Versailles Treaty (PowerPoint) by huanghengdong


									Versailles Treaty

“A Peace to End All Peace”?
  President Woodrow Wilson’s
    14 Points (January 1918)
               1. “Open covenants of peace . . .”

               2. “freedom of navigation upon the seas”

               3. “The removal . . .of all economic barriers”

               4. Reductions in armaments

5. “free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment
of colonial claims” based upon the principle of self-
   President Woodrow Wilson’s
             14 Points
               6, 7, 11. Evacuation of Russia, Belgium
               and the Balkans

                8. Alsace-Lorraine returned to France

                9. Readjust Italian borders according to

10. “autonomous development” in Austria-Hungary

12. Creation of Turkey with international free access to
Dardanelles (and “autonomous development” for the rest of
the ex-Ottoman Empire)
President Woodrow Wilson’s
          14 Points
      13. Independent Poland with free access to
      the sea

      14. League of Nations
11 November, 1918
           The Big Four

Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau, and Wilson
                    Plenary Session
United States (5)      China (2)       Poland (1)
Great Britain (5)      Cuba (1)        Portugal (1)
Canada (2)             Ecuador (1)     Rumania (2)
Australia (2)          Greece (2)      Serbia (3)
South Africa (2)       Guatemala (1)   Siam (2)
New Zealand (1)        Haiti (1)       Czecho-Slovak
India (2)              Hedjaz (2)      Republic (2)
France (5)             Honduras (1)    Uruguay (1)
Italy (5)              Liberia (1)
Japan (5)              Nicaragua (1)
Belgium (3)            Panama (1)
Bolivia (1)            Peru (1)
Brazil (3)
           The “Mandates” Clause

To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late
war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which
formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not
yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of
the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the
well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of
civilisation . . . . [T]he tutelage of such peoples should be entrusted
to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their
experience or their geographical position can best undertake this
responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, and that this
tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of
the League.
Loss of Alsace-Lorraine
Results: DMZ
      The “War Guilt” Clause

The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and
Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her
allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the
Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals
have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed
upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.

123,000,000 marks
              The German Reply
The enforcement of the Peace Conditions would therefore
logically entail the loss of several million persons in
Germany. This catastrophe would not be long in occurring,
since the health of the population has been broken during
the war by the blockade. . . . The Peace would impose
upon Germany many times the number of human lives cost
her by this war of four years and a half, (1,750,000 killed by
the enemy; almost a million as a result of the blockade.) . . .
. Those who sign this treaty, will sign the death
sentence of many millions of German men, women and
Kindly accept, etc.
The message of this cartoon
A. President Wilson was
   considered inept and
   corrupt by the U.S.
B. Most U.S. senators
   couldn’t swim in 1919.
C. The U.S. Senate rejected
   the harsh terms of the
   Treaty of Versailles.
D. The U.S. Senate was
   reluctant to join the LON
   because it feared getting
   caught up in overseas
The message of this cartoon is:
A. Wilson is a hero for his
   advocacy of the LON.
B. Wilson is foolish and over-
   optimistic about the LON’s
C. The LON will guarantee
   peace between nations.
D. Wilson did not behave
   appropriately at the signing
   of the Treaty of Versailles.
Why did the League fail?
The Taylor
   Long-term consequences of the
            Great War
•Destruction of eastern and central European empires
•Instability in Eastern Europe
•Social/Political transformation
•Women’s suffrage
•German resentment
•General decline in European economic and global power
•Sense of uncertainty and anxiety in European culture

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