Name _____________________________ Date ________________ Period ________ Final Exam Study Guide Eighth Grade Advanced Language Arts Vocabulary Lessons #1-15. The following words will appear on the vocabulary section of your Vocabulary and Literature final exam. An understanding of definitions, synonyms, antonyms, and word usage will be necessary for success. Lesson Vocabulary Words 1 bonanza citadel collaborate laggard 2 incognito legendary minimize enterprising avowed 3 audacious willful comply tether longevity 4 residue blasé oust frivolous bolster qualms porous promontory 5 cower indiscriminate volatile plausible apparition 6 bask flaunt forthright anguish pseudonym 7 menial wallow convey jaunty tawdry 8 divergent infiltrate stint proxy 9 awry defile renown bludgeon recluse 10 upbraid accord curt devise trepidation personable judicious belated 11 calamitous quirk gallantry taint shiftless 12 recipient tenet fallacy mendicant teem tractable 13 simper wry forlorn steadfast 14 tedious vendor arrogant naïve irascible Literature. The following terms will appear in the literature section of your Vocabulary and Literature Final Exam. An understanding of their definitions and how they are used in a piece of literature will be necessary for success. 1. figurative language simile metaphor extended metaphor personification hyperbole 2. poetic form narrative lyric free verse haiku concrete sonnet 3. sound devices alliteration onomatopoeia repetition internal rhyme end rhyme rhyme scheme rhythm 4. mood 5. tone 6. speaker 7. stanza 8. allusion 9. imagery 10. genre 11. fiction 12. point of view first person second person third person omniscient 13. characterization dynamic character static character round character flat character 14. flashback 15. foreshadowing 16. irony 17. protagonist 18. antagonist 19. conflict internal and external conflict 5 types of conflict 20. theme 21. setting 22. symbol 23. chronological order 24. plot exposition narrative hook rising action climax falling action resolution 25. nonfiction biography autobiography persuasive essay expository essay 21. fact 22. opinion 23. inference 24. main idea 25. author’s purpose 26. drama act scene cast of characters stage directions dialogue scenery prop Grammar. The following concepts will be tested on your Grammar Final Exam. An understanding of definitions, rules, and their application will be necessary for success. Homonyms and Homophones 1. their there they’re 2. two to too 3. whether weather 4. accept except 5. than then 6. its it’s 7. your you’re 8. between among 9. affect effect Practice. Choose the homonym or homophone that correctly completes the sentence. 10. I like broccoli better (than, then) spinach. 11. (Your, You’re) hat is over (their, there, they’re) on the counter. 12. (Two, too, to) many people crowded aboard those (two, too, to) ships. 13. I have seen every episode of Seinfeld (accept, except) the one where Kramer moves to California and is accused of being a serial killer. 14. (There, their, they’re) going to park (there, their, they’re) car over (there, their, they’re). 15. My favorite desert is a toss-up (between, among) chocolate cake and blue Jell-o. 16. I cannot (except, accept) that (its, it’s) going to be a year before we see each other again. I am so sad that it may (effect, affect) my work. 17. The law requires that you go to school (whether, weather) you want to or not. Sentence Structure Parts of a Sentence 18. subject 19. predicate action verb linking verb verb phrase Types of Sentences 26. simple sentence 27. compound sentence 28. complex sentence 29. compound subject 30. compound predicate 31. compound subject and compound predicate Practice. Label each sentence as simple, compound, or complex or as having a compound subject, compound predicate, or both compound subject and compound predicate. 32. The bushes and flowers have grown very large this spring. 33. Carl splashed the water and soaked his brother. 34. Behind my house are a shopping center and movie theater. 35. Orange and red leaves fluttered to the ground. 36. The girl called her mom, but there was no answer. 37. He danced around the room and fell into a group of girls. 38. It rains a great deal in the summer. 39. Bill wants to go, but his mom won’t let him. 40. Mom and I bought shoes and purses. 41. Jack and Jill went up the hill and fetched water. 42. Because the park is maintained by the city, the citizens have complained to the mayor about vandalism. 43. The satellite will be launched if the weather remains good. 44. The theater group was happy with the performance. 45. Max and Will increased their speed and passed the other runner. Sentences, Fragments, and Run-Ons 46. complete sentence 47. fragment 48. run-on Practice: Identify each of the following groups of words as a complete sentence, fragment, or run-on. 49. Leonardo DaVinci studies architecture, he drew plans for buildings. 50. He wrote his ideas in notebooks. 51. Leonardo’s brilliant drawings. 52. Hang in the most prestigious museums in Europe. 53. He was a sculptor he worked with many difficult materials. 54. His study of anatomy is reflected in his art. Irregular Verbs: Know the forms of each irregular verb. Present Present Participle Past Past Participle Lie Lay Sit Set Rise Raise Begin Practice: Choose the verb in parentheses that best completes each sentence. 55. (Lie, Lay) the package there. 56. I have (lain, laid) on the sofa all day. 57. Yesterday, that alligator (laid, lay) in the sun all day. 58. My cat loves to (lie, lay) in the grass behind my house. 59. The groundskeeper has (lain, laid) sod all day. 60. The reporters (rise, raise) when the President enters a room. 61. Will Congress (rise, raise) taxes this year? 62. They (rise, raise) their hands to be recognized. 63. My interest in books has (risen, raised) to new heights. 64. Would you please (sit, set) the sofa down here? 65. You’d better (sit, set) down while I tell you this. 66. He left his school books (lying, laying) on the table. 67. Have you (began, begun) your homework? 68. She has (sang, sung) professionally for many years. 69. Nicholas was the first woman who (swam, swum) the English Channel both ways. 70. The truck has (rode, ridden) all over the rough country. 71. The oranges has (froze, frozen) on the trees last winter. 72. I wish I had (brung, brought) more water. 73. He found that his wallet had been (stole, stolen) 74. Rob had (chose, chosen) to take band this year. Verb Tenses: Know how to form verbs into each of the following tenses or forms: 75. present 76. past 77. future 78. present perfect 79. past perfect 80. future perfect 81. present progressive 82. past progressive 83. future progressive 84. present perfect progressive 85. past perfect progressive 86. future perfect progressive Practice. Identify the verb or verb phrase in each sentence. Then, identify the tense of each of the following verbs. 87. By next year I will run three miles in fifteen minutes. 88. I have run nearly that fast. 89. I ran to the store yesterday for a gallon of milk. 90. When shopping, Janie likes the stores Pennys and Dillards. 91. As a child, I had been shy. Practice: Identify the tense of each of the following verbs. 92. swam 93. is singing 94. will help 95. wants 96. has 97. was 98. took 99. will be seeing 100. had been 101. had lain 102. plays 103. has flown 104. laid 105. was flying 106. has been going Subject-Verb Agreement. Know the rules of subject-verb agreement. Singular and Plural Verbs in the Present Tense Singular Singular Plural First and Second Person Third Person First, Second, and Third Person (I, you) send (he, she, it) sends (we, you, they) send (I, you) go (he, she, it) goes (we, you, they) go A prepositional phrase that comes between a subject and its verb does not affect the subject-verb agreement. Incorrect: The poster of combat planes fill the wall. Correct: The poster of combat planes fills the wall. A compound subject joined by and is usually plural and must have a plural verb. Incorrect: The boy and girl is playing. Correct: The boy and girl are playing. Compound subjects taken together are thought of as a single unit and require a singular verb. Also, when the word each or every is used before the compound subject, a singular verb is required. Incorrect: Macaroni and cheese are my favorite. Correct: Macaroni and cheese is my favorite. Incorrect: Every student and teacher anxiously await the first day of school. Correct: Every student and teacher anxiously awaits the first day of school. When two or more subjects are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the closest subject. Incorrect: Either Alice or Mike are going to help us study. Correct: Either Alice or Mike is going to help us study. (One or the other will help, but not both of them) Incorrect: Neither the boys nor the girls is here. Correct: Neither the boys nor the girls are here. When the subject comes after the verb, the subject and verb must still agree in number. Incorrect: Waiting along the shore is many nervous soldiers. Correct: Waiting along the shore are many nervous soldiers. Sentences beginning with there or here are nearly always in inverted word order (verb before subject). Many questions are in inverted word order also. The subject must still agree with the verb in number. Incorrect: There are the boy. Correct: There is the boy. Incorrect: Where are the newspaper? Correct: Where is the newspaper? Either a singular verb or a plural verb can agree with an indefinite pronoun depending on the pronoun’s form and meaning. Always Singular: One of the submarines is equipped with radar. Everybody on the submarine was frightened by the attack. Neither of the strategies seems workable. Always Plural: Many of the soldiers are fighting on the war’s front lines. Others are working to supply them with food and ammunition. Several contribute by working as code breakers. Either Singular or Plural: Most of the war was fought long ago. Most of the battles were fought in the first year. Practice: Choose the verb that agrees with the subject and correctly completes the sentence. 107. Either Bob or Wes (are, is) going with me. 108. One of the girls (is, are) late. 109. (Are, Is) Mike or Joel playing the game. 110. Near me (run, runs) a small dog. 111. Neither he nor they (is, are) eligible. 112. In my room (was, were) my friends. 113. The winner and her parents (are, is) heading to the stage now. 114. The boys and the dog (is, are) playing Frisbee on the front yard. 115. Neither of the plants (need, needs) water. 116. Two minutes (is, are) long enough to bail an egg. 117. None of my rosebushes (bloom, blooms) in February. 118. Both of my brothers (take, takes) tennis lessons. 119. Macaroni and cheese (is, are) my favorite side dish. Noun Complements. Be able to identify the following noun complements: 120. direct object 121. indirect object 122. object of the preposition 123. predicate adjective 124. predicate noun Practice: Identify the direct object (DO), indirect object (IO), object of the preposition (OP), predicate adjective (PA), and/or predicate noun (PN) in each sentence. 125. John sold candy to the students. 126. Robert gave Michelle a bracelet. 127. His is a winner in every way. 128. Chocolate is my favorite. 129. Jump into the pool. 130. David is an excellent swimmer. 131. In the morning I hear the birds. 132. Can you bring me the cookies? 133. He tossed the ball to his dog. 134. The owner of the building is that man across the street. 135. The prom queen is my sister. 136. Did you see her at the ceremony? Using Modifiers to Make Comparisons. 137. Know how to form adjectives and adverbs into comparative and superlative forms. comparative superlative Positive Comparative Superlative Notes easy difficult beautiful good/well bad/badly far (distance) far (extent) less fewer 138. Know how to use the following modifiers correctly: bad, badly good, well far (distance and extent) than, then Practice. Choose the word in parentheses that correctly completes the sentence. 139. I felt (bad, badly) that I missed the slide show on Scotland. 140. They didn’t feel (bad, badly) about killing another king. 141. There were (fewer, less) people willing to support a weak king. 142. If a king ruled (good, well), people would continue to support him. 143. A (good, well) king showed success by winning battles. 144. Thank goodness there is (fewer, less) violence now than in ancient times. 145. Do you think you did (good, well) on the test about Scottish history? 146. I hope I didn’t do too (bad, badly). 147. I wish there had been (fewer, less) questions about Duncan and Macbeth. 148. Although I think I understood the story (good, well), I couldn’t remember all the dates. 149. You are smarter (than, then) you think. Parts of Speech. Identify words being used as the following parts of speech in a sentence: 150. noun 151. pronoun 152. verb 153. adjective 154. adverb 155. preposition 156. conjunction 157. interjection Practice. Label the part of speech of each word in the following sentences. If a word is a noun, identify it (if possible) as the subject, direct object, indirect object, object of preposition, or predicate noun. 158. The boys ordered a pizza and ate it very quickly. 159. He lives in the country with his younger sister. 160. Carolyn is a very polite person. 161. John is not going with us tomorrow. 162. Jump into the water. 163. The elephant has an unusually large appetite. 164. Here is my money for the party. 165. The lost puppy was scared and lonely. 166. All of the concert members harmonize with each other. Capitalization. Fill in the blanks to complete the capitalization rules of provide examples where necessary. 167. Capitalize the names of people as well as the titles that come before the names. Capitalize the terms President when it refers to the President of the United States. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 168. Capitalize the names of cities, states, and countries. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 169. Capitalize the names of bodies of water, mountains, and other geographic features. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 170. Capitalize the names of bridges, buildings, and monuments. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 171. Capitalize the names of sections of the country, but do not capitalize directions on the compass. Ex: We live in the South. Ex: Head west on Atlantic Boulevard to get to our school. 172. Capitalize the names of nationalities and languages. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 173. Do not capitalize the names of school subjects unless they are languages or followed by a number. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ 174. Capitalize the names of specific days, months, and holidays. Do not capitalize the names of seasons. Ex: ______________________, _____________________, _____________________ Commas, Quotation Marks, Semicolons, Colons, and Hyphens. Fill in the blanks to complete the following punctuation rules or provide examples. 175. Use a comma and conjunction to separate compound sentences. Ex; We wanted to go to a ball game, but it was canceled. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 176. Use a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Ex: Gary reached into his bag, pulled out his shoes, and threw them away. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 177. Use a comma after words such as yes, no, and well at the beginning of a sentence. Ex: Yes, football is my favorite sport. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 178. When speaking directly to a person, set the name off with a comma. Ex: I think, Melanie, that you are mistaken. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 179. Use a comma after an introductory dependent clause at the beginning of the sentence. Ex: Because Mr. Cunningham was ill, the test was canceled. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 180. Use quotation marks to set off a person’s exact words. Make sure to put commas, end marks, and quotation marks in appropriate places. “It is hot today,” said Mark. “There is no air!” Toni screamed. Eli asked, “When can we leave?” “It’s getting late,” said Lisa, “and we should go home.” 181. Put quotation marks around the titles of songs, short stories, articles, and chapters in books. Underline or italicize the titles of books, albums, newspapers, magazines, and plays. “Yesterday” “The Tell-Tale Heart” Harry Potter and the Deathly Hollows 182. Use a semicolon to join two complete sentences without using a coordinating conjunction. Ex: Melanie’s answer was close; Sally’s answer was closer. Ex: _______________________________________________________________________________ 183. Use a semicolon to connect items in a series when the items already contain commas. Ex: For our vacation, we could visit wild, wonderful West Virginia; natural, mountainous New Hampshire; or fun, fantastic Florida. Ex: ______________________________________________________________________________ 184. Use a colon to indicate the start of a list following an independent clause. Ex: We could go to the following states for our vacation: West Virginia, News Hampshire, or Florida. Ex: ______________________________________________________________________________ 185. Use a colon after the greeting of a business letter; use a comma after the greeting of a friendly letter. Use a comma after the salutation of every letter. Ex: Dear Sir: Dear Grandma, Sincerely, 186. Use a colon to signal important ideas and to indicate time with numerals. Ex: Notice: Shop closed until 12:30 for repairs. 187. Use hyphens when writing out two word numbers twenty-one through ninety-nine. 188. Use hyphens when writing fractions used as adjectives. No comma is needed when the fraction is used as a noun. Ex: A four-fifths majority is needed to pass that resolution in Congress. Ex: Four-fifths of the Senate voted against the bill. 189. Use hyphens to connect two or more nouns that are used as one word. Ex: great-grandfather, ___________________________, _____________________________ 190. Use an apostrophe to indicate where letters have been removed in a contraction. I will _______________ had not _______________ would have _______________ 191. Possessive nouns show ownership. Use an apostrophe and –s to create a possessive noun from a singular noun. Just put an apostrophe after plural nouns to be made possessive when the plural noun already ends in –s. Ex: child’s toy Chris’s bike teachers’ lounge children’s book Practice. Add punctuation where appropriate in each sentence or group of words. 1. Notice Class has been canceled today. 2. I am going shopping I’ll be back soon. 3. You need these supplies for class book paper pen and pencil 4. I’ve lived in Miami Florida for the past six years. 5. Sunday May 14 2006 was Mothers day. 6. Sue my friend is late and she will receive a detention. 7. Yours truly 8. Dear Grandma 9. Dear Sir 10. Her favorite song is Somewhere over the Rainbow. 11. The Phantom of the Opera is a Broadway musical based on Gaston Lerouxs novel. 12. Two thirds of the students were absent with the flu. 13. When I was better I returned to school. 14. Go to school and study hard said my grandmother.