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					UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS



MANAGEMENT:

They were the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do.

Non managerial employees: organizational members who work directly on job or task and had no one
reporting to them.

The changing nature of organization has, in many organizations, blurred the distinction between
managers and non managerial jobs now include managerial activities.

Manager:

Manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of the other people so that the
organizational goal can be accomplished.

A manager’s role is about helping others do their work.

It could involve coordinating the work activities of a team composed of people from several different
departments or even people outside the organization.

Managers may have other work duties not related to coordinating the work of others.



CLASSIFYING MANGERS IN ORGANISATION

In traditionally structures organisations..

[1]Top managers                           managers at or near the upper levels of the organisation structure who are
                                          responsible for making organisation-wide decisions and establishing the goals
                                          and plans that affect the entire organisations.

[2]Middle managers                        who manage the work of first line managers

[3]First line managers                    managers at lowest levels of organisation that manage the work of non
                                          managerial employees.

[4]Non mangerial Employees



WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?

MANAGEMENT:                               that involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that
                                          their activities are completed effeciently and effectively.

Efficiency

               Doing things right, or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.

               Because managers deal with scarce inputs- including resources such as people, Money and
               Equipment. It means “ doing things right” – that is not wasting resources.

Effectiveness

               Doing the right things, or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained.

               Whereas efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effectiveness is
               concerned with the ends,or attainment of organizational goals. management is concerned, with
               then, not only with getting activities completed and meeting organizational goals(effectiveness)

D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                                        Page 1
               but also with doing so as efficiency as possible in successful organizations, high efficiency and
               high effectiveness typically go hand in hand.

Productivity

               It is the measure of production which is equal to output divided by input and gives an idea about
               the yield of the product. Therefore it depends on stronger inputs and its conversion effectively
               into output.

WHAT DO MANGERS DO?

Management functions

According to the functions approach, mangers perform certain activities as they efficiently and
effectively coordinate the work of others. What are these activities or functions? In early part of the
twentieth century, Henry Fayol, French Industrialist, first proposed that all managers perform five
functions: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, coordinating and controlling.

In the mid-1950s, management texts describe functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and
controlling as framework. Today most texts describe – planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

       1. Planning

                              Management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving
                              those goals,    and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.

       2. Leading

                              Management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish
                              organizational goals.

                              When mangers motivate subordinates, help resolve work group conflicts, influence
                              individuals or teams as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or
                              deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they are leading.

       3. Organizing

                              Management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the
                              organization’s goals.

                              When mangers organize, they determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them,
                              how tasks ar to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.

       4. Controlling

                              Management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work
                              performance.

                              There has to be some evaluation, after planning, organizing and organizing,of whether
                              the things are going as planned.managers must monitor and evaluate the performance.
                              Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are
                              significant deviations, managers job is to get work performance back to the track. This
                              process of monitoring, comparing and and correcting is what we mean by the
                              controlling function.

Management Roles:

Henry Mintzberg, a Prominent management Researcher, studied actual managers at work. He
concluded that what managers do can best be described by looking at 10 different but highly
interrelated management roles they use at work.

Management roles refers to specific categories of managerial behavior.

D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                                    Page 2
Inter personal roles                      Managerial roles that involve people and other duties that is ceremonial and
symbolic in nature.

Informational roles                       Managerial roles that involve colleting, receiving, and disseminating
information.

Decisional roles                          Managerial roles that revolve around making choices.

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

Role                                      Description                                            Examples of Identifiable Activities

Interpersonal

Figurehead*                               Symbolic head; obliged to Perform routine              Greeting visitors;           signing        legal
                                          duties of a legal or social nature                     documents

Leader#                                   Responsible     for    the    motivation of            Performing virtually all activities that
                                          subordinates; responsible for staffing,                involve subordinates
                                          training, and associated duties

Liaison*                                  Maintains self-developed network of outside            Acknowledging mail; doing external
                                          contacts and informers who provide favors              board work ; performing other
                                          and information                                        activities that involve outsiders

Informational

Monitor                                   Seeks and receives wide variety of internal            Reading periodicals and reports;
                                          and external information to develop thorough           maintaining personal contacts
                                          understanding      of    organization    and
                                          environment

Disseminator*                             Transmits     information   received   from            Holding informational               meetings;
                                          outsiders or from subordinates to members of           making phone calls                 to relay
                                          the organization                                       information

Spokesperson*                             Transmits information     to outsiders on              Holding board meetings;                 giving
                                          organization’s plans,     policies, actions,           information to the media
                                          results,etc.

Decisional

Entrepreneur                              Searches organization and its environment for          Organizing strategy and review
                                          opportunities and initiates “improvement               session to develop new programs
                                          projects” to bring about changes

Disturbance handler                       Responsible for corrective action when                 Organizing strategy and review
                                          organization faces important, unexpected               sessions that involve disturbances
                                          disturbances                                           and crises

Resource allocator                        Responsible     for   the    allocation   of           Scheduling; requesting authorization;
                                          organizational resources of all kinds-making           performing any activity that involves
                                          or approving all significant organizational            budgeting and the programming of
                                          decisions                                              sudbordinates’ work

Negotiator*                               Responsible for         representing           the     Participating       in    union      contract
                                          organization at major negotiations                     negotiations

*Important roles at higher level of organization,# important   for lower level managers than it is for either middle or top level managers


        As mangers perform these different roles, Henry concluded that their actual work activities
involved interacting with others, with the organization itself, and with the context outside organization.
He also proposed that as managers perform these roles, their activities include reflection(thoughtful
thinking) and action (practical doing).

D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                                                              Page 3
         A number of follow up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories in different
types of organization and at different levels within the organizations. The evidence generally supports
the idea that managers- regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform
similar roles.

        Functions or Roles – both describes what managers do. However, functions approach still
represents the most useful ways of mangers’ job. Mintzberg’s roles- align well with one or more of
functions.

 MANAGEMENT SKILLS:

A manager’s job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities
associated with being manager.

What types of skills do managers require -at different levels -has been answered by research of Robert
Katz that they need three skills:

Technical skills (……… important for lower level managers)

               Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks.

               Lower level managers are managing employees who are using tools and techniques to produce
               the organization’ s products or service the organization’s customers.

               Observation of Ryan- technical side of business is important but manging people and rewarding
               and recognizing the people who do an outstanding job is how we are going succeed.

Human skills (…… important for Middle managers)

                It is the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.

               Because managers deal directly with the people, these skills are essentials and equally
               important at all levels of management so as to get the best from the people.

Conceptual skills (….. important for top managers)

               These are the skills manager use to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex
               situations.

               Using these skills, managers must see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships
               among various sub units and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment.

American management association identified the skills as under.




D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                               Page 4
                  Conceptual skills

                    Ability to use information to solve business problems
                    Identification of opportunities for innovation
                    Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions
                    Selecting critical information from masses of data
                    Understanding of business uses of technology
                    Understanding of organization’s business model
                 Communication skills

                     Ability to transform ideas into words and actions
                     Credibility among colleagues,peers,and subordinates
                     Listening and asking questions
                     Presentation skills; spoken format
                     Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats
                  Effectiveness skills

                     Contributing to corporate missions /departmental objectives
                     Customer focus
                     Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel
                     Negotiating skills
                     Project management
                     Reviewing operations and implementing improvements
                     Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally
                     Setting priorities for attention and activity
                     Time management
                 Interpersonal skills

                             Coaching and mentoring skills
                             Diversity skills :working with diverse people and cultures
                             Networking within the organization
                             Networking outside the organization
                             Working in teams: cooperation and commitment


MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS MATRIX

                        Skill                                                               Function

                                                                Planning   Organizing   Leading   Controlling

                       Acquiring Power                                                    

                       Active Listening                                                               

                       Budgeting                                                                      

                       Choosing an effective leadership style                              

                       Coaching                                                            

                       Creating effective teams                                           

                       Delegating(empowerment)                                            

                       Designing motivating jobs                                          

                       Developing trust                                                    

                       Disciplining                                                                   


D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                                         Page 5
                       Interviewing                                               

                       Managing conflict                                                    

                       Managing resistance to change                                       

                       Mentoring                                                   

                       Negotiating                                                

                       Providing feedback                                                   

                       Reading an organization’s culture                          

                       Running productive meetings                                        

                       Scanning the environment                                             

                       Setting goals                                                        

                       Solving problems creatively                                        

                       Valuing diversity                                                  




Changes Impacting the Manager’s job


                Changes                                            Impact of Changes

                Changes
                                                                Shifting organizational boundaries
       Changing Technology (Digitization)                       Virtual workplaces
                                                                More mobile workforce
                                                                Flexible work arrangements
                                                                Empowered employees
                                                                Work life-personal life balance

                                                               Risk management
                                                               Uncertainty over future energy sources
    Increased Security Threats                                 Restructured work place
                                                               Discrimination concerns
                                                               Globalization concerns
                                                               Employee assistance


                                                               Redefined values
                                                               Rebuilding trust
Increased Emphasis on Organizational                           Increased accountability
and Management Ethics

                                                                Customer Service
                                                                Innovation
Increased Competitiveness                                       Globalization
                                                                Efficiency/productivity


 People are not being paid for how much time they spend in the organization, rather they are being paid
for quality and quantity of output they produce.

In today’s world managers are dealing with changing work place , security threats, ethical issues,global
economic , political uncertainities and technological advancements.how managers manage is actually
changing. That means the way they plan,lead,organize and control are changing.


D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                                 Page 6
Two of the major chages are: increasing improtance of customers and innovation.

The fastest changing technological world is to match the pace with for the managers. Demand of
customers accordingly and otherwise also change.

“Nothing is more risky than innovating”. Innovation means doing things differently, exploring new
territory and taking risks.

These causes continuous updations of job specific knowledge and skills for managers. These may lead to
innovate several ways to find out how managers manage. ever increasing competitiveness emphasize
serious threats to bussiness and hence organizations.

The implication is clear: Managers must create a customer responsive organization where employees
are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeble , prompt in responding to customer needs, and
willing to do whats is necessary to please customers.

Maintaining ethics is again a matter of concern amongst all aforesaiad conditions. Therefore, it is very
essential for managers to keep upto the changing scenario of organizations and world.




WHY TO STUDY MANAGEMENT?
Organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. In all
organization, management is also a tool for higher productivity. Importance of management can be
understood looking at three things:

The universality of management, the reality of work, and the rewards and challenges of being manager.

THE UNIVERSALITY OF MANAGEMENT

The management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels and in all
organization work areas as well as in all organizations, no matter wherever they are located. This is
known as universality of management. In all these organizations, managers must plan, lead, organize
and control. What differs in doing this is the way managers “manage” changes.

There is always a need of finding ways how an organization is managed.

For example, if you call a customer care of an airline and all the times for same matter, if you get three
different answers – it is an example of poor management. Strong and well managed organizations
develop loyal customer base, grow and prosper whereas poorly managed organizations find themselves
loosing customers and revenues.

By studying management, recognizing poorly managed organization becomes easy and can be worked to
correct it. This one can apply to the place of work.

THE REALITY OF WORK

Once a person is graduated, he will manage or himself be managed. Understanding the concepts of
management will help develop foundation onto which skills are built. If you are not a part of managing,
you are still likely to have to work with managers. Even if you are not a manager in an organization, you
will still have some managerial responsibilities. Great deal of insight in a way authority behaves is
achieved and how organization works.

REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF BEING A MANGER

REWARDS                                               CHALLANGES



D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                         Page 7
Create a work environment in which org. members Do work hard
can work to the best of their ability.

Have opportunities to think creatively and use May have duties that are more clerical than
imagination                                    managerial

Help others find meaning and fulfillment in work      Have to deal with a variety of personalities

Support, coach and nurture others                     Often have to make do with limited resources

Work with a variety of people                         Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain
                                                      situations

Receive recognition and status in organization and Blend knowledge, skills, ambitions,                 and
community                                          experiences of a diverse work group

Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes    Success depends on others work performance

Receive appropriate compensation in form of
salaries, bonuses, and stock options

Good managers are needed by organization



Management can be a tough and thankless job. A portion of manager’s job may be entailing clerical
(often filing and compiling reports, dealing with bureaucratic procedures, paperwork etc) than
managerial. Managers often have to deal with a variety of people and have to make do with limited
sources. It can be a challenge to motivate workers in the face of uncertainty and chaos. And managers
may find it difficult to successfully blend the knowledge, skill, ambitions and experiences of a diverse
work group. Manager’s success typically depends on others’work performance.

Manager is responsible for creating a work environment in which org. members can work to the best of
their ability. You as a manger help others find meaning and fulfillment in their work. Receiving
recognition and status in organization and community is another reward. Other rewards are mentioned
in table above. Accomplishing goals of organization is in focus by all these activities ultimately.

MANAGING: SCIENCE OR ART?
Managing, like all other practices –whether medicine, music composition, engineering, accountancy, or
even baseball-is an art. It is know-how. It is doing things in light of the realities of a situation. Yet
managers can work better by using the organized knowledge about management. It is this knowledge
that constitutes a science. Thus, managing as practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the
practice may be referred to as a science. In this context, science and art not mutually exclusive; they are
complementary.

As science improves , so should art; as has happened in the physical and biological science. To be sure,
the science underlying managing is fairly crude and inexact because the many variables that managers
deal with are extremely complex .Nevertheless, such management science would be little more than
witch doctors. Executives who attempt to manage without management science must trust luck,
intuition, or do what they did in the past.

In managing, as in any other field, unless practitioners are to learn by trial and error (and it has been
said that managers’ errors are their subordinates’ trials) there is no place they can turn to for
meaningful guidance other than the accumulated knowledge underlying their practice.




D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I                                                          Page 8
D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I   Page 9

				
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Description: his article is about organization and coordination. For the film, see Management (film). Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.