Bones

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					Broken Bones
                    Bones
• Bones are connective
  tissue.
• Bones have a soft
  center that is full of
  bone marrow, where
  blood cells are made.
• Bones support the
  body, help with
  movement, and offer
  protection to vital
  organs.
Types of Bones
     • There are 5 main types of
       bones
       – Long bones- characterized by
         a long shaft, like a femur
       – Short bones- roughly cubed
         shaped and found in wrist
       – Flat bones-are thin and curved
         bones with two hard bones
         sandwiching a soft tissue, the
         skull bones
       – Irregular bones- bones that do
         not fit in the above categories,
         like hip or spine bones
       – Sesamoid bones- bones that
         are embedded in tendons, like
         the patella
            Broken Bones
• A medical term used to describe broken
  bones is a Bone Fracture
• This is a medical condition where the bone
  is either cracked or broken
• This condition can be abbreviated with Fx ,
  FRX, of just Fx
 What can cause a broken bone?
• Normally, a bone fracture is caused by
  high amounts of pressure, impact, or
  stress.
• Some fractures can be caused by different
  types of diseases, such as:
  – Osteoporosis
    • A disease where the bone is weakened
  – A bone cyst
    • A tumor in the bone that eats away at bone
      marrow, causing the bone to be hollow
             Types of fractures
• Complete Fracture- where
  bones completely separate
• Incomplete Fracture- the
  bones are still partially joined
• A Linear Fracture- a fracture
  that is parallel to the bone’s
  axis
• Transverse Fracture- where
  the fracture is perpendicular
  from the bone’s axis
      Types of Fractures Cont.
• Oblique Fracture- A fracture that is diagonal to a bone's
  axis.
• Compression Fracture-a fracture that usually occurs in
  the vertebrae.
• Spiral Fracture- a fracture where some of the bone has
  been twisted
• Comminuted Fracture- a fracture with a bunch of
  fragments
• Compacted Fracture- a fracture
  when the bones are driven
   into each other
• Open Fracture- the fracture
  went through the skin
        Classifying Fractures
• Normally, 5 things are taken into account
  when fractures are classified.
  – The name of the bone
  – The location on the bone
  – The type of fracture
  – The group/ shape (Like a spiral fracture)
  – And the subgroups, which looks at things like
    the displacement or if there is shortening
    Classifying Fractures Cont.
• Neer Classification:
  Humerus
• Denis Classification:
  Spine
• Seinsheimer
  Classification: Femur
• Frykmann
  Classification: radius
  & ulna
                 Symptoms
• Depends on where and how the bone was
  broken.
• Normal Symptoms are:
  – Pain
  – Swelling
  – Bruising
  – Deformity
  – The inability to use the limb
  Where can Fractures Occur?
• Just about every bone in
  the body has been broken
• The most commonly broken
  bones are:
  – Wrist
  – Ankle
  – Hip- This case happens more
    frequently in the elderly
• Fingers and toes are
  broken frequently too due
  to sport injuries
    Complications of Bone Fractures
• The most common
  complications are:
  – Blood loss
  – Injuries to Organs
  – Growth/ joint problems
  – Weakness in some
    areas
  – Shock
                First Aid
• Should be given right away.
• Ask the person if they are hurt and in need
  of help.
• Only move the person if there is
  immediate danger in the area!!!!
• Moving a person with a head, neck, or
  spinal injury can cause a greater injury to
  occur!!!!
First Aid Cont
      • One thing to do right
        away is call 911 if
        possible.
      • Treat wounds that are
        bleeding right away so
        there is minimum blood
        loss.
      • Keep the wound as clean
        as possible
      • DO NOT ATTEMPT TO
        STRAIGHTEN ANY
        BROKEN BONES
        YOURSELF!!!!
               First Aid Cont.
• If the Fracture is in the
  limb, provide cushion
  and/ or support, like a
  pillow.
• At the same time, do
  not cause more pain or
  injury by moving the
  limb.
• It is also possible to
  make a make-shift
  splint or sling
               First Aid Cont.
• Immobilize limbs by either
  using a sling for the arm,
  or tying of the leg above
   and below the fracture
• If possible, raise the leg
   and put an ice-pack on it
   to reduce swelling.
• Call either 911 or 000 (for an ambulance)
• Do not eat or drink anything in case surgery is
  necessary.
                 Diagnoses
• There are three common ways that doctors
  use to tell if a bone is broken
  – An X-ray
  – A MRI
  – A CT (a computer used program used to make a 3-
    D image)
Treatments
  • One thing most
    people do not
    understand is that
    broken bones heal by
    them selves.
  • A cast or other
    medical treatment is
    used to make sure
    the bones align
    properly.
Treatments Cont.
 • Treatment include:
   – Splints
   – Cast/ body cast
   – Braces
   – Pain relief
   – Traction
   – Inserted rods,
    plates, or screws
                    Healing
• Healing begins
  when blood clots
  start to form on the
  end of the broken
  bone
• After a few (2-6)
  weeks, most cast
  are removed
• The broken limb
  must still be held
  with care
                   Healing Cont.
• After about 5 weeks,
  the bone will fuse
  together
   – This uses Cartilage
• Or Fibrous cells
• This new bone is not
  as strong as the first
  and can break very
  easily
Healing Cont.
      • Most cast or splints
        can be removed in
        about two months
      • The new bone must
        still be treated with
        care for another
        month
      • The temporary bone
        (callus) will be
        replaced with a real
        bone over time.
              Healing Cont.
• The bone heals
  without scars, unlike
  the skin
• The muscles,
  however, will be weak
  because of lack of use
• Physical Therapy may
  be necessary to
  rebuild strength
             Orthopedics
• This branch in medicine specializes in
  bone, bone injury, and bone growth
• This branch also deals with surgeries and
  bone fractures
• Some even deal with certain muscle
  injuries
• Much training is needed to become an
  Orthopedic
         Orthopedic Training
• Orthopedic surgeons
  complete about 10
  years of
  postsecondary
  education.
• This includes getting
  an undergraduates in
  medical school
• They must also
  complete a 5 year
  session of orthopedic
  surgeries
What Happens During Surgery?
              • The doctor will first
                initial the arm that is to
                be operated on
              • The patient will them
                be given an local
                anesthetic and an IV
                drip to put them to
                sleep
              • The doctor will then
                align the bone, insert
                any necessary rods,
                and complete the
                surgery
    Orthopedics in Your Area
• There are many
  orthopedics in the
  Richmond area
  – Tuckahoe Orthopedics
    and Associates
  – Orthopedic Research of
    Virginia
  – Richmond Orthopedics
  – Orthopedic Specialist
          Dr. Chester Sharps
• Dr. Chester Sharps is an
  pediatric orthopedic
  surgeon that works with
  Tuckahoe Orthopedics
   – This means he
     specializes in fixing
     bones in children
• Peoples Magazine has
  awarded him the best
  pediatric orthopedic
  surgeon on the east
  coast
                     Fun Facts
• The femur is one of the
  most difficult bones to
  break in the human body
• The radius (near the wrist)
  is probably the most
  common bone that is
  broken, mostly because of
  sports
• Many fingers and toes are
  broken, but there is no real
  treatment except for
  resting the bone
                         Bibliography

•   "Bone Fractures." Better Health Channel. 01 Oct 2008. State of Victoria. 24 Oct 2008
    <http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/BHCV2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Bone_fractures?Op
    enDocument>.
•   "Bone Fractures." Wikipedia. 23 Oct 2008. Wikipedia. 24 Oct 2008
    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_fracture>.
•   "Orthopedic Surgery." Wikipedia. 24 Oct 2008. Wikipedia. 24 Oct 2008
    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthopedic>.
•   Personal Information/Experience

				
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posted:1/24/2012
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