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					ISLAM
World Distribution of Muslims
     Africa          308,660,000    27.4%

     Asia            778,362,000    69.1%

     Europe          32,032,000     2.8%

     Latin America   1,356,000      0.1%

     North America   5,530,000      0.5%



     World           1,126,325,000 100%

      Source: Britannica Yearbook, 1997
     Countries with the largest Muslim
               populations
1.    Indonesia (183 million)    6. Iran (62 million)
2.    Pakistan (134 million)     7. Egypt (59 million)
3.    India (121 million)        8. Nigeria (53 million)
4.    Bangladesh (114 million)   9. Algeria (31 million)
5.    Turkey (66 million)        10.Morocco (29 million)

*Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of
    the world.
     States with the largest Muslim
              populations
1.   California (20%)   6.Michigan (3%)
2.   New York (16%)     7.Virginia (3%)
3.   Illinois (8%)      8.Texas (3%)
4.   New Jersey (4%)    9.Ohio (3%)
5.   Indiana (4%)       10.Maryland
Islam
Islam,one of the three
 major world religions,
along with Judaism and
Christianity, professes
  monotheism, or the
 belief in a single God.
 In the Arabic language, the
      word Islam means
       “surrender” or
“submission”—submission to
       the will of God.

 A follower of Islam is called
a Muslim or Moslem, which in
Arabic means “one who
surrenders to God.”
The Arabic name for
  God is Allah and
 refers to the same
 God worshiped by
Jews and Christians.
The Teachings of Mohammed

 Around the year AD 570 ,
  the founding prophet of
  Islam, Mohammed, was
born in Mecca, the holy city
       of the Muslims.
 He was a caravan
driver by trade, but
married the owner of
 the company and
  never needed to
worry about money.
He spent much of his time
     in meditation.


 When he was forty, he had a
 vision from the angel Gabriel
who said he was to preach to his
 people the truth of one God.
  The new religion of
   Islam taught that
 there was one God,
 and that Mohammed
    was the last in a
series of prophets and
     messengers..
    Monotheistic Tradition
•   Most of the prophets mentioned in the Qur’an are
    known to the previous traditions:

•   Adam (Adam), Idris, Nuh (Noah), Hud, Saleh, Lut
    (Lot), Ibrahim (Abraham), Ismail (Ishmael), Ishaq
    (Isaac), Yaqub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joseph), Shu’ayb
    (Jethro), Ayyub (Job), Musa (Moses), Harun
    (Aaron), Dawud (David), Sulayman (Solomon),
    Yunus (Jonah), Ilyas (Elijah), Al-Yasa (Elisha), Dhu-
    l-Kifl, Zakariya (Zechariah), Yahya (John), ‘Isa
    (Jesus)
 Mohammed's teachings
   met with severe and
hostile opposition, and in
   the year 622 he left
Mecca and sought refuge
  in the city of Yathrib.
 This event is called the
    hegira and is very
   important in Islam.
    Upon Mohammed's
arrival, the name Yathrib
 was changed to Medina
   (meaning “the city of
 the prophet”). The date
      of Mohammed's
  immigration was later
 set as the beginning of
    the 12-month lunar
     Islamic calendar.
Mohammed spent his time there
organizing his followers for an
 eventual takeover of Mecca
 which he accomplished a few
         years later.


 In Mecca, Mohammed was the
head of the government was well
   as the head of the religion.
       The Five Pillars

During the ten years between
 his arrival in Medina and his
 death in AD 632, Mohammed
converted the people to Islam.

   The basis of Islam is the
       Five Pillars.
    The five pillars are each
 described in some part of the
Qur'an(Koran) and were already
 practiced during Mohammed's
     lifetime. They are the
 profession of faith (shahada)
        prayer (salat)
      almsgiving (zakat)
        fasting (sawm)
       pilgrimage (hajj).
1. Profession of faith-
there is only one God
   named Allah and
  Mohammed is his
       prophet
2. Pray – pray 5 times a day facing
      Mecca. Friday is the day all
     Moslems go to church, or the
      mosque. There are no bell
    towers, but there are minarets,
   tall towers in which men called
     muezzin would call people to
                prayer.
  Prayer (Salah)

The five daily prayers are:
• Fajr (from early twilight till just before sunrise
• Zuhr (after the zenith of the sun till mid
  afternoon
• Asr (between mid and late afternoon
• Maghrib (shortly after sunset)
• ‘Isha (during night-time and before the next
  morning’s twilight)
There are additional voluntary prayers as well as
  are prayers for special occasions
                      Salat
Salat is the name for the
  mandatory prayers that
  are performed five
  times a day. They are
  a direct link between
  the worshipper and
  God.
     Prayer: The Mosque

• Mosques do not contain statues or images
• Calligraphy and arabesque geometric designs
  beautify the mosque interior
• There are no seats and no reserved places
• Worshippers remove their shoes before entry
• Washing facilities are attached to the mosque
• The mosque also serves as a cultural centre
          Salat (Prayer)
• Five times a day

• The call to prayer

• The Friday prayer
3. Almsgiving- All Moslems
must give to the poor with a
tax called a zakat. The
government tells you how
much you must give.
4. Fasting – all Moslems must fast
 from sunrise to sunset during the
   month of Ramadan, the ninth
    month of the Moslem year.
5. Hajj- All Moslems
 must go on a hajj at
  least once in their
lives. A hajj is a trip
  to the holy city of
        Mecca.
The Hajj
The Kaaba
   Jihad is also an
important concept in
 Islam. It means to
struggle for Allah. A
  small part of the
struggle is a military
         one.
          Halal/Haram: Food
• Carrion, blood and pork are amongst the forbidden food
  items
• Meat must be slaughtered in the name of Allah and all
  blood must be drained
• Only non-carnivorous animals are permitted for
  consumption
• All sea animals are permitted
• Alcohol and intoxicating drugs are prohibited
  completely
• Food prepared by the People of the Book
  (Jews/Christians) is permitted; food dedicated to other
  gods is prohibited
When Mohammed
died, there was no
    successor.
  His father-in law, Abu-Bakr
replaced him becoming the first
       caliph or successor


 The first four caliphs were
  called the Rightly Guided
Caliphs. Their main objective
was the protection and spread
           of Islam.
  As they expanded, the
 conquered had 3 choices:

1. Pay a tax
2. Convert to Islam

3. die
The Ummayad family took
over the rule after the death
of the last Rightly Guided
caliph.
The Ummayads moved the
capital to Damascus and
conquered much land.
 A split or schism occurred in
Islam at this time between the
    Shiites and Sunnis. The
  Shiites wanted a relative to
   rule, but the Sunnis were
  interested in a person who
 followed the way or spirit of
    Mohammed. This split
        continues today.
 The Abbasid Family
 took over in 750 and
 moved the capital to
 Baghdad. This was a
  period of peace and
intellectual awakening
                     .
Great advancements were made in
1. Math
2. Astronomy
3. Chemistry
4. Medicine
5. Literature
6. Art

				
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posted:1/25/2012
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