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   Expressing Certainty and Possibility

   Listening Task : The Camera Man

   Speaking Task : Invention
What is invention?

  Invention is produced for the first time
  through the use of imagination or ingenious
  thinking and experimentation. A famous
  quote is: "Necessity is the mother of
  invention." It means that the reason anything
  gets invented or improved is because of a
  need. New ideas produced inventions and
   Invention is a highly creative process.

   “Discovery consists of seeing what
    everybody has seen and thinking what
    nobody has thought.”

   An open curious mind enables one to see
    beyond what is known. Inventors think
    outside of the box.
   Seeing a new possibility, a new connection or
    relationship can spark invention.

   Inventive thinking frequently involves
    combining elements from different realms
    that would not normally be put together.
    Inventors skip over the boundaries between
    distinctly separate territories or fields. Ways
    of thinking, materials, processes or tools from
    one realm are used as nobody had ever
    imagined in a different realm.
   Play can lead to invention. “All sorts of things
    can happen when you’re open to new ideas
    and playing around with things.” Childhood
    curiosity, experimentation and imagination
    can develop into a play instinct that is an
    inner need. Inventors feel the need to play
    with things that interest them, to explore, and
    this internal drive brings about novel
   Inventors want to satisfy a need, they try to
    solve a problem or make something better.

   Inventing also takes insight. It may begin with
    questions, doubt.
Chinese Can you name some inventions in the history of

    •The four great inventions of ancient China:

            compass                gunpowder

Chinese inventions and inventors
          Other Chinese inventions include:





                        more Chinese
           paper note   inventions
Four Great Inventions of
Ancient China
China held the world's leading position in many
fields in the study of nature, from the 1st
century before Christ to the 15th century, with
the four great inventions having the greatest
global significance.
Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and the
compass - the four great inventions of ancient
China-are significant contributions of the
Chinese nation to world civilization.

China was the first nation who invented
paper. The earliest form of paper first
appeared in the Western Han Dynasty
(206BC-23AD), but the paper was
generally very thick, coarse and
u     n     e       v      e     n    .
In the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), an official named Cai
Lun made a new kind of paper from bark, rags,
fishnet and other materials. It was relatively cheap, light, thin,
durable and more suitable for brush writing. At the beginning
of the
 3rd century, the paper making
process first spread to Korea
and then to Japan. It reached
the Arab world in the Tang
Dynasty, and Europe in the
12th century. In the16th century,
it went to America by way of
Europe and then gradually
spread all over the world.
Yet block(雕版) printing had its drawbacks. All the
boards became useless after the printing was done and a
single mistake in carving could ruin a whole block. In
1041-1048 of the Song Dynasty (960-1279), a man named
Bi Sheng carved individual characters on identical
pieces of fine clay which he hardened by
a slow baking process, resulting in pieces
of movable type(铅字). When the printing was
finished, the pieces of type were put away
for future use. This technology then spread
to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Europe. Later,
German Johann Gutenberg invented movable
type made of metal in 1440-1448.

The invention of gunpowder had a close relationship
with the advanced ancient workmanship of smelting
industry. People began to know a lot of chemistry
knowledge about the nature of different mineral
materials during the process of smelting operation.
Although they failed to get what they were looking for,
they discovered that an explosive mixture could be
produced by combining sulfur, charcoal(木炭), and
saltpeter (硝石). This mixture finally led to the
invention of gunpowder although its exact date of
invention still remains unknown.
Many historical materials indicate that gunpowder
first appeared before the Tang Dynasty (618-907).
The military applications of gunpowder began in the
Tang Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368),
the method of powder-making was introduced to
the Arab world and Europe, bringing a series of
revolutions to weapon manufacturing.
Early in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC), while mining ores
and melting copper and iron, Chinese people chanced upon a natural
magnetite that attracted iron and pointed fixedly north. In the Warring
States Period (206BC-23AD), after constant improvement the round
compass came into being. Referred to as a "South-pointer", the spoon-
shaped compass is magnetic. The circular center represents Heaven,
and the square plate represents Earth. The handle of the spoon points
south. The spoon is a symbolic representation of the Great Bear.
The plate bears Chinese characters which
 denote the eight main directions of north,
north-east, east, etc. This type of compass
has been scientifically tested and found to
 work well.
One of the first books to describe the
magnetic compass, Dream Pool Essays
(1086) by Shen Kuo in the Song Dynasty,
about 100 years earlier than its first record in
Before its invention, navigators had to
depend on the positions of the sun, the
moon and the polestar for their direction.
The spread of the compass to Europe
opened the oceans of the world to travel and
led to the discovery of the New World.
Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847 in
Milan, Ohio He grew up in Port Huron,
Michigan. In 1877, and died on Oct 18, 1931,
aged eighty- four. No other inventor has
approached the number of patents issued to
Thomas Edison, singly or jointly - 1093.
Among them, the most well known one may
be the phonograph(唱机)-a machine that
   To encourage people to think about the importance
    of his creation, Edison gave his own ideas for the
    most important uses of the phonograph:
   Recording music
   Recording the human voice to:
       make books for blind people
       teach people to improve their speech
       save voices of family members for future generations
       make clocks that told time
       Making toys for children. In 1894, Edison started
        making dolls with tiny phonographs inside.
Who is he?
   More than a cure for headaches and minor pain,
    aspirin has been clinically proven to work
    wonders for many conditions. People at risk of
    heart attack are advised to take an aspirin a day,
    and aspirin is used to prevent and treat stroke.
    Aspirin is also thought to be a drug for cancer,
    heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Studies
    have shown that long-term aspirin taking can
    reduce the risk of death from cancer by over
    40%. Today, over 70 million pounds of aspirin
    are produced annually around the world, and
    Americans consume more than 15 billion tablets
    per year.
The Automobile
   By Henry Ford in 1893
The light bulb

Invented by:
Thomas Alva Edison
In 1879.
The Airplane
 In 1903, Wilbur and
  Orville Wright made the
  first airplane flights in
How much do you know about inventions?
  Do you know who invented these commonly used items?
  1. Who invented the battery?
      Thomas Edison
      John Wilkinson         He was an Italian scientist, and he invented the
      Alessandro Volta       battery in 1800.
      James Hargreaves
  2. When was the toothbrush invented?
     1790        The first toothbrush was made out of a bone and small
     1770        brush, by jail prisoner William Addis of England.
  3. Who made the first train using a steam engine?
     Thomas Edison
     Chris Johnson             George Stephenson made the first train
     George Stephenson         using a steam engine in 1825.
     Alexander Graham Bell
4. Who published the first computer programs?
  L.D. Bartlett   In 1843, a mathematician, Ada Byron, published the
  Jed Smith       first computer programs. Her programs were for the
  Ada Byron       first general-purpose mechanical digital computer, that
  Chris Johnson   was just invented by Charles Babbage.

5. Who invented the first airplane?
                                     Between 1899 and 1905, Wilbur and Orville
  Jose Rodriguez                    Wright conducted a program of
  The Wtight Brothers               aeronautical research and experimentation
  John Smith                        that led to the first successful powered
  Jose Maria Lopez de Santa Anna    airplane in 1903 and a refined, practical
                                     flying machine two years later.
6. Who is called “Father of Car”?
  Rudolf Diesel                      In 1885, German mechanical
  Karl Benz                          engineer, Karl Benz designed and
  John Smith                         built the world's first practical
  Jose Maria Lopez de Santa Anna     automobile to be powered by an
                                      internal-combustion engine.
How much do you know about
 7. Where were wigs first invented?
   Egypt     As you have noticed in pictures, many Egyptians have head
   China     coverings, sometimes with beads in them. The first wigs were
   France    created to cover the head from the hot sun.

 8. Who invented the phonograph?
  Paul Ribaun               John Kruesi was a mechanic for
  Thomas Edison             Edison, and both designed and built
  Jules Levy                the phonograph.
  Alexander Graham Bell
 9. When were blue jeans invented?
  1900s              The first blue jeans were invented by tailor
  1850s              Levi Strauss, who invented tougher
  1870s              working pants for the miners of the
  1860s              California Gold Rush.
How much do you know about
 9. Who is called “Father of Dynamite”?

   Alfred Nobel          Swedish chemist Alfred Bernhard Nobel
   Albert Einstein       invented dynamite in 1866 and it made
   Alexander Bell        him rich.
   Jose Rodriguez
            Solar handbags a powerful accessory

High fashion is going high-tech with designers creating this
season's must-have accessory: a handbag that recharges your
cell phone or Blackberry.
Watch the video clip and answer the following questions.

         •What enables the solar bags to charge your cell
         •According to Rogan Gregory’s friends, where would
         they use the bags?
         •Who invented the idea of a solar bag?
         •How many hours of bright and white light will you have,
         if you expose the solar panel, outdoors in direct sun
         light for about five hours with a two-watt module?
         •Where can you buy the solar bags?
Your inventions in the future

               What are the
               inventions in
               the future?
Electric shoes


      Edible chopsticks
                                              umbrella mantle

chopsticks with a fan attached

                                 toilet-roll hat
Your inventions in the future

    Task: You’re free to invent anything
     possible or impossible. What sort of
     thing would you invent?
    Steps:
        • Imagine something that you’d like to invent.
        • Name your invention.
        • Draw a sketch of your invention.
        • Describe its design.
        • Tell its working principle.
        • Explain its functions and how would it be used.
Your inventions in the future
  Useful expressions

            What does it look like?
            What’s it made of?
            How does it work?
            This invention can help people…
            This new invention will make it
             possible for people to…
            This is a new way of…
            How would people use it?
Software Stops Teens from Driving
and Texting
   Software Stops Teens from Driving and Texting

   The cell phone application runs on android
   phones and uses onboard GPS.
Edible chopsticks
Never throw away or wash
chopsticks again. These chopsticks
are both delicious and
environmentally friendly. Save
trees and have a snack at the same
time –they come in five different
Nose-top computer
Are you tired of carrying around a
heavy laptop computer? Here’s the
solution: the new nose-top computer
fits comfortable on your nose and
weighs less than a pair of glasses.
Use the keyboard vest when you want
to type something.
Electric shoes
The heel of this shoes is a
machine that makes
electricity with every step
you take. You will never
need to buy batteries again!
Inflatable bicycle
You will never have to
worry about having your
bike stolen again. If you use
our inflatable bike, you can
simply let the air out and
put your bike in a bag.
Expressing Certainty and Possibility

     Are you sure / certain?
     Are you sure / certain about…?
     Are you sure / certain that…?
                     I’m sure of it.
                     I’m not sure / certain….
                     I can assure you that…
                     I have no doubt about that.
                     It is possible that…
                     It may be…
                     Perhaps / Possibly / Maybe…
   Practice the Dialogue 1 & 2 with your partner
    repeatedly and learn them by heart.

   Create a dialogue on the greatest invention in
    your mind!
    (Be sure to express certainty and possibility in the
Part C: The Camera Man
     Do you own a camera? Undoubtedly you
 do, and you probably use it often, too. Just
 slip the camera in your backpack pocket, and
 you're set to record your activities on film. But
 before 1888, you would have needed a
 wagon to carry all the necessary equipment
 just to take one photogragh. Early cameras
 were the size of microwave ovens! But
 Geroge Eastman changed the way the world
 took pictures.
    Born in upstate New York on July 12, 1854,
George Eastman was the youngest of three
children. His father died when George was a
young boy. He was forced to quit school at 14
and work to support his family. In 1874, he got
a job as a junior clerk at a bank for $15 a week.
        A friend introduced George to
photography when he was 24. George
loved taking pictures, but he didn't like the
complicated process. He worked for years
to invent something to replace the old
machine. When he succeeded, he started
a company to produce his "film", Kodak.
Then he worked on developing a simple
    When he introduced his camera in
1888, George coined the advertising
slogan, "You push the button, we do the
rest." People began buying the cameras,
and Kodak soon grew to be very large.
     George Eastman was also a great
philanthropist. He gave much of his fortune to
establish hospitals, clinics, universities,
museums and performing arts centers. When
he died in 1932 at the age of 77, an editorial
in The New York Times said he would be
remembered for giving generously for the
good of mankind. And, of course, for putting a
Kodak smile on the faces of people around
the world.
Group discussion
   There’s a saying that genius is 10 percent
    inspiration and 90 percent perspiration(汗
    水). What does that saying mean, and do
    you agree with it after you have studied some
    inventions and inventors? Why or why not?
   Inventors often patent their inventions. What
    does it mean to patent an invention? In what
    way does patenting protect an inventor?
Related words:
     inspiration
    Definition: something that moves a mind to
    Context: Many times a dream acts as
    inspiration for an inventor, a novelist, or a
   newfangled
    Definition: New and maybe needlessly novel
    Context: One elderly person complained that
    the remote control device was newfangled;
    the other elderly person appreciated the
    convenience of the device.
   patent
   Definition: A document that gives an
    inventor the exclusive rights to manufacture
    or sell the item.
    Context: The expression patent pending on
    an object means that the inventor has applied
    for the right to be the only person who can
    make and sell the object.
   serendipity
    Definition: A fortunate accident in which a
    person finds something valuable or pleasing
    when he or she was not looking for it
    Context: The inventor did not want to admit
    the invention came about by serendipity; he
    wanted the world to think he had carefully
    designed the invention.

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