Geog 463 GIS Workshop (PowerPoint) by ewghwehws


									      Geog 469
    GIS Workshop

System Requirements
Software and Hardware

    April 15, 2010
• GIS Software
  –   Evolution of GIS software
  –   Terms related to GIS software
  –   Types of GIS software systems
  –   GIS software vendors
• System configurations
  – Classifying system functions
  – Two types of network configuration
  – Four types of system interface (client/server
  – Determining adequate system interface and network
 The evolution of GIS software
• L70s~
  – Toolbox approach (command line)
• L80s~
  – Graphic User Interface (GUI)
     • Simplify user interaction with a GIS
  – Customization capability
     • Creation of GIS applications tailored to the needs of major
       markets (e.g. government, utilities, military, and environment)
• L90s~
  – Distributed GIS
     • Example: demographic analyst can begin with exploring data
       through American Fact Finder on the internet, then move on
       to more complex functions in desktop GIS
 The evolution of customization
• L 80s ~ L 90s
  – GIS vendors provides proprietary customization
    capability (e.g. AML, Avenue)
  – No standard customization systems existed
  – Programmers had to learn different macro languages
    to develop focus applications
• Nowadays
  – Industry-standard programming language like Visual
    Basic or Java for customization
  – Programmers work with software components, and
    easily assemble them into larger systems
    Basic terms for GIS software
•   Presentation, business logic, data
•   Client, server
•   Stand-alone vs. client/server
•   Thin client vs. thick client
•   Middleware (application server)
     Elements of an application
• Three key elements of application

   – Presentation: provide interaction with users
   – Business logic: perform operations
   – Data server: data management
• Application can be functionally divided into
   – Client: make a request
   – Server: fulfills the request
 Stand-alone GIS vs. Client-server GIS

• If the three elements reside in the same machine,
  the application is called stand-alone
  – e.g. ArcGIS in the Sherman lab
• If the three elements reside in different machines,
  the application is called client-server
  – e.g. American fact finder where web browser acts as
    client remote from the server where data and
    business logic reside
  – Can be implemented with different network
    configurations (e.g. LANs, WANs)
        Thin client vs. thick client

• Three application elements can be divided into client and server at
  any point (a to e)
• The system whose partitioning point is closer to a is said to have
  thin client (i.e. light work load in client)
• The system whose partitioning point is closer to e is said to have
  thick client (i.e. heavy work load in client)
• In order for the client to communicate with
  the server, we need translator to link them
• This intermediate connection component
  is called middleware or application server
• e.g. ArcSDE link ArcGIS (client) to DBMS
  (server) in enterprise-wide GIS project
    Types of GIS software systems
•   Desktop GIS software
•   Server GIS
•   Developer GIS
•   Hand-held GIS
•   Other types of GIS software
 Levels of desktop GIS software
                    Focus functions     Products    Cost ($)

GIS viewer          Display, query,     ArcReader   free

Desktop mapping GIS Data use, mapping   ArcView     1k-2k

Professional GIS    Data collection,    ArcInfo     7k-20k
                    editing, DB
                Server GIS
• GIS that runs on a computer server that can
  handle concurrent processing requests from a
  range of networked clients
• Lower cost per user
• Typical costs ranges between $ 5k-25k
• Examples of implemented system include
• e.g. Autodesk MapGuide, ESRI ArcGIS Server,
  MapInfo MapXtreme
           Developer GIS
• Component-based software development
• Used to build a specific-purpose GIS
• Most of products are built on top of
  Microsoft’s .Net technology
• Typical cost ranges between $ 1k-5k
• e.g. Blue Marble Geographics GeoObjects,
  ESRI ArcGIS Engine, MapInfo MapX
           Hand-held GIS
• GIS software for mobile and personal use
  on hand-held systems
• Based on location positioning technology
  (GPS) and wireless networking
• Typical cost ranges between $400-600
• E.g. Autodesk OnSite, ESRI ArcPad,
  Intergraph Intelliwhere
    Other types of GIS software
• Raster analysis
   – ERDAS IMAGINE, Clark Labs’ Idrisi
   – $ 500-10K
• CAD-based
   – Autodesk Map 3D, Bentley GeoGraphics
   – $ 3k – 5k
• Middleware
   – Autodesk GIS Design Server, ESRI ArcSDE, MapInfo
   – $ 10k – 25k
   – Spatial extension of DBMS servers (e.g. Oracle Spatial)

        Estimated size of the different GIS software sectors see
        Figure 7.15 (p. 174) from Longley et al (2005)
         GIS software vendor
  – Focus on hard-core GIS users
  – ArcGIS
• Intergraph
                                    Market share
  – Began with computer graphic
  – GeoMedia                        see Figure 7.10 (p. 166)
                                    from Longley et al
• Autodesk                          (2005)
  – CAD-based company
  – Map 3D
• GE Energy
  – Purchase of UK-based GIS firm Smallworld (2000)
    GIS software survey 2005
       Classify system functions
• Class 1 functions
   – Functions that have an extremely high frequency of
     use; your systems heavily relies on them
   – Must be proven to present, and operationally efficient
• Class 2 functions
   – Functions that are essential and are heavily used
   – Must be in place and be efficient
• Class 3 functions
   – Least-used functions
   – Need to be present, but not necessarily efficient
 This classification will be helpful in making a recommendation of software
 For example, the software that does not support class X function might be
 automatically disqualified.
    Total function utilization table
            Frequency    Business   Function
            of use       workflow   class
Function1   129          A          Class 1
Function2   42           B          Class 2
Function3   23           C          Class 2
Function4   8            D          Class 3
…           …            …          …

            IPD + MIDL
     Two basic network types
• LANs (Local Area Networks)
  – Support high-bandwidth communications over short
  – Provide high-speed access data
  – Within a building or localized environment
• WANs (Wide Area Networks)
  – Support communications between remote locations
  – Support lower-bandwidth than LAN
  – The internet is a global WAN
   Four types of system interface:
     client-server architectures
  What does it look like? Which one to choose? How do I choose them?

1. Central file server with workstation
2. Central DBMS server with workstation
3. Centralized application processing with
   terminal clients
4. Web transaction processing with browser
   or workstation clients
       1. Central file server with
          workstation clients
• Data is retrieved from the server and
  processed on the workstation
  – Client contains presentation and business
    logic (i.e. thick clients)
  – Server contains data management
• Requires the transfer of large amounts of
  data from the server to the client
• High demand for bandwidth
• Thus it will be best deployed over LANs
    2. Central DBMS server with
         workstation clients
• Data is retrieved from the server by the
  DBMS and map rendering is processed on
  the workstation
• Only the data required to support the client
  display be transferred because DBMS
  filters data needed
• Reduce demands on the network
• Will be best deployed over LANs
     3. Centralized application
  processing with terminal clients
• Data and application software are both
  stored and run on servers
• Significantly reduces network bandwidth
• Will be best deployed over WANs
4. Web transaction processing with
   browser or workstation clients
• Application software and data files reside
  on servers
• Web browser display information products
  via the internet or intranet (i.e. thin clients)
• Requires sequential support to a large
  number of user transactions
• Can be best deployed over WANs
Four types of system architecture
 based on previous descriptions

   1                  2            3                    4

    Thick clients                        Thin clients

    Large amount of                      Small amount of
    data transfer                        data transfer

    Small # users                        Large # users

1. Central file server with workstation clients
2. Central DBMS server with workstation clients
3. Centralized application processing with terminal clients
4. Web transaction processing with browser or workstation clients
 interface and communication technologies
• The relation between system interface and
  network configuration (Tomlinson 2007, p. 117)
• Data volume
  – File server or DBMS server?
• Level of computing complexity, number of users
  – Thick client or thin client? Web transaction?
• Wait tolerance
  – Emergency dispatch will require low wait tolerance,
    and thus demand high bandwidth
• Technology life cycle
• Organization policies and standards
  Review Typology of GIS Software
• Software type
   – Desktop
        • Viewer
        • Mapping
        • Professional
   –   Server
   –   Developer
   –   Hand-held
   –   Middleware…

• System architecture
   – Stand-alone
   – Client/server
        • Thick clients {file server, DBMS server}
        • Thin clients {citrix, web}
Consider your GIS project:
• What functions based on frequency of use?
   – Identify GIS functions needed to create information products as
     well as to put data into the system (data readiness)
   – Identify Class 1, 2, 3 functions
• Consider GIS software survey
• Can you identify software to be disqualified based on
  class X function requirements?
• Recommendations for software suitable for your project
• Why make those recommendations?

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