Telephonic Interview Sample Invitation Letter by kmd20590

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									SELECTION SKILLS




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PROGRAMME OBJECTIVES

   Create an understanding of Selection tools
    and techniques and their appropriateness

   Understand competency based selection

   Learn interviewing skills

   Understand the need for psychometric testing

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             LEARNING GRID

Unconscious                             Conscious competence
competence
                                                 III
       IV                    Practice

 Unlearning/Review                               Learning/Training


                           Awareness
Unconscious                             Conscious
Incompetence                            incompetence

            I                                    II

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       RECRUITMENT & SELECTION

   Manpower Planning
   Setting Specs
   Advertising/Consultant/Online/Referral
   Shortlisting CV’s
   Calling candidates
   Group Process/Psychometric Testing
   Interviews
   Offer letter
   Joining
   Induction
   Training
   Grooming for productivity



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COMMON ERRORS IN RECRUITING

                      Right person                  Wrong Person




Selected
                                                          A




Not selected                B




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          Selection Techniques
   Interviews
   Tests - General Ability,special aptitudes
   Simulation exercise
   Work Sample Tests
   Personality questionnaires
   Interest questionnaires
   Bio Data
   Reference Checks
   Group Discussions
   Handwriting Analysis etc.
   Case discussions
   Presentations
   On - field accompaniment
   In tray exercises
   Assessment Centres (combination of above items)
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             Perfect Prediction - Validity
0.7                                            Assessment Centers (development)

0.6                                            Work sample Tests

                                                Ability Tests




0.5                                             Assessment Centers (selection)

    0.4                                          Personality Tests

 0.3                                             Structured Interviews
                                                Typical Interviews
0.2                                              References

0.1                                             Astrology/Graphology

0
                                                            Chance
          Smith, Gregg & Andrews - 1987

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RANKING OF SELECTION METHODOLOGIES


1   Patterns of past behaviour



2   TESTS - reported present behaviour



3   Interviews - with many ‘How would you
    behave in the future’ questions
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     WHY DIFFERENT SELECTION TOOLS ?

   Any one tool cannot get all the data

   Need a set of different tools, which
    involve testing different faculties and
    behavior of candidates

   Each tool is effective for for a specific
    set of relevant attributes
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Critical Attribute
Physical attribute :                        e.g. 6 feet tall

Attainment :                                e.g. B.Tech

Competency/Talent/Traits :
        e.g. Achievement Orientation
             Intuition
             Charisma
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            Competency


Any quality or characteristic of
  a person, which underpins
     recurring successful
         performance

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             Skills, Knowledge & Talent
   Skills :
       • The How - to’s of the role
       • Capabilities that can be transferred from one person to
         another

   Knowledge
       • ‘What you are aware of ‘
       • Factual ( things you know) Can & should be taught
       • Experiential (understandings you have picked up along
         the way). Less Tangible and therefor much harder to
         teach
   Talent
       • Recurring patterns of thought feeling behavior,that carve
         individual minds
       • If someone does not have the talent as part of his filter , then
         very difficult for others to inject it.
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The three levels of competencies are


   DISTINGUISHING

   THRESHOLD

   FUNCTIONAL


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A CHECK LIST FOR BEHAVIOURAL
INDICATORS
Each indicator should:

   Describe directly observable behavior, or
    other specific evidence of an individual’s
    competency
   Describe just one piece of behavior of
    evidence
   Not to be duplicated under two or more
    competencies
    Include a verb phrase i.e. describe action
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        THE COMPETENCY
     PLANNING & ORGANISING
     Definition : Level 1 - Junior Manager

   Manages own time and personal
    activities
   Breaks complex activities into
    manageable tasks
   Identifies possible obstacles to planned
    achievements
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        THE COMPETENCY
     PLANNING & ORGANISING
    Definition : Level 2 - Middle Manager

   Produces contingency plans for possible
    future occurrences
   Estimates in advance the resources and time
    scales needed to meet objectives
   Co-ordinates team activities to make the best
    use of individual skills and specializations

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        THE COMPETENCY
     PLANNING & ORGANISING
    Definition : Level 3 - Senior Manager

   Identifies longer term operational
    implications of business plans

   Effectively plans utilization of all
    resources

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THE 12 MOST COMMON COMPETENCIES
   Communication
   Achievement orientation
   Customer Focus
   Team work
   Leadership
   Planning and organising
   Commercial awareness
   Flexibility
   Developing others
   Problem solving
   Analytical thinking
   Building relationships

Source: Competency based Recruitment & Selection by Robert Wood and
        Tim Payne
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    Competencies & Trainability

                                           SKILLS

Less Conscious                            TRAITS
                                          MOTIVES
                                          VALUES
                                          COGNITIVE
Less Trainable                            CAPBILITIES
                                                                        More conscious

                                            KNOWLEDGE               More trainable



                 E.g.: Has contacts

                 E.g.: Results orientation,planning abilities
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Critical Attributes for Sales Managers
               ( Example)
   Interpersonal Skills                 Conceptual thinking
   Influencing Skills                   Information seeking
   Results orientation                  Staff development
   Customer Concern                     Team building
   Technical expertise                  Planning
   Providing direction                  Decision Making
   Analytical Thinking



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   Interview


 Entrevoir ( French)
 to have a glimpse of



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       WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW?



A selection procedure designed to predict
future job performance on the basis of
applicants oral responses to oral enquiries

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OBJECTIVES OF SELECTION IN INTERVIEW

1   Selecting people for jobs by:
 Informing applicants about the job
   Gaining unbiased factual information against the
    criteria
   Influencing suitable candidates to accept


2   Demonstrating that the company
    operates a fair and equitable selection
    procedure (Public Relations)
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              Goodwill Bank
   Need a process that will enhance
    company stature
    – Fair
    – Friendly
    – Rigorous
    – Respect for individual - Time bound


How will a candidate not selected speak of
 your organisation?
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SELECTION INTERVIEW - EFFECTIVENESS
   Bottom line Test - Answering Three key
                   questions

   Can he do the job                                    (Competence)



   Will he do the job                                   ( Motivation)



   Will he fit in ( Team / Organisation)? ( Match)

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            SELECTION INTERVIEW

        IF EFFECTIVE                           IF INEFFECTIVE
   Saves Time                               May end up recruiting
   Better job/person                         unfit candidates
    matching
   Satisfied                                Missing suitable
    interviewers/Interviewees                 candidates
   Good image / PR
   Tightening of recruitment                Demotivating suitable
    process                                   candidates from
                                              joining

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UNDERSTANDING YOUR APPLICANTS
    According to research, students have listed the
    following Organisational characteristics as important
    to them:
   Type of work you would do
   Type of people you would like to work with
   Training & development opportunities
   Chances of promotion
   Salary
   Job security
   Working condition
   Reputation/image of the organisation
   Geographical location
   Hours expected at work
   Benefits ( Company car, Pension , Loans etc.)

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   INTERVIEW PROCESS - REQUIREMENTS
                               Venue


                              INTERVIEW
                               PROCESS



CANDIDATE                                         INTERVIEWER
Expects                                           Needs:
•Professionalism                                  • Purpose of I/V
•Realistic picture of job &                       • Agreed Criteria
company/organisation                              • Application form
•Input on where he                                •Time to prepare and judge job
stands (process, time                              and company knowledge
                                                  •Skills to obtain & evaluate
scale etc.)
                                                    information and make effective
•Minimal Wait
                                                    judgements
•Objectivity
                                                  • Relaxed and open minded
                                                  • Right attitude
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 List the things you would like to
have seen when you last went for
            an interview.

  What did you expect from the
          company ?


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       SETTING THE ENVIRONMENT

   No disturbance
   No phone Calls
   Seating - Neutral ( Perhaps an L shape )
   No distraction in the vicinity
   No ‘Power Statements’
   Having water available on the table ( for
    candidate )
   Have stationary ready ( for candidate )

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                  Remember

   Note taking - minimal , with permission

   Stress Interviews - Try to avoid

   Politeness - specially to ‘bad’

   Airtime - 80 - 20
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    INTERVIEW STRUCTURE
1   Opening, rapport building

2   Current & previous roles

3   Aspirations & awareness

4   Education & upbringing

5   Circumstances & interests

6   Closing , wrap up
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  Interview - An Information Sorting
                Model
Opening & Rapport Building                                       CA 1

 Current & Previous Roles                                        CA2

Aspirations & Awareness               Information
                                                                 CA3
                                      Sorting

Education & Upbringing                                            CA4

Circumstances & Interest                                         CA5
   Closing/Wrap up

                                                                    Assessment
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    OPENING, RAPPORT BUILDING
   Appropriate recognition

   Relaxed Approach

   Introduce yourself

   Share      - Interview purpose
               » Recruitment process
               » Job Role ( briefly)
               » Interview structure & Time


   Check Understanding
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    Things to look out for in a CV

   Organisation of events - Priority accordance

   Clarity of depiction and succinctness

   Unexplained breaks in Service and Education

   Extent of customisation to the job applied

   Quality of the CV: mode , spelling errors,
    verbosity
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QUESTIONING SKILLS




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TYPE OF QUESTIONS

   Factual recall
   Comparison
   Opinion
   Case Problems
   Hypothetical
   Rhetorical
   Leading
   Pumping

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PAST BEHAVIOUR is the
 single best predictor of
    future behaviour



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     Structure of Questions
   Open ended Questions
How - What - When - Where - Who - Why


   Close ended Questions
Do you - Did you - Can you - Will you - Could you -
  Would you - Should you


   Prompting/ encouraging expressions
Tell me…, Describe …
For example?, For instance?, In what sense?
How come?, In simpler terms...
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Questioning Pattern
 Broad Open ended


        Probe


      Narrow


         Close

     Summarise
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     Characteristics of Good Questions


   Purposeful
   Relevant
   Clear & concise
   Limited to one idea
   Neutral in tone & substance



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The quality & value of
 answer depends on
  the quality of the
      question
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      QUESTIONS COVERAGE

   WHAT Q’s - Elicit information about knowledge,
    facts/data, opinions

   WHY Q’s - Analytical skills , reasoning, logic etc.
    motivations( what else…How else…, Where else….)

   HOW Q’s - Knowledge of functional skills,
    process/steps ( also analytical skills)

   HOW MUCH/HOW WELL Q’s - validating
    achievements

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THE INTERVIEW FUNNEL
START WITH AN OPEN ENDED QUESTION
             LISTEN
 NARROW DOWN TO SPECIFIC AREA
                LISTEN
 HOW DID THE PERSON GO ABOUT IT
           LISTEN
      FIND OUT MOTIVATIONS
                 LISTEN
           ACHIEVEMENTS
               LISTEN
              SUMMARISE
              AND SEEK
              AGREEMENT
       START WITH NEW AREA
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             INTERVIEW STRUCTURE

1. Opening               -

2. Current & Previous    What, why, How well           Trends, people are not
roles                                                  static
3. Aspiration /          What, why, how realistic
Awareness
4. Education &           What, why, how well
Upbringing
5. Circumstances &       What, why, how well           Causes – relate past to
Interest                 implication                   present
6. Closing               -

                         Description
                         Motivation
                         Achievement

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       THE PANEL INTERVIEW
                            SOME GUIDELINES
   Agree roles & structures

   Stick to roles

   Do not interrupt

   Do not help the candidate

   Select lead interviewer

   The others listen,take notes ( factual) , ask questions
    around other key areas and observe non verbal
    behavior

   Follow up at end of a section
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       Questioning Technique

   Situation

   Task

   Achievement

   Review
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        Telephonic Interviews
   You cannot see the candidate , so you have to trust only two
    senses - hearing & intuition
   Do not short circuit the interview. The process should be the
    same as a face-to-face interview
   Follow the interview structure
   Use the funnel - what, why, how,how well
   Use many encouraging , prompting expressions ,like …
         •   Yes
         •   Tell me more
         •   Describe
         •   I see
         •   For example?
         •   In what sense?
   Keep sentences & discussions short
   Summarise each section

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             INTERVIEW TIPS
   Interviewers need to be provided with job description
    & specification of the requirements of the position to
    minimize the influence of stereotypes
   Interview questions need to be job related
   Avoid making quick decisions about an applicant
   Avoid giving too much weight to a few characteristics
   Try to put the applicant at ease during the interview
   Communicate clearly with the applicant
   Maintain consistency in the questions asked

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    Management Interviewing
   Less emphasis on background : more on role and
    work

   Ask about aspirations before role

   Easy for candidate to obscure track record through
    jargon and generalities

   A ‘look good, talk good’ candidate may land up
    interviewing the interviewer - superficial interview
    may take place

   Hence be specific - focus on Critical attributes
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                    Focus on Roles
   Job titles can be misleading
   Main areas of job . Principal tasks that you do
    personally? Why’? How do you divide your time?
   Performance criteria,targets,priorities,performance
    ratings,informal reviews
   Focus on relationships - up, down , or with
    colleagues
   Time perspective
   Breadth of perception of job relative to entire
    organisation
   Perceived freedom to act
   Ability to influence the organisation
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             Management skills
   How results are achieved and how the candidate
    handles the process of management
   Setting objectives for self and team
   Decision making style - alone or team
   Resolving conflicts - how and when
   Handling customers - relationship based and task
    based
   Resolving issues between internal demands and
    customer expectations
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           Management focus
   Motivational style - sort of environment in
    team. Leading team front or back
   Grooming others - spending time for
    developing people
   Investing in self - learning & growing
   Monitoring work of self and team
   Handling communication & consultation
   Influencing others through meetings and
    presentations
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        TYPES OF INTERVIEWS
   Unstructured Interview

   Situational Interview

   Behaviour Description interview

   Comprehensive structured interview

   Structured behavioural interview

   Oral Interview boards
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INTERVIEWING FOR TALENT




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               TALENT
     What is Talent?

   A recurring pattern of
thought, feeling or behavior
  that can be productively
           applied
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                     TALENT
According to Gallup there are 3 kinds of talent:


1. Striving : Why of the person

2. Thinking: How of the person

3. Relating : Who of the person

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       Talent ( some examples)
   Striving
       • Achiever ( A drive that is internal, constant &
         self imposed )
       • Mission ( a drive to put your beliefs into actions)
   Thinking
       • Responsibility (A need to assume personal
         accountability for your work )
       • Numerical ( An affinity for numbers )
   Relating
       • Relator ( a need to build bonds that last )
       • Command ( an ability to take charge )
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            Talent Interview
             (Points to remember)

   This should stand alone
   It should be more structured , more
    focussed, less banter , more questions
   Ask him about choices he makes
   Let him reveal himself to you


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                    Talent Interview
                  (Listen for specifics)
1. Always listen for a specific example
2. Give credit only to the person’s top of the mind
   response
3. Do not probe too much to get response
    Clues for talent:
    Rapid learning ability
    Source of satisfaction

  After they have been hired , check back to see if the
  people who subsequently performed well answered
  your question in a consistent way.This will take time
  and focus , but are essential to the art of interviewing
  for talent.
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 PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING

Psychological tests have been devised and are used
primarily for the determination and analysis of
individual differences in general intelligence,specific
aptitudes , educational achievement , vocational
fitness,and non intellectual personality traits.

These tests have been used for a variety of
psychological , educational cultural , sociological and
employment studies of groups and for individuals


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        TEST - VARIATIONS

   Achievement / Attainment
   Aptitude
   Personality
   Interest
   Attitude
   IQ ( Intelligence quotient)


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APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOMETRIC
TESTING

   Placement
   Personnel selection
   Training & development
   Career & Succession Planning
   Diagnosis & recommendation of
    Performance problems
   Vocational education and career
    counseling
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               WHY TESTS

   To reduce errors



       • Standardized set of questions


       • Objective evaluation

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       SELECTING TESTS

   SOURCES

   METRICS

   INTERPRETATION



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          ONLINE TESTING

   Standardization
   Easy to administer across locations
   Quick
   Automatic Reports
   Does not need interpretation expertise
   Still requires to be anchored by qualified
    persons
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       REFERENCE CHECKS
   Verify claims made by the candidate
   Confirm selectors perceptions, sensing and
    inferences
   Clarify doubts that may have arisen during
    the selection process
   Add to understanding through input from
    referee or any specific area of concern
   Hear first hand from referee or anything
    significant about the candidate ( positive or
    dysfunctional)
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    Effective Reference Checks - the Steps
   Ensure that the candidate gives references that know him well
   Be clear on what you wish to ask the referee
   Let the referee know
     – That his/her input is important
     – that you care about the candidates career choice / direction
     – the context of the job that the candidate has applied for
   Confirm referee’s extent of familiarity with the candidate
   Ask open ended questions to start with
   Follow through with pointed questions in your areas of concern
   THANK THE REFEREE for the time invested
   Do a 360 degree reference check

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ASSESSMENT




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Behavior Assessment Process

                       Evaluate
                 Rate data & behavior
                  to agreed standard

                        Classify
             Categorize behavior and other
               data into critical attributes

                         Store
      Accurately store in memory what happened


                    Observe
 Carefully watch and listen to what has happened


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ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES


   People tend to behave in a consistent way


   Understand the context of people’s behavior


   Relate information from one source to another




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                    RATINGS

   Excellent - 4
    Tremendous amount of data across all
    sections supporting the indicators. Goes
    beyond the indicators. A big strength
    area. This is where the candidate
    operates from,as a psychological
    platform ( will be an adjective for him )

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                    RATINGS

   V Good - 3
    A lot of data from at least two three
    sections, or overwhelmingly in at least
    one section supporting the indicators.
    This is the way the indicators are
    defined. Supports with examples



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                     RATINGS
   Acceptable - 2
    Evidence from at least one section of
    the interview. Supports at least 2/3 of
    the indicators. Will do. Exhibits data with
    some examples




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                    RATINGS

   Not acceptable - 1

    Shows definite evidence of lack of the
    indicators. Falls short




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COMMON FAILINGS IN ASSESSMENT


   Leniency
   The Halo effect
   Mirror image
   Contrast
   Projection

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Happy Interviewing




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Dear Colleague,

This is a personal invitation from us to you to join our
hrcommunity. The hrcommunity virtually connects HR
professionals to share current and emerging HR
practices, HR resources & HR related information.

Be in touch with the best brains in the hrcommunity.
To join send a blank e-mail to
hrcommunity-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

Warm regards,Jayesh & Aruna
Moderators – hrcommunity


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