User-Centered Interface Design by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 52

									User-Centered Interface
Design
Heidi P. Adkisson
Senior Interactive Architect, Blink IA

Seattle Graphic Artists Guild
December 4, 2002
What is user-centered design?

• First, let‟s see some everyday examples of
  design that is NOT user-centered




                                               2
Classic Stove Example




                        3
Classic Stove Example


                        Do the
                        controls
                        work this
                        way?




                                    4
Classical Stove Example


                          Or this way?




                                         5
Infamous “butterfly” ballot


                         To vote for the
                         democrats do
                         I punch the
                         second hole or
                         the third hole?




                                           6
“Helpful” color coding


                           Are you sure you want
                           to delete all records
                           from the data base?


                              Yes             No


“Yes” in instance is NOT
a good thing
                                      www.iarchitect.com/mshame.htm


                                                                      7
Many more interesting examples
http://www.iarchitect.com/mshame.htm


                              http://www.baddesigns.com




                                                          8
What is the problem with these
designs?
• No designer purposes sets out to confuse
  or irritate users
• Fallacy: the most usable design is
  OBVIOUS by thinking through interior
  thinking about the problem




                                             9
Reference Information for Java


                         What frame
                         controls what
                         window?




                                         10
But… the target audience loved
this approach
• The organization was highly meaningful
  and powerful
  – It reflects how users think about the
    information


          Packages




            Classes




                                            11
The lesson

• Relying solely on interior thinking is a risky
  approach to design
• It risks making incorrect assumptions
  about the people who will use a system




                           !
                                                   12
User-Centered Design

A. Focuses on who will use a system from
A
   the very beginning
B. Checks in with users each step along the
B

   way
       User Research

                       Analysis

                                  Design
          Iterative Design
                                  Prototyping & Testing

                                                Development

                                                              13
User Research
Focusing on users from the
beginning
User Research


  User Research

                  Analysis

                             Design
     Iterative Design
                             Prototyping & Testing

                                           Development




                                                         15
Discovering User Needs Through
Direct Research


     Observational   User Needs
     Studies


      User
      Interviews


        User
        Surveys




                                  16
Observational Studies

• Observing how people currently perform
  work within their “live” context

       Observational     User Needs
       Studies


        User
        Interviews


         User
         Surveys


                                           17
Observational Studies

• People aren‟t able to fully articulate what
  they do
  – Behavior is often automatic
  – Important factors in the social and physical
    context are taken for granted




                                                   18
Example:
Observational Study
• Kitchen entertainment/information center
• Physical context of use is very important

 – Frequent
   interruptions
 – Work occurs in a
   variety of locations
 – Cleanliness highly
   important


                                              19
Example findings (user needs)
Context of Use
 User interface for system must be visible
  and controllable from a distance
 Touch screen has limitations for use
  – Hands are frequently wet and/or dirty
  – Stylus must be attached to unit




                                              20
User Interviews

• Asking users to describe how they perform
  work and what they think about it

       Observational     User Needs
       Studies


        User
        Interviews


          User
          Surveys


                                              21
User Interviews

• Less open-ended than observational
  studies
  – Questions usually focus on getting information
    about particular user goals and tasks
• Best conducted in the environment where
  users perform work




                                                     22
Example:
User Interviews
• Web Site targeted at software developers
  – How can we improve the information we
    provide to developers?
  – Questions about how they seek information




                                                23
Example findings (user needs)

 Concentrate information on fewer pages
  – To leverage using browser search function to
    find information
 Provide fresh technology news daily
  – Very consistent pattern of proactive information
    seeking




                                                       24
User Surveys

• Asking people specific questions on use
  and satisfaction

       Observational      User Needs
       Studies


        User
        Interviews


          User
          Surveys


                                            25
User Surveys

• The Internet makes these easy and
  inexpensive to deploy
• Good for getting specific data on existing
  features




                                               26
Example:
User Survey
• Developer Web site
  – Used to get more data on specific issues
    identified in open-ended interviews




                                               27
Example findings (user needs)

 Optimize PDFs for on-screen use
  – PDF Printouts used less frequently
 Replacing search engine is not a high
  priority
  – Satisfaction level with current search
    technology is relatively high




                                             28
User Research: Potential Pitfalls

• Methods misapplied or executed poorly
• Results may point the wrong direction




                                          29
Potential Pitfall: Just Asking
People What They Want
• Here‟s what Homer Simpson says he wants
  in a car:
  – “I want a horn here, here, and here. You can
    never find a horn when you're mad. And they
    should all play „La Cucaracha‟.”




                                                   30
Pitfall: Asking People What They
Want
• Think of the doctor analogy
  – People are expert in understanding what the
    symptoms are, but not the underlying disease
    or how to treat it
  – The user researcher must be skilled at diagnosis




                                                   31
Prototyping & Testing
Checking in with users each step
along the way
Prototyping & Testing


   User Research

                   Analysis

                              Design
      Iterative Design
                              Prototyping & Testing

                                            Development




                                                          33
Early prototypes are low fidelity

• They may be very exploratory designs
• Mostly, paper prototypes are used
  – Pages may be hand-drawn or computer-drawn
• Goal: Get user feedback early when
  changes are easy to make      11/13/02



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                                                                                                                                                                                                        206. 447.9551
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            34
Low Fidelity vs. Final Design




                                35
Usability Testing of Prototypes

1. Create task scenarios
2. Recruit participants to perform the tasks
   using the prototype
3. Use the results of testing to fix any
   problems
4. Repeat Steps 2-3




                                               36
Conducting test sessions

• Usually involves the “Think Aloud Protocol”
  (TAP)
  – User expresses thoughts out loud as they
    perform tasks
  – Clip shows testing a system in the final design
    stages




                                                      37
Usability Testing with Paper
Prototypes
• Participants “click” by pointing
• They enter data by writing on the page

    Picture-in-picture
    video captures
    people‟s actions,
                                  QuickTime™ an d a
                                     decompressor
                            are need ed to see this p icture .




    what the they
    say, and their
    facial expressions


                                                                 38
In the TAP the facilitator must
remain neutral
• Key to the success of the method
• Participants will look to the facilitator for
  reassurance
  – May feel like they are “failing” the test
  – Some participants become highly stressed
  – Sessions can be long and unpredictable




                                                  39
Example Session




                  40
How many users do you need to
test?
• 6-8 users
• Clients are initially skeptical
• But after watching the first set of sessions
  they believe
  – You start seeing the same problems again &
    again
  – Conserve your participant budget for additional
    rounds of testing



                                                      41
How much of the system do you
test?
• Some testing is always better than none
• There are always time and budget trade-
  offs
• Prioritize the most risky areas of a design
  – Or focus on “mission-critical” areas such as the
    check-out flow for e-commerce sites




                                                       42
“Discount” Usability
Methods
Reality Bites…

• The time and expertise for user-centered
  design may be absent on many projects
  – Small projects
  – Engineering-driven company culture
    • Focus on internal thinking to solve design problems
    • “We know what users want already”




                                                            44
Options

• Conduct a heuristic evaluation
  – Heuristics represent user interface design best
    practices
  – Jakob Nielsen is a good starting point


 www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/




                                                      45
Options

• Test with even one or two users
  – Nielsen: zero users yields zero insights

http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20000319.html




                                               46
Options

• Test with internal people
  – They should have no involvement with the
    design
  – Get folks close to the target audience as
    possible
    • Risk of misleading information




                                                47
Learning more about User-
Centered Design and
Usability
Some Books

• The Elements of User Experience: User-
  Centered Design for the Web
  – James Jesse Garrett
• User-Centered Design: An Integrated
  Approach
  – Karel Vredenburg, et al




                                           49
A Few Web Resources

• Jakob Nielsen
  – www.useit.com/

• Usable Web
  – www.usableweb.com/

• IBM - Ease of Use
  – www-3.ibm.com/ibm/easy/eou_ext.nsf/Publish/570




                                                     50
New UW Certificate Program

• User-Centered Design
  – Subset of Evening Master‟s Degree in Technical
    Communication
    • www.uwtc.washington.edu/programs/usability_cert.htm




                                                            51
Thank you!

								
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