UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS
They were the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do.
Non managerial employees: organizational members who work directly on job or task and had no one
reporting to them.
The changing nature of organization has, in many organizations, blurred the distinction between
managers and non managerial jobs now include managerial activities.
Manager is someone who coordinates and oversees the work of the other people so that the
organizational goal can be accomplished.
A manager’s role is about helping others do their work.
It could involve coordinating the work activities of a team composed of people from several different
departments or even people outside the organization.
Managers may have other work duties not related to coordinating the work of others.
CLASSIFYING MANGERS IN ORGANISATION
In traditionally structures organisations..
Top managers managers at or near the upper levels of the organisation structure who are
responsible for making organisation-wide decisions and establishing the goals
and plans that affect the entire organisations.
Middle managers who manage the work of first line managers
First line managers managers at lowest levels of organisation that manage the work of non
Non mangerial Employees
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT?
MANAGEMENT: that involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that
their activities are completed effeciently and effectively.
Doing things right, or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs.
Because managers deal with scarce inputs- including resources such as people, Money and
Equipment. It means “ doing things right” – that is not wasting resources.
Doing the right things, or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained.
Whereas efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effectiveness is
concerned with the ends,or attainment of organizational goals. management is concerned, with
then, not only with getting activities completed and meeting organizational goals(effectiveness)
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but also with doing so as efficiency as possible in successful organizations, high efficiency and
high effectiveness typically go hand in hand.
It is the measure of production which is equal to output divided by input and gives an idea about
the yield of the product. Therefore it depends on stronger inputs and its conversion effectively
WHAT DO MANGERS DO?
According to the functions approach, mangers perform certain activities as they efficiently and
effectively coordinate the work of others. What are these activities or functions? In early part of the
twentieth century, Henry Fayol, French Industrialist, first proposed that all managers perform five
functions: Planning, Organizing, Commanding, coordinating and controlling.
In the mid-1950s, management texts describe functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and
controlling as framework. Today most texts describe – planning, organizing, leading and controlling.
Management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving
those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
Management function that involves working with and through people to accomplish
When mangers motivate subordinates, help resolve work group conflicts, influence
individuals or teams as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or
deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they are leading.
Management function that involves arranging and structuring work to accomplish the
When mangers organize, they determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them,
how tasks ar to be grouped, who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made.
Management function that involves monitoring, comparing, and correcting work
There has to be some evaluation, after planning, organizing and organizing,of whether
the things are going as planned.managers must monitor and evaluate the performance.
Actual performance must be compared with the previously set goals. If there are
significant deviations, managers job is to get work performance back to the track. This
process of monitoring, comparing and and correcting is what we mean by the
Henry Mintzberg, a Prominent management Researcher, studied actual managers at work. He
concluded that what managers do can best be described by looking at 10 different but highly
interrelated management roles they use at work.
Management roles refers to specific categories of managerial behavior.
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Inter personal roles Managerial roles that involve people and other duties that is ceremonial and
symbolic in nature.
Informational roles Managerial roles that involve colleting, receiving, and disseminating
Decisional roles Managerial roles that revolve around making choices.
Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
Role Description Examples of Identifiable Activities
Figurehead* Symbolic head; obliged to Perform routine Greeting visitors; signing legal
duties of a legal or social nature documents
Leader# Responsible for the motivation of Performing virtually all activities that
subordinates; responsible for staffing, involve subordinates
training, and associated duties
Liaison* Maintains self-developed network of outside Acknowledging mail; doing external
contacts and informers who provide favors board work ; performing other
and information activities that involve outsiders
Monitor Seeks and receives wide variety of internal Reading periodicals and reports;
and external information to develop thorough maintaining personal contacts
understanding of organization and
Disseminator* Transmits information received from Holding informational meetings;
outsiders or from subordinates to members of making phone calls to relay
the organization information
Spokesperson* Transmits information to outsiders on Holding board meetings; giving
organization’s plans, policies, actions, information to the media
Entrepreneur Searches organization and its environment for Organizing strategy and review
opportunities and initiates “improvement session to develop new programs
projects” to bring about changes
Disturbance handler Responsible for corrective action when Organizing strategy and review
organization faces important, unexpected sessions that involve disturbances
disturbances and crises
Resource allocator Responsible for the allocation of Scheduling; requesting authorization;
organizational resources of all kinds-making performing any activity that involves
or approving all significant organizational budgeting and the programming of
decisions sudbordinates’ work
Negotiator* Responsible for representing the Participating in union contract
organization at major negotiations negotiations
*Important roles at higher level of organization,# important for lower level managers than it is for either middle or top level managers
As mangers perform these different roles, Henry concluded that their actual work activities
involved interacting with others, with the organization itself, and with the context outside organization.
He also proposed that as managers perform these roles, their activities include reflection(thoughtful
thinking) and action (practical doing).
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A number of follow up studies have tested the validity of Mintzberg’s role categories in different
types of organization and at different levels within the organizations. The evidence generally supports
the idea that managers- regardless of the type of organization or level in the organization-perform
Functions or Roles – both describes what managers do. However, functions approach still
represents the most useful ways of mangers’ job. Mintzberg’s roles- align well with one or more of
A manager’s job is varied and complex. Managers need certain skills to perform the duties and activities
associated with being manager.
What types of skills do managers require -at different levels -has been answered by research of Robert
Katz that they need three skills:
Technical skills (……… important for lower level managers)
Job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks.
Lower level managers are managing employees who are using tools and techniques to produce
the organization’ s products or service the organization’s customers.
Observation of Ryan- technical side of business is important but manging people and rewarding
and recognizing the people who do an outstanding job is how we are going succeed.
Human skills (…… important for Middle managers)
It is the ability to work well with other people individually and in a group.
Because managers deal directly with the people, these skills are essentials and equally
important at all levels of management so as to get the best from the people.
Conceptual skills (….. important for top managers)
These are the skills manager use to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex
Using these skills, managers must see the organization as a whole, understand the relationships
among various sub units and visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment.
American management association identified the skills as under.
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Ability to use information to solve business problems
Identification of opportunities for innovation
Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions
Selecting critical information from masses of data
Understanding of business uses of technology
Understanding of organization’s business model
Ability to transform ideas into words and actions
Credibility among colleagues,peers,and subordinates
Listening and asking questions
Presentation skills; spoken format
Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats
Contributing to corporate missions /departmental objectives
Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel
Reviewing operations and implementing improvements
Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally
Setting priorities for attention and activity
Coaching and mentoring skills
Diversity skills :working with diverse people and cultures
Networking within the organization
Networking outside the organization
Working in teams: cooperation and commitment
MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS MATRIX
Planning Organizing Leading Controlling
Choosing an effective leadership style
Creating effective teams
Designing motivating jobs
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Managing resistance to change
Reading an organization’s culture
Running productive meetings
Scanning the environment
Solving problems creatively
Changes Impacting the Manager’s job
Changes Impact of Changes
Shifting organizational boundaries
Changing Technology (Digitization) Virtual workplaces
More mobile workforce
Flexible work arrangements
Work life-personal life balance
Uncertainty over future energy sources
Increased Security Threats Restructured work place
Increased Emphasis on Organizational Increased accountability
and Management Ethics
Increased Competitiveness Globalization
People are not being paid for how much time they spend in the organization, rather they are being paid
for quality and quantity of output they produce.
In today’s world managers are dealing with changing work place , security threats, ethical issues,global
economic , political uncertainities and technological advancements.how managers manage is actually
changing. That means the way they plan,lead,organize and control are changing.
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Two of the major chages are: increasing improtance of customers and innovation.
The fastest changing technological world is to match the pace with for the managers. Demand of
customers accordingly and otherwise also change.
“Nothing is more risky than innovating”. Innovation means doing things differently, exploring new
territory and taking risks.
These causes continuous updations of job specific knowledge and skills for managers. These may lead to
innovate several ways to find out how managers manage. ever increasing competitiveness emphasize
serious threats to bussiness and hence organizations.
The implication is clear: Managers must create a customer responsive organization where employees
are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeble , prompt in responding to customer needs, and
willing to do whats is necessary to please customers.
Maintaining ethics is again a matter of concern amongst all aforesaiad conditions. Therefore, it is very
essential for managers to keep upto the changing scenario of organizations and world.
WHY TO STUDY MANAGEMENT?
Organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. In all
organization, management is also a tool for higher productivity. Importance of management can be
understood looking at three things:
The universality of management, the reality of work, and the rewards and challenges of being manager.
THE UNIVERSALITY OF MANAGEMENT
The management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, at all organizational levels and in all
organization work areas as well as in all organizations, no matter wherever they are located. This is
known as universality of management. In all these organizations, managers must plan, lead, organize
and control. What differs in doing this is the way managers “manage” changes.
There is always a need of finding ways how an organization is managed.
For example, if you call a customer care of an airline and all the times for same matter, if you get three
different answers – it is an example of poor management. Strong and well managed organizations
develop loyal customer base, grow and prosper whereas poorly managed organizations find themselves
loosing customers and revenues.
By studying management, recognizing poorly managed organization becomes easy and can be worked to
correct it. This one can apply to the place of work.
THE REALITY OF WORK
Once a person is graduated, he will manage or himself be managed. Understanding the concepts of
management will help develop foundation onto which skills are built. If you are not a part of managing,
you are still likely to have to work with managers. Even if you are not a manager in an organization, you
will still have some managerial responsibilities. Great deal of insight in a way authority behaves is
achieved and how organization works.
REWARDS AND CHALLENGES OF BEING A MANGER
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Create a work environment in which org. members Do work hard
can work to the best of their ability.
Have opportunities to think creatively and use May have duties that are more clerical than
Help others find meaning and fulfillment in work Have to deal with a variety of personalities
Support, coach and nurture others Often have to make do with limited resources
Work with a variety of people Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain
Receive recognition and status in organization and Blend knowledge, skills, ambitions, and
community experiences of a diverse work group
Play a role in influencing organizational outcomes Success depends on others work performance
Receive appropriate compensation in form of
salaries, bonuses, and stock options
Good managers are needed by organization
Management can be a tough and thankless job. A portion of manager’s job may be entailing clerical
(often filing and compiling reports, dealing with bureaucratic procedures, paperwork etc) than
managerial. Managers often have to deal with a variety of people and have to make do with limited
sources. It can be a challenge to motivate workers in the face of uncertainty and chaos. And managers
may find it difficult to successfully blend the knowledge, skill, ambitions and experiences of a diverse
work group. Manager’s success typically depends on others’work performance.
Manager is responsible for creating a work environment in which org. members can work to the best of
their ability. You as a manger help others find meaning and fulfillment in their work. Receiving
recognition and status in organization and community is another reward. Other rewards are mentioned
in table above. Accomplishing goals of organization is in focus by all these activities ultimately.
MANAGING: SCIENCE OR ART?
Managing, like all other practices –whether medicine, music composition, engineering, accountancy, or
even baseball-is an art. It is know-how. It is doing things in light of the realities of a situation. Yet
managers can work better by using the organized knowledge about management. It is this knowledge
that constitutes a science. Thus, managing as practice is an art; the organized knowledge underlying the
practice may be referred to as a science. In this context, science and art not mutually exclusive; they are
As science improves , so should art; as has happened in the physical and biological science. To be sure,
the science underlying managing is fairly crude and inexact because the many variables that managers
deal with are extremely complex .Nevertheless, such management science would be little more than
witch doctors. Executives who attempt to manage without management science must trust luck,
intuition, or do what they did in the past.
In managing, as in any other field, unless practitioners are to learn by trial and error (and it has been
said that managers’ errors are their subordinates’ trials) there is no place they can turn to for
meaningful guidance other than the accumulated knowledge underlying their practice.
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