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Invention Contents Expressing Certainty and Possibility Listening Task : The Camera Man Speaking Task : Invention What is invention? Invention is produced for the first time through the use of imagination or ingenious thinking and experimentation. A famous quote is: "Necessity is the mother of invention." It means that the reason anything gets invented or improved is because of a need. New ideas produced inventions and changes. Invention is a highly creative process. “Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” An open curious mind enables one to see beyond what is known. Inventors think outside of the box. Seeing a new possibility, a new connection or relationship can spark invention. Inventive thinking frequently involves combining elements from different realms that would not normally be put together. Inventors skip over the boundaries between distinctly separate territories or fields. Ways of thinking, materials, processes or tools from one realm are used as nobody had ever imagined in a different realm. Play can lead to invention. “All sorts of things can happen when you’re open to new ideas and playing around with things.” Childhood curiosity, experimentation and imagination can develop into a play instinct that is an inner need. Inventors feel the need to play with things that interest them, to explore, and this internal drive brings about novel creations. Inventors want to satisfy a need, they try to solve a problem or make something better. Inventing also takes insight. It may begin with questions, doubt. inventions Chinese Can you name some inventions in the history of Brainstorm: China? •The four great inventions of ancient China: compass gunpowder printing paper Chinese inventions and inventors Other Chinese inventions include: sundial abacus wheelbarrow tangram seismograph crossbow parachute waterwheel more Chinese paper note inventions firework Four Great Inventions of Ancient China China held the world's leading position in many fields in the study of nature, from the 1st century before Christ to the 15th century, with the four great inventions having the greatest global significance. Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and the compass - the four great inventions of ancient China-are significant contributions of the Chinese nation to world civilization. Papermaking China was the first nation who invented paper. The earliest form of paper first appeared in the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-23AD), but the paper was generally very thick, coarse and u n e v e n . In the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), an official named Cai Lun made a new kind of paper from bark, rags, fishnet and other materials. It was relatively cheap, light, thin, durable and more suitable for brush writing. At the beginning of the 3rd century, the paper making process first spread to Korea and then to Japan. It reached the Arab world in the Tang Dynasty, and Europe in the 12th century. In the16th century, it went to America by way of Europe and then gradually spread all over the world. Printing Yet block（雕版） printing had its drawbacks. All the boards became useless after the printing was done and a single mistake in carving could ruin a whole block. In 1041-1048 of the Song Dynasty (960-1279), a man named Bi Sheng carved individual characters on identical pieces of fine clay which he hardened by a slow baking process, resulting in pieces of movable type（铅字）. When the printing was finished, the pieces of type were put away for future use. This technology then spread to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and Europe. Later, German Johann Gutenberg invented movable type made of metal in 1440-1448. Gunpowder The invention of gunpowder had a close relationship with the advanced ancient workmanship of smelting industry. People began to know a lot of chemistry knowledge about the nature of different mineral materials during the process of smelting operation. Although they failed to get what they were looking for, they discovered that an explosive mixture could be produced by combining sulfur, charcoal（木炭）, and saltpeter (硝石). This mixture finally led to the invention of gunpowder although its exact date of invention still remains unknown. Gunpowder Many historical materials indicate that gunpowder first appeared before the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The military applications of gunpowder began in the Tang Dynasty. In the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368), the method of powder-making was introduced to the Arab world and Europe, bringing a series of revolutions to weapon manufacturing. Compass Early in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC), while mining ores and melting copper and iron, Chinese people chanced upon a natural magnetite that attracted iron and pointed fixedly north. In the Warring States Period (206BC-23AD), after constant improvement the round compass came into being. Referred to as a "South-pointer", the spoon- shaped compass is magnetic. The circular center represents Heaven, and the square plate represents Earth. The handle of the spoon points south. The spoon is a symbolic representation of the Great Bear. The plate bears Chinese characters which denote the eight main directions of north, north-east, east, etc. This type of compass has been scientifically tested and found to work well. Compass One of the first books to describe the magnetic compass, Dream Pool Essays (1086) by Shen Kuo in the Song Dynasty, about 100 years earlier than its first record in Europe. Before its invention, navigators had to depend on the positions of the sun, the moon and the polestar for their direction. The spread of the compass to Europe opened the oceans of the world to travel and led to the discovery of the New World. Thomas Alva Edison was born in 1847 in Milan, Ohio He grew up in Port Huron, Michigan. In 1877, and died on Oct 18, 1931, aged eighty- four. No other inventor has approached the number of patents issued to Thomas Edison, singly or jointly - 1093. Among them, the most well known one may be the phonograph（唱机）-a machine that talked. To encourage people to think about the importance of his creation, Edison gave his own ideas for the most important uses of the phonograph: Recording music Recording the human voice to: make books for blind people teach people to improve their speech save voices of family members for future generations make clocks that told time Making toys for children. In 1894, Edison started making dolls with tiny phonographs inside. Who is he? More than a cure for headaches and minor pain, aspirin has been clinically proven to work wonders for many conditions. People at risk of heart attack are advised to take an aspirin a day, and aspirin is used to prevent and treat stroke. Aspirin is also thought to be a drug for cancer, heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Studies have shown that long-term aspirin taking can reduce the risk of death from cancer by over 40%. Today, over 70 million pounds of aspirin are produced annually around the world, and Americans consume more than 15 billion tablets per year. The Automobile By Henry Ford in 1893 The light bulb Invented by: Thomas Alva Edison In 1879. The Airplane In 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first airplane flights in history. How much do you know about inventions? Do you know who invented these commonly used items? 1. Who invented the battery? Thomas Edison John Wilkinson He was an Italian scientist, and he invented the Alessandro Volta battery in 1800. James Hargreaves 2. When was the toothbrush invented? 1742 1790 The first toothbrush was made out of a bone and small 1770 brush, by jail prisoner William Addis of England. 1765 3. Who made the first train using a steam engine? Thomas Edison Chris Johnson George Stephenson made the first train George Stephenson using a steam engine in 1825. Alexander Graham Bell 4. Who published the first computer programs? L.D. Bartlett In 1843, a mathematician, Ada Byron, published the Jed Smith first computer programs. Her programs were for the Ada Byron first general-purpose mechanical digital computer, that Chris Johnson was just invented by Charles Babbage. 5. Who invented the first airplane? Between 1899 and 1905, Wilbur and Orville Jose Rodriguez Wright conducted a program of The Wtight Brothers aeronautical research and experimentation John Smith that led to the first successful powered Jose Maria Lopez de Santa Anna airplane in 1903 and a refined, practical flying machine two years later. 6. Who is called “Father of Car”? Rudolf Diesel In 1885, German mechanical Karl Benz engineer, Karl Benz designed and John Smith built the world's first practical Jose Maria Lopez de Santa Anna automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. How much do you know about inventions? 7. Where were wigs first invented? Egypt As you have noticed in pictures, many Egyptians have head China coverings, sometimes with beads in them. The first wigs were France created to cover the head from the hot sun. Japan 8. Who invented the phonograph? Paul Ribaun John Kruesi was a mechanic for Thomas Edison Edison, and both designed and built Jules Levy the phonograph. Alexander Graham Bell 9. When were blue jeans invented? 1900s The first blue jeans were invented by tailor 1850s Levi Strauss, who invented tougher 1870s working pants for the miners of the 1860s California Gold Rush. How much do you know about inventions? 9. Who is called “Father of Dynamite”? Alfred Nobel Swedish chemist Alfred Bernhard Nobel Albert Einstein invented dynamite in 1866 and it made Alexander Bell him rich. Jose Rodriguez Solar handbags a powerful accessory High fashion is going high-tech with designers creating this season's must-have accessory: a handbag that recharges your cell phone or Blackberry. Watch the video clip and answer the following questions. •What enables the solar bags to charge your cell phone? •According to Rogan Gregory’s friends, where would they use the bags? •Who invented the idea of a solar bag? •How many hours of bright and white light will you have, if you expose the solar panel, outdoors in direct sun light for about five hours with a two-watt module? •Where can you buy the solar bags? Your inventions in the future What are the inventions in the future? Electric shoes Inflatable bicycle Nose-top computer Edible chopsticks umbrella mantle chopsticks with a fan attached toilet-roll hat Your inventions in the future Task: You’re free to invent anything possible or impossible. What sort of thing would you invent? Steps: • Imagine something that you’d like to invent. • Name your invention. • Draw a sketch of your invention. • Describe its design. • Tell its working principle. • Explain its functions and how would it be used. Your inventions in the future Useful expressions What does it look like? What’s it made of? How does it work? This invention can help people… This new invention will make it possible for people to… This is a new way of… How would people use it? Software Stops Teens from Driving and Texting Software Stops Teens from Driving and Texting The cell phone application runs on android phones and uses onboard GPS. Edible chopsticks Never throw away or wash chopsticks again. These chopsticks are both delicious and environmentally friendly. Save trees and have a snack at the same time –they come in five different flavours. Nose-top computer Are you tired of carrying around a heavy laptop computer? Here’s the solution: the new nose-top computer fits comfortable on your nose and weighs less than a pair of glasses. Use the keyboard vest when you want to type something. Electric shoes The heel of this shoes is a machine that makes electricity with every step you take. You will never need to buy batteries again! Inflatable bicycle You will never have to worry about having your bike stolen again. If you use our inflatable bike, you can simply let the air out and put your bike in a bag. Expressing Certainty and Possibility Are you sure / certain? Are you sure / certain about…? Are you sure / certain that…? I’m sure of it. I’m not sure / certain…. I can assure you that… I have no doubt about that. It is possible that… It may be… Perhaps / Possibly / Maybe… Dialogue Practice the Dialogue 1 & 2 with your partner repeatedly and learn them by heart. Create a dialogue on the greatest invention in your mind! (Be sure to express certainty and possibility in the dialogue.) Part C: The Camera Man Do you own a camera? Undoubtedly you do, and you probably use it often, too. Just slip the camera in your backpack pocket, and you're set to record your activities on film. But before 1888, you would have needed a wagon to carry all the necessary equipment just to take one photogragh. Early cameras were the size of microwave ovens! But Geroge Eastman changed the way the world took pictures. Born in upstate New York on July 12, 1854, George Eastman was the youngest of three children. His father died when George was a young boy. He was forced to quit school at 14 and work to support his family. In 1874, he got a job as a junior clerk at a bank for $15 a week. A friend introduced George to photography when he was 24. George loved taking pictures, but he didn't like the complicated process. He worked for years to invent something to replace the old machine. When he succeeded, he started a company to produce his "film", Kodak. Then he worked on developing a simple camera. When he introduced his camera in 1888, George coined the advertising slogan, "You push the button, we do the rest." People began buying the cameras, and Kodak soon grew to be very large. George Eastman was also a great philanthropist. He gave much of his fortune to establish hospitals, clinics, universities, museums and performing arts centers. When he died in 1932 at the age of 77, an editorial in The New York Times said he would be remembered for giving generously for the good of mankind. And, of course, for putting a Kodak smile on the faces of people around the world. Group discussion There’s a saying that genius is 10 percent inspiration and 90 percent perspiration(汗 水）. What does that saying mean, and do you agree with it after you have studied some inventions and inventors? Why or why not? Inventors often patent their inventions. What does it mean to patent an invention? In what way does patenting protect an inventor? Related words: inspiration Definition: something that moves a mind to create Context: Many times a dream acts as inspiration for an inventor, a novelist, or a painter. newfangled Definition: New and maybe needlessly novel Context: One elderly person complained that the remote control device was newfangled; the other elderly person appreciated the convenience of the device. patent Definition: A document that gives an inventor the exclusive rights to manufacture or sell the item. Context: The expression patent pending on an object means that the inventor has applied for the right to be the only person who can make and sell the object. serendipity Definition: A fortunate accident in which a person finds something valuable or pleasing when he or she was not looking for it Context: The inventor did not want to admit the invention came about by serendipity; he wanted the world to think he had carefully designed the invention.
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