Chapter 7 - Parking by BronsonDurrant

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									                               30                      CHAPTER 7
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                                                       PARKING
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INTRODUCTION
This chapter summarizes existing and future facility needs for parking that serve the University
of Washington. The following sections outline the existing conditions for parking, existing
deficiencies and future needs for parking in the area and a recommended parking plan to address
these deficiencies and needs.

EXISTING CONDITIONS
On Street and Private/Public Parking
Parking around the University of Washington is supplied through on-street spaces and off-street
lots. On-street parking is both metered and non-metered. Non-metered parking is either
unrestricted or has time restrictions in the form of no parking during certain hours of the day
and/or limitation on the length of time a vehicle is parking ranging from three-minute passenger
pick-up to two-hours166.

Residential parking zones (RPZs) in effect to the north, south and northwest of campus. These
RPZs allow residents preferential parking in the designated area by restricting parking during the
day to two-hours for vehicles that do not have the proper parking permits. Figure 7-1 shows the
RPZ locations in the study area.

There are approximately 3,400 on-street parking stalls in the UCUC planning area167. Figure 7-2
shows the locations of on-street parking in the University District area. Off-street parking
surrounding the University of Washington is provided through parking lots that are
private/public pay parking areas, non-pay/merchant oriented parking and a number of parking
areas provided on campus that are owned by the University of Washington. There are
approximately 6,315 off street parking stalls not owned or operated by the University of
Washington in the UCUC planning area168. Figure 7-3 shows the locations of different off-street
parking areas within the UCUC planning area.

166
    On-street parking inventory was taken from the University Community Urban Center Plan, September 1999, and verified through field
observations by DKS Associates during the month of April 2000.
167
    Off street parking inventory taken from the University Community Urban Center Plan, September 1998, Technical Appendix and verified
through field observations by DKS Associates during the month of April 2000.
168
    On street parking inventory taken from the University Community Urban Center Plan, September 1999, Technical Appendix and verified
through field observations by DKS Associates during the month of April 2000.


University of Washington Master Plan                                                         Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                Page 7-1                                         August 2001
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LEGEND
         - Pay Lot (Not Afilliated with UW)
         - Other Off-street Lot (Not Afilliated with UW)
         - UW Parking Lot
         - UW Parking Lot - Underground
DKS Associates
The University of Washington creates demand for parking that extends beyond the limits of the
campus. The extent of this demand depends on the distance from campus. Limited parking is
available off-campus and residential parking permit zones have been established to minimize
parking impacts to surrounding areas.

A recent on-street parking survey in the University District was conducted to evaluate mid-day
parking inventory utilization within a ¼ mile radius from the proposed light rail transit station.
Within this area during the mid-day period, parking utilization near the University of
Washington campus for on-street unrestricted parking was at 97% while on-street restricted
parking was at 70%. The off-street public parking was utilized at 78% and the off-street private
was utilized at 70%169. Parking that is unrestricted and free is in the highest demand while other
parking has 20 to 30 percent availability at peak times.

Campus Parking
The University of Washington has a number of parking facilities on campus (see Figure 7-3 for
campus parking locations). These parking facilities are designated for different user groups and
purposes, depending on location. All parking areas require payment for use during hours of
operation and most require permits, which are used to differentiate by area and class of use.
Disabled stalls are distributed around campus based on demand. Carpool parking permits
receive location preference over SOV permits. There are numerous different fees for parking on
campus depending on vehicle occupancy, location, time of day, vehicle type (e.g. motorcycle)
and method of payment. Table 7-1 summarizes the associated fees with all types of permits by
user group.

Table 7-1 – Major Transportation Fees
 Permit Type                                                                                               Rate effective 9/18/00
 Student U-PASS                                                                                                 $32/quarter
 Faculty/Staff U-PASS                                                                                         $44.22/quarter
 U-PASS carpool (with designated number of U-PASS holders)                                                       No charge
 Transient Single Occupancy Vehicle                                                                            $7/ 4 + hours
 Daily pay parking in lot E1
                                                                                         Cash                     $2.25/day
                                                                                         Debit                    $1.93/day
 Single occupancy vehicle permit                                                                               $160.74/quarter
                                                                                                                $642.96/year
 Night pay at gatehouses                                                                                           $3/night
 Night permit                                                                                                    $51/quarter
                                                                                                                  $204/year
 Motorcycle permit                                                                                                  $2/day
                                                                                                               $53.58/quarter
                                                                                                                $214.32/year
 Daily pay parking in lots E4 and E5                                                                              $1.50/day

Individual commuter tickets are also available for faculty and staff only. These permits are for
occasional use, up to an average of twice per week, and are purchased in advance, in groups of
between 6 and 26. Faculty and staff who have purchased a U-PASS may purchase individual

169
    Parking utilization study conducted for Sound Transit and used from the Central Link Light Rail Transit Project Final Environmental Impact
Statement Transportation Technical Report, November 1999, page 69.


University of Washington Master Plan                                                            Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                  Page 7-5                                          August 2001
DKS Associates
commuter ticket at a cost of $1.93 per ticket. Faculty and staff who have not purchased a U-
PASS must pay a higher cost of $3.50 per ticket.

Historic Parking Data
Under the GPDP, the University of Washington is responsible for keeping yearly records on the
total number of parking spaces available and utilized during the same time period as the
University District cordon count170. The GPDP also establishes a limit of 12,300 campus
parking spaces. However, this limit excludes spaces designated for service, loading,
motorcycles, etc. as well as some of the campus residential parking inventory.171

The University conducts commuter peak period counts of transient and commuter parking
utilization. Figure 7-4 summarizes the average parking utilization recorded in these lot counts
each October from 1990 to 1999.

Figure 7-4 – Historic Campus Commuter Parking Lot Counts and Utilization Data
                                                        Historic Campus Commuter Parking Data
                 14000
                                                                                                          Total Commuter Parking Spaces Available
                                                                                                          Number of Commuter Spaces Used
                 12000



                 10000
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                 8000
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                                                                               100%

                 6000                                                            80%
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                 4000                                                            40%
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                 2000                                                             0%
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                                                                                                                                                             1999

                    0
                          1990         1991         1992        1993         1994          1995           1996                1997            1998           1999

                                                                                    Year


As Figure 7-4 indicates, the number of parking spaces available for transient and commuter
parking has remained fairly consistent over the past ten years ranging from approximately 10,800
to 11,500 in total172. This only represents a variance of approximately 6%. The utilization of
parking ranges from 78% to 87% with the highest occupancy occurring prior to the U-PASS.
Management of the parking resources at UW has kept the parking utilization relatively constant.



170
             According to conditions of approval of the GPDP (Ordinance 116189), Section D, number 6, page 8.
171
             According to conditions of approval of the GPDP (Ordinance 116189), Section D, number 1, page 8.
172
             Data on historic parking lot counts and utilization was provided by the University of Washington Transportation Services.


University of Washington Master Plan                                                                            Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                            Page 7-6                                                August 2001
DKS Associates
Existing Parking Counts and Utilization
Individual commuter parking lot utilization on campus varies greatly in comparison to the
aggregate counts and utilization shown in Figure 7-3. The University of Washington divides the
parking areas into five different sections of campus; north, south, east, west and central. These
sections generally correspond with the campus area they typically serve for the lot users,
however there are some lots that are located in areas that generally serve other sections. For
example, lot E1 is located in the east section but generally serves the central campus area.
Figure 7-4 shows the boundaries used to allocate parking lots to sections by user. Table 7-2
summarizes the existing commuter parking supply and use by section shown in Figure 7-5.

Table 7-2 – Existing Parking Supply and Utilization by Section (1999)
  Section                                        Supply                                 Use                              Utilization
  North                                           1,068                                 962                                 90%
  South                                           2,887                                2,689                                93%
  Central                                         4,838                                4,380                                91%
  East                                            1,085                                 621                                 57%
  West                                            1,485                                1,257                                85%
  Total                                          11,363                                9,909                               87%
Note: Sections in this table have been reallocated from the standard University allocation by sector. This was done to group the “typical” user
for each parking lot with the sector they use.


The six largest commuter parking lot locations comprise over 60% of the total available
commuter parking spaces on campus and have a utilization rate of 94%. These parking areas are
the E1 parking lot (2,824 spaces at 92% utilization), Central Plaza Garage (992 spaces at 87%
utilization), S1 Parking Garage (919 spaces at 88% utilization), E12 Parking Lot (882 spaces at
99% utilization), Padelford Parking Area (696 spaces at 90% utilization) and the West Campus
Garage (661 spaces at 93% utilization)173. Utilization of campus parking inventory is not
synonymous with parking demand. Sales to different parking areas are restricted so as to
allocate parking to preferred user groups.

NEEDS
From 1996 to 1999, the average utilization rate on campus has risen from 80% to 87% and the
relative cost of parking has increased (compared to the consumer price index). The current
utilization rate is near the same level it was in 1990 when the U-PASS was not in affect. Over
this time period (1996-1999) campus population has increased approximately 4% and monthly
parking fees have increased approximately 15% (while the consumer price index has increased
approximately 10 percent). In comparison, the demand for parking has increased 7% over this
same time period, which indicates that the demand for parking has increased at a higher rate than
population with increasing parking fees174. A qualitative analysis of parking demand by the
University indicates that the highest current demand for parking is on south campus. Parking
demand is thought to be lowest on east campus.


173
      Based upon the October 1999 lot count data provided by the University of Washington.
174
   Parking prices generally increase in September while parking utilization data is gathered in October. Comparison of the two should take into
account the fact that a fee increased happened at the end of one period and may not accurately be reflected in the utilization data.


University of Washington Master Plan                                                             Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                   Page 7-7                                          August 2001
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DKS Associates
FORECASTED CONDITIONS AND FUTURE NEEDS
The University of Washington Master Plan has identified potential sites for additional parking on
campus. The total number of potential parking locations is based on the total developable space
of 8.3 million gross square feet. In the next ten years the University of Washington plans on
developing approximately 2 ½ - 3 million gross square feet of space. This development would
remove existing surface parking in many cases and provide replacement parking in new
structures or parking below the buildings.

The potential development identified in the Master Plan affects the existing parking supply by
eliminating (or relocating) some existing parking and creating new parking spaces through
redevelopment. This redistribution of existing parking could take parking in areas of campus
that have a low utilization and relocate it to areas that have a higher demand for parking, or it
could consolidate dispersed parking into concentrated areas of parking on campus. The total
number of parking spaces on campus is not going to exceed the parking cap of 12,300 spaces.
Limiting vehicle trip activity to levels at (or below) those prior to U-PASS implementation will
help to limit the potential demand for parking, which in turn should help to reduce the need to
build additional (net new) parking.

IMPACTS OF ALTERNATIVES
The proposed parking locations in each sector will do one of three things: eliminate existing
parking which would reduce the number of vehicle trips, replace removed parking at the same
number which would create approximately the same number of vehicle trips, or remove and
replace parking at a higher number of parking stalls which would add trips to the transportation
network. Figure 7-6 shows the potential locations for parking in the study area as indicted in the
Master Plan.

The first two scenarios (eliminate parking or replace parking at the same number of spaces) do
not adversely affect the transportation network. The third scenario where additional parking is
added to an area can increase localized traffic near the parking facility. Where additional
parking is being recommended, a parking trip generation rate similar to existing parking areas for
each section is used to evaluate the impact of the additional parking on nearby circulation. The
affect of these additional parking vehicle trips for each section are evaluated further in the auto
section (Chapter 3) of this document.

To assess the impacts of Master Plan growth on parking demand considering parking cost and
other factors, a “pivot point” model was developed using inputs from the 1997 PSRC model,
2020 PSRC model, existing mode share and forecasted mode share to help determine the affect
of parking pricing on the number of University related vehicle trips in the future. The price
elasticity of parking (that is the relationship between parking costs and vehicle trips) from this
model is between –0.1 to –0.2 using University of Washington specific input. The same range of
elasticity was found from research of national studies on parking elasticities for employment




University of Washington Master Plan                              Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                              Page 7-9                                August 2001
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LEGEND
                                                       - Below Ground Parking                                                   S - South Campus
    - Building Only
                                                       - Projects Approved as part of GPDP                                      E - East Campus
    - Building with Parking                     9N     - Site ID Number                                                         W - West Campus
    - Parking Structure                         P      - Potential Parking Sturcture                                            C - Central Campus
DKS Associates

related activities and for universities175. An elasticity of –0.1 indicates that a 10 percent increase
in parking cost would be expected to reduce vehicle trips 1 percent176.

Changes in pricing for parking can not only impact vehicle trips but parking demand. The
“pivot point” model was used to test various parking price increases that would result in a
condition where there would be “no growth” in vehicle trips. With the Master Plan growth and
without any other TMP enhancements, it would take approximately a 140% increase (in current
dollars) in parking costs to hold vehicle trip making near current levels. Table 7-3 summarizes
the future parking demand conditions with and without (base case) pricing.

Table 7-3 – Forecasted 2012 Commuter Parking Use, Absent TMP Enhancements
                                                                                         Demand
                                                           Without Pricing                    With 140% Pricing Increase
  Today                                                        9,850                                   8,320
  Future (additional demand)                                    1,865                                  1,575
  Total                                                        11,715                                  9,895
Note: The shift in demand with pricing does not include nearby housing. Additional nearby housing would decrease future demand.


It would be beneficial to increase the cost of parking on a yearly basis greater than the consumer
price index (CPI) to help balance the demand with the supply and try and reduce the demand
further, which would also reduce the utilization to a lesser level.

An additional impact of the proposed increase in student, staff and faculty campus population is
related to off-campus parking. Existing RPZs are in place to help reduce the potential for
students, faculty and staff to impact residential parking areas by parking off-campus. The
existing agreement between the University of Washington and the City of Seattle places the
burden (cost) of increasing an existing RPZ, or implementing a new RPZ, on the University.
Measures should be taken to help define an appropriate way to indicate who the primary users
are for the existing RPZ, or proposed RPZ, so that the University does not incur a
disproportionate share of the total cost for the RPZ improvement.

FUTURE PARKING STRATEGIES
This parking pricing should also be coupled with other transportation strategies to help reduce
the number of future vehicle trips to campus and increase the mode share for alternative modes
of travel. Parking pricing should not be the only strategy pursued, but should be complemented
by other strategies.

Another parking strategy would be to create pricing “tiers” for parking that would allow for
discounted parking fees for users that infrequently parking and used alternative modes rather
than SOV to access campus. The opposite pricing mechanism would hold for users that

175
   Economic and Other Considerations in Parking and Transportation, P. Cunningham, University of Michigan, January 1999.
176
    For more information on the parking elasticity for the University of Washington, please refer to the memo produced by DKS Associates for
the University of Washington (May 19, 1999) titled Draft Evaluation of Parking Elasticities.



University of Washington Master Plan                                                           Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                 Page 7-11                                         August 2001
DKS Associates
frequently access campus via SOV. These users would be charged more to park on campus after
a certain number of times in a quarter. The strategy here is to reward a user for using alternative
modes of travel and try to reduce the dependence of SOV use by a user. This would involve
intelligent transportation system (ITS) solutions to help track the use of mode to campus.

Similar to the pricing tiers that reward users for infrequent parking and try to increase alternative
modes, a “once a week” theme could be pursued through marketing. This would encourage the
campus population to choose an alternative mode of travel, other than SOV, to access campus
once a week. This would be aimed at increasing the mode share for alternative uses and decrease
the reliance on SOV use.

The University of Washington has developed and implemented a Transportation Management
Plan (TMP) to help guide and direct transportation choices for trips to and from campus. This
TMP provides strategies for each mode of travel. The number of recommended strategies found
in the TMP cover a wide variety of options. While many of the recommended strategies in the
TMP focus on administrative goals, such as coordination with other agencies which are difficult
to quantify, there are some strategies listed that hold a quantifiable measure of effectiveness on
reducing vehicle trips to/from campus. Table 7-4 summarizes the recommended strategies for
parking found in the TMP and the potential effect on demand or increased use of other modes177.

Table 7-4 – Parking Strategies and Effectiveness
 Strategy                                                                                                               Effectiveness1
 Increase parking pricing greater than the cost of living.                                                              1% reduction in
                                                                                                                    demand is expected for
                                                                                                                    every 10% increase in
                                                                                                                    cost (above the cost of
                                                                                                                            living)
 Develop graduated parking pricing to create pricing “tiers” for users                                                 0-3% increase in
 that allows discounted parking for infrequent users and increased                                                   alternative mode use
 parking fees for frequent users
 Emphasize the “just once a week” theme for modes other than single                                                    0-3% increase in
 occupant vehicle (SOV) and develop ITS technology that allows for a                                                 alternative mode use
 discounted parking price if other modes than SOV are used to access
 campus.
1 Effectiveness refers to the potential to reduce the drive alone mode share and shift that trip to another mode.
SOURCES: Guidance for Estimating Trip Reductions From Commute Options, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, August 1996.
         Guide to Calculating Transportation Demand Management Benefits, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, November 1999.


These strategies will reduce future parking demand and increase the use of alternative modes to
access campus over the next ten years.




177
    These percentages were derived from the Guidance for Estimating Trip Reductions from Commute Options and ECO Sample Trip Reduction
Plan, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, August 1996.


University of Washington Master Plan                                                                Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                                                    Page 7-12                                           August 2001
DKS Associates
RECOMMENDED IMPROVEMENTS
Along with the recommendation of increasing parking pricing, a strategy of parking price tiers
for frequent and infrequent users is recommended. As a marketing focus, a recommendation of
promoting a “once a week” theme for use of alternative modes should be pursued to help reduce
SOV trips to/from campus. Adding parking meters in all commercial or university areas which
are not residential in nature to minimize the number of unrestricted, free parking near campus
should also be pursued.




University of Washington Master Plan                           Transportation Technical Report
Parking Element                           Page 7-13                               August 2001

								
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