovered piezoelectric techniques
 – a crystal can become electrically polarized
• Marie and Pierre met & married- Sorbonne University
• Marie used piezoelectric technique to find elements
   emitting rays – ―radioactivity‖
• Together discovered polonium and radium – more
   radioactive then uranium or thorium
• 1903 together, along with Becquerel, received Nobel
   Peace Prize
      Curies’ Significant Work
• 1899 announced discovery of radioactivity
• Pierre studied action of a magnetic field on radium
  rays
• developed a standard for measuring time based on
  radioactivity (geology & archaeology dates)
• Showed the dangers of radioactivity – Pierre as human
  guinea pig
• ―Curietherapie‖- treat cancer & lupus
• Curie’s extensive work led radioactivity to
  have many uses in science
                    Resources
• http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/CC/historical_back
  ground.php#curie
• http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/articles/curie/
• http://www.aip.org/history/curie/resbr1.htm
• http://www.nndb.com/people/718/000029631/http://www.che
  m.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/nuclear/discovery.html
• http://biography.yourdictionary.com/pierre-curie
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Becquerel
• http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/B/Becquerel_Henr
  i.html

				
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posted:1/27/2012
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