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The 1950s

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					The 50s and 60s
Cold War Conflicts
         What is the Cold War?

 A state of hostility between the United States and
 the Soviet Union that fell short of military
 confrontation




 From the end of World War II until the break up of
 the Soviet Union in 1991
        Causes of the Cold War

 The Soviets were Communists and the U.S. is a
  capitalist nation—they don’t mix well
 Joseph Stalin, leader of the USSR, wanted
  to take reparations from Germany and
  keep as many Eastern European countries
  communist as possible
 Harry Truman, the American president, wanted
  voting rights for all and was afraid of giving in to
  Stalin
         The Truman Doctrine

 Truman vowed to assist free people who
  were resisting takeovers by “armed
  minorities”
 Included financial support to keep Communists
  from taking over Turkey and Greece
            The Marshall Plan

 Proposed by General George
  Marshall
 Extended aid to all European nations
  in need



 Approved when the Soviet Union
 took over Czechoslovakia in 1948
         Problems in Germany

 Remember Germany had been divided into four
  zones…so had the capital of Berlin
 When the zones controlled by the U.S., France,
  and Great Britain reunited, the Soviet Union
  maintained control of its portion—of Germany and
  of Berlin
 Led to two German nations—the Federal Republic
  of German (West Germany) with its capital in Bonn
  and the German Democratic Republic (East
  Germany) with its capital in East Berlin
            Civil War in China

 In the north—Communists and Mao Zedong
 In the south—nationalists and Chiang Kai-shek

                  Mao Zedong

                Chiang Kai-shek


 Civil War began as soon as the Japanese left after
  World War II
 The Communists were able to gain the support of
  the peasants and by 1949 China was Communist
                War in Korea

 Japan had controlled Korea from 1910 until the
  end of World War II
 North Korea (above the 38th parallel) went
  to the Soviets; Kim Il Sung led their
  communist government
 South Korea went to the Americans
  and was led by Syngman Rhee
 Eventually, the Communists invaded South Korea
  and the U.S. had to get involved
            The U.S. in Korea

 Involved from 1950 to 1953
 Both the North Koreans and the Americans fought
 bitterly, but didn’t have clear advancements

 General MacArthur pushed for an invasion
 of China and use of more atomic weapons

 Truman fired MacArthur and peace was agreed
 upon without either side getting what it wanted
      The Communist Bugaboo
 There was a concern that all American
  Communists were secretly working for
  the Soviet Union
 Several agencies investigated possible
  Communist influence—even in
  Hollywood
 Senator Joseph McCarthy accused
  everyone and anyone of being
  Communist
 Some were actually found guilty: Alger
  Hiss and Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
The Postwar Boom
             Changes at Home

 The GI Bill enabled WWII veterans to go to school,
 buy a home, or establish businesses

 Marriages had ended in divorce


 We faced inflation and unemployment


 Truman called for Civil Rights, but
 Congress refused to act
                 Pop Culture

 Most homes had TVs now




 Radio was still popular


 Hollywood focused on size, color, and stereo
 sound
                   Beatniks

 Wore all black, were    Jack Kerouac wrote On
 minimalists, and used    the Road in 1957
 the “hip” language of
 jazz musicians
      The 50s Weren’t All Happy

 Whites fled to the suburbs, leaving the cities full of
 poor African Americans

 Mexicans had entered to work farms during
 WWII—the beginning of illegal immigrants

 Native Americans worked to control their own lives
 and lands
   The federal government withdrew financial assistance
The New Frontier
      and
The Great Society
            The Election of 1960

 One of the closest elections ever




 Kennedy/Johnson won by fewer than 120,000
  votes!
 Why?
   Television
   Civil Rights
               Crisis in Cuba

 The problem: Fidel Castro had declared
  himself a Communist and allied himself
  with the Soviet Union
 Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev sent
  tons of weapons to Cuba for defense—
  including nuclear weapons
 After a tense two weeks, Kennedy
  agreed to leave Cuba alone and the
  Soviets agreed to remove nuclear
  missiles
                    Camelot

 The Kennedys embraced art, music, and all
  cultures
 He inspired hope
 John was young and handsome; Jackie was
  beautiful and stylish; the children were adorable
           November 22, 1963

 Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas




 A nation mourned his death
           LBJ’s Great Society

 Johnson wanted to change America
 Addressed poverty, civil rights, and
  the environment
 Tried to renew the cities and protect
  consumers
 Looked at ways to improve education
  and expand opportunities for college-bound
  students

				
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