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					                                       Medical Terminology II
                                        Study Guide Unit 5
                                      Chapters 17 Eyes & Ears

1. Provide the meaning of the combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes in the chapter.
      SEE SUPPLEMENT

2. Define the following anatomy and physiology terms:
      accommodation – normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near
      anterior chamber – front area of eye – area behind the cornea and in front of the lens & iris
       choroid – middle, vascular layer of eye between the retina and the sclera
      ciliary body – structure on each side of the lens that connects the choroid and iris
      cones – photoreceptor cell that is responsible for color and central vision
      conjunctiva – delicate membrane lining the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball
      cornea – fibrous, transparent layer that extends over the anterior part of eye – first part to
              bend light
      fovea centralis – central focal point at back of the eye – the region of clearest vision – dense
              collection of cones are in that area
      fundus – posterior, inner part of the eye
      iris – color of eye around pupil
      lens – transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye – refracts (bends) light
      macula – yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc
      optic chaism – point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain – crisscrossing of nerves in
              the brain
      optic disc – region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina – blind spot
      optic nerves – cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain
      pupil – center point of eye (dark opening) that contracts & dilates in bright/dim light
      refraction – bending of light rays by the cornea, lens and fluids of the eye
      retina – nervous layer at back (fundus) of eye – contains the rods and cones
      rods – photoreceptor cell that is responsible for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision
      sclera – tough, white, outer layer of the eyeball
      aqueous humor – fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber
      vitreous chamber – interior chamber of eye that contains vitreous humor
      vitreous humor – jelly-like substance behind the lens inside the vitreous chamber – helps
              maintain the shape of the eyeball

      auditory canal – channel that leads from the pinna to the eardrum
      auricle – Flap of the ear; the protruding part of the external ear, or pinna
      cerumen – wazy substance secreted by the external ear; also call ear wax
      cochlea – snail-shaped, spirally wound tube in the inner ear; contains hearing sensitive
             receptor cells
      eustachian tube – auditory tube
      incus – second ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; incus means anvil
      labyrinth – maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. This includes the cochlea, vestibule,
             and semicircular canals
      malleus – first ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; malleus means hammer
      organ of Corti – sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear
      ossicles – small bone of the ear; includes the malleus, incus, and stapes
      oval window – membrane between the middle ear and the inner ear
      pinna – Auricle; flap of the ear
      semicircular canals – passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium
      stapes – third ossicle (bone) of the middle ear; stapes means stirrup
      tympanic membrane – membrane between the outer and the middle ear; also called the
            eardrum

3. Briefly describe the following conditions and diseases:
       astigmatism – defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
       cateract – clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
       chalazion – small, hard, cystic mass on the eyelid
       diabetic retinopathy – disease of the retina due to diabetes
       glaucoma – increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina & optic nerve with
              loss of vision
       hordeolum – (stye or sty) – localized, purulent inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a
              sebaceous gland in the eyelid
       hypermetropia – farsightedness
       hyperopia – farsightedness
       macular degeneration – progressive damage to the macula of the retina that results in loss of
              central vision
       myopia – nearsightedness
       presbyopia – impairment of vision as a result of age
       retinal detachment – two layers of the retina separate from each other
       strabismus – abnormal deviation of the eye (ex: esotropia and exotropia)

      acoustic neuroma – benign tumor arising from the acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve in the
             brain
      deafness – loss of ability to hear
      Meniere disease – disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure
             within the cochlea and the semicircular canals
      otitis media (both) – inflammation of the middle ear
      otosclerosis – hardening of the bony tissue of the middle ear
      tinnitus – sensation of noises (ringing, buzzing, whistling, booming) in the ears
      vertigo – sensation of irregular or whirling motion either of oneself or of external objects

4. Briefly describe the following clinical procedures:
      cateract surgery – surgical replacement of the lens
      laser photocoagulation –
      LASIK – use of an excimer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia,
             astigmatism)
      ophthalmoscopy – visual examination of the interior of the eye
      tonometry – measures intraocular pressure to detect glaucoma
      visual acuity – clarity of vision is assessed
      visual field exam – measures the area within which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed,
             looking straight ahead without movement of the head
      vitrectomy – removal of the vitreous humor

      audiometry – testing the sense of hearing
      otoscopy – visual examination of the ear with an otoscope
      tuning fork test – test of ear conduction using a vibration source (tuning fork)

5. Provide the meaning of the following abbreviations:
      IOL – intraocular lens
      LASIK – laser in situ keratomileusis
      OD – right eye
      OS – left eye
      OU – both eyes
      PERRLA – pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accommodation
      VA – visual acuity
      VF – visual field

      AD – right ear
      AS – left ear
      AU – both ears
      EENT/ENT – eyes, ear, nose and throat/ears, nose and throat
      PE tube – pressure-equalizing tube – a polyethylene ventilating tube placed in the eardrum

6. Word list. Apply the following terms by writing then correctly in a sentence and spelling them
correctly.
       accommodation – normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near
       cateract – clouding of the lens, causing decreased vision
       intraocular – within the eye
       opthalmoscopy – visual examination of the interior of the eye
       aphakia – condition of being without lens
       conjunctivitis – inflammation of the conjunctiva
       keratotomy – incision into cornea to fix vision
       presbyopia – impairment of vision as a result of old age
       astigmatism – defective curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye
       esotropia – one eye turns inward; crosseyed
       ophthalmologist – medical doctor who specializes in treating disorders of the eye


      audiometry – testing the sense of hearing
      Meniere disease – disorder of the labyrinth of the inner ear; elevated endolymph pressure
           within the cochlea and the semicircular canals
      myringotomy – creating an opening in the eardrum for PE tubes
      serous otitis media – non-infectious inflammation with accumulation of serous fluid

				
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