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his article is about organization and coordination. For the film, see Management (film). Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a pre-requisite to attempting to manage others.
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS MANAGEMENT: They were the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do. Non managerial employees: organizational members who work directly on job or task and had no one reporting to them. The changing nature of organization has, in many organizations, blurred the distinction between managers and non managerial jobs now include managerial activities. Manager: Manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of the other people so that the organizational goal can be accomplished. A manager’s role is about helping others do their work. It could involve coordinating the work activities of a team composed of people from several different departments or even people outside the organization. Managers may have other work duties not related to coordinating the work of others. CLASSIFYING MANGERS IN ORGANISATION In traditionally structures organisations.. Top managers managers at or near the upper levels of the organisation structure who are responsible for making organisation-wide decisions and establishing the goals and plans that affect the entire organisations. Middle managers who manage the work of first line managers First line managers managers at lowest levels of organisation that manage the work of non managerial employees. Non mangerial Employees WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? MANAGEMENT: that involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed effeciently and effectively. Efficiency Doing things right, or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs. Because managers deal with scarce inputs- including resources such as people, Money and Equipment. It means “ doing things right” – that is not wasting resources. Effectiveness Doing the right things, or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained. Whereas efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effectiveness is concerned with the ends,or attainment of organizational goals. management is concerned, with then, not only with getting activities completed and meeting organizational goals(effectiveness) D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 1 but also with doing so as efficiency as possible in successful organizations, high efficiency and high effectiveness typically go hand in hand. Productivity It is the measure of production which is equal to output divided by input and gives an idea about the yield of the product. Therefore it depends on stronger inputs and its conversion effectively into output. WHAT DO MANGERS DO? Management functions According to the functions approach, mangers perform certain activities as they efficiently and effectively coordinate the work of others. What are these activities or functions? In early part of the twentieth century, Henry Fayol, French Industrialist, first proposed that all managers perform five functions: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, coordinating and controlling. In the mid-1950s, management texts describe functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling as framework. Today most texts describe – planning, organizing, leading and controlling. 1. Planning Management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. 2. Leading Management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish organizational goals. When mangers motivate subordinates, help resolve work group conflicts, influence individuals or teams as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they are leading. 3. Organizing Management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organization’s goals. When mangers organize, they determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how tasks ar to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made. 4. Controlling Management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance. There has to be some evaluation, after planning, organizing and organizing,of whether the things are going as planned.managers must monitor and evaluate the performance. Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are significant deviations, managers job is to get work performance back to the track. This process of monitoring, comparing and and correcting is what we mean by the controlling function. Management Roles: Henry Mintzberg, a Prominent management Researcher, studied actual managers at work. He concluded that what managers do can best be described by looking at 10 different but highly interrelated management roles they use at work. Management roles refers to specific categories of managerial behavior. D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 2 Inter personal roles Managerial roles that involve people and other duties that is ceremonial and symbolic in nature. Informational roles Managerial roles that involve colleting, receiving, and disseminating information. Decisional roles Managerial roles that revolve around making choices. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Role Description Examples of Identifiable Activities Interpersonal Figurehead* Symbolic head; obliged to Perform routine Greeting visitors; signing legal duties of a legal or social nature documents Leader# Responsible for the motivation of Performing virtually all activities that subordinates; responsible for staffing, involve subordinates training, and associated duties Liaison* Maintains self-developed network of outside Acknowledging mail; doing external contacts and informers who provide favors board work ; performing other and information activities that involve outsiders Informational Monitor Seeks and receives wide variety of internal Reading periodicals and reports; and external information to develop thorough maintaining personal contacts understanding of organization and environment Disseminator* Transmits information received from Holding informational meetings; outsiders or from subordinates to members of making phone calls to relay the organization information Spokesperson* Transmits information to outsiders on Holding board meetings; giving organization’s plans, policies, actions, information to the media results,etc. Decisional Entrepreneur Searches organization and its environment for Organizing strategy and review opportunities and initiates “improvement session to develop new programs projects” to bring about changes Disturbance handler Responsible for corrective action when Organizing strategy and review organization faces important, unexpected sessions that involve disturbances disturbances and crises Resource allocator Responsible for the allocation of Scheduling; requesting authorization; organizational resources of all kinds-making performing any activity that involves or approving all significant organizational budgeting and the programming of decisions sudbordinates’ work Negotiator* Responsible for representing the Participating in union contract organization at major negotiations negotiations *Important roles at higher level of organization,# important for lower level managers than it is for either middle or top level managers As mangers perform these different roles, Henry concluded that their actual work activities involved interacting with others, with the organization itself, and with the context outside organization. He also proposed that as managers perform these roles, their activities include reflection(thoughtful thinking) and action (practical doing). D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 3 A number of follow up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories in different types of organization and at different levels within the organizations. The evidence generally supports the idea that managers- regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform similar roles. Functions or Roles – both describes what managers do. However, functions approach still represents the most useful ways of mangers’ job. Mintzberg’s roles- align well with one or more of functions. MANAGEMENT SKILLS: A manager’s job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities associated with being manager. What types of skills do managers require -at different levels -has been answered by research of Robert Katz that they need three skills: Technical skills (……… important for lower level managers) Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks. Lower level managers are managing employees who are using tools and techniques to produce the organization’ s products or service the organization’s customers. Observation of Ryan- technical side of business is important but manging people and rewarding and recognizing the people who do an outstanding job is how we are going succeed. Human skills (…… important for Middle managers) It is the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group. Because managers deal directly with the people, these skills are essentials and equally important at all levels of management so as to get the best from the people. Conceptual skills (….. important for top managers) These are the skills manager use to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations. Using these skills, managers must see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships among various sub units and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. American management association identified the skills as under. D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 4 Conceptual skills Ability to use information to solve business problems Identification of opportunities for innovation Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions Selecting critical information from masses of data Understanding of business uses of technology Understanding of organization’s business model Communication skills Ability to transform ideas into words and actions Credibility among colleagues,peers,and subordinates Listening and asking questions Presentation skills; spoken format Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats Effectiveness skills Contributing to corporate missions /departmental objectives Customer focus Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel Negotiating skills Project management Reviewing operations and implementing improvements Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally Setting priorities for attention and activity Time management Interpersonal skills Coaching and mentoring skills Diversity skills :working with diverse people and cultures Networking within the organization Networking outside the organization Working in teams: cooperation and commitment MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS MATRIX Skill Function Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Acquiring Power Active Listening Budgeting Choosing an effective leadership style Coaching Creating effective teams Delegating(empowerment) Designing motivating jobs Developing trust Disciplining D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 5 Interviewing Managing conflict Managing resistance to change Mentoring Negotiating Providing feedback Reading an organization’s culture Running productive meetings Scanning the environment Setting goals Solving problems creatively Valuing diversity Changes Impacting the Manager’s job Changes Impact of Changes Changes Shifting organizational boundaries Changing Technology (Digitization) Virtual workplaces More mobile workforce Flexible work arrangements Empowered employees Work life-personal life balance Risk management Uncertainty over future energy sources Increased Security Threats Restructured work place Discrimination concerns Globalization concerns Employee assistance Redefined values Rebuilding trust Increased Emphasis on Organizational Increased accountability and Management Ethics Customer Service Innovation Increased Competitiveness Globalization Efficiency/productivity People are not being paid for how much time they spend in the organization, rather they are being paid for quality and quantity of output they produce. In today’s world managers are dealing with changing work place , security threats, ethical issues,global economic , political uncertainities and technological advancements.how managers manage is actually changing. That means the way they plan,lead,organize and control are changing. D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 6 Two of the major chages are: increasing improtance of customers and innovation. The fastest changing technological world is to match the pace with for the managers. Demand of customers accordingly and otherwise also change. “Nothing is more risky than innovating”. Innovation means doing things differently, exploring new territory and taking risks. These causes continuous updations of job specific knowledge and skills for managers. These may lead to innovate several ways to find out how managers manage. ever increasing competitiveness emphasize serious threats to bussiness and hence organizations. The implication is clear: Managers must create a customer responsive organization where employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeble , prompt in responding to customer needs, and willing to do whats is necessary to please customers. Maintaining ethics is again a matter of concern amongst all aforesaiad conditions. Therefore, it is very essential for managers to keep upto the changing scenario of organizations and world. WHY TO STUDY MANAGEMENT? Organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. In all organization, management is also a tool for higher productivity. Importance of management can be understood looking at three things: The universality of management, the reality of work, and the rewards and challenges of being manager. THE UNIVERSALITY OF MANAGEMENT The management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels and in all organization work areas as well as in all organizations, no matter wherever they are located. This is known as universality of management. In all these organizations, managers must plan, lead, organize and control. What differs in doing this is the way managers “manage” changes. There is always a need of finding ways how an organization is managed. For example, if you call a customer care of an airline and all the times for same matter, if you get three different answers – it is an example of poor management. Strong and well managed organizations develop loyal customer base, grow and prosper whereas poorly managed organizations find themselves loosing customers and revenues. By studying management, recognizing poorly managed organization becomes easy and can be worked to correct it. This one can apply to the place of work. THE REALITY OF WORK Once a person is graduated, he will manage or himself be managed. Understanding the concepts of management will help develop foundation onto which skills are built. If you are not a part of managing, you are still likely to have to work with managers. Even if you are not a manager in an organization, you will still have some managerial responsibilities. Great deal of insight in a way authority behaves is achieved and how organization works. REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF BEING A MANGER REWARDS CHALLANGES D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 7 Create a work environment in which org. members Do work hard can work to the best of their ability. Have opportunities to think creatively and use May have duties that are more clerical than imagination managerial Help others find meaning and fulfillment in work Have to deal with a variety of personalities Support, coach and nurture others Often have to make do with limited resources Work with a variety of people Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain situations Receive recognition and status in organization and Blend knowledge, skills, ambitions, and community experiences of a diverse work group Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes Success depends on others work performance Receive appropriate compensation in form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options Good managers are needed by organization Management can be a tough and thankless job. A portion of manager’s job may be entailing clerical (often filing and compiling reports, dealing with bureaucratic procedures, paperwork etc) than managerial. Managers often have to deal with a variety of people and have to make do with limited sources. It can be a challenge to motivate workers in the face of uncertainty and chaos. And managers may find it difficult to successfully blend the knowledge, skill, ambitions and experiences of a diverse work group. Manager’s success typically depends on others’work performance. Manager is responsible for creating a work environment in which org. members can work to the best of their ability. You as a manger help others find meaning and fulfillment in their work. Receiving recognition and status in organization and community is another reward. Other rewards are mentioned in table above. Accomplishing goals of organization is in focus by all these activities ultimately. MANAGING: SCIENCE OR ART? Managing, like all other practices –whether medicine, music composition, engineering, accountancy, or even baseball-is an art. It is know-how. It is doing things in light of the realities of a situation. Yet managers can work better by using the organized knowledge about management. It is this knowledge that constitutes a science. Thus, managing as practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the practice may be referred to as a science. In this context, science and art not mutually exclusive; they are complementary. As science improves , so should art; as has happened in the physical and biological science. To be sure, the science underlying managing is fairly crude and inexact because the many variables that managers deal with are extremely complex .Nevertheless, such management science would be little more than witch doctors. Executives who attempt to manage without management science must trust luck, intuition, or do what they did in the past. In managing, as in any other field, unless practitioners are to learn by trial and error (and it has been said that managers’ errors are their subordinates’ trials) there is no place they can turn to for meaningful guidance other than the accumulated knowledge underlying their practice. D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 8 D H SUR-Class Notes GTU IV-Management I Page 9
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