# DIFFRACTION by ewghwehws

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```									                 CHAPTER 3
X-RAY DIFFRACTION
IN CRYSTAL
I.     X-Ray
II.    Diffraction
III.   Diffraction of Waves by
Crystals
IV.    X-Ray Diffraction
V.     Bragg Equation
VI.    X-Ray Methods
Bertha Röntgen’s   VII.   Neutron & Electron Diffraction
Hand 8 Nov, 1895
1
X-RAY

   X-rays were discovered in
1895     by  the     German
Röntgen and were so named
because their nature was
unknown at the time.

    He was awarded the Nobel
prize for physics in 1901.
(1845-1923)

2
X-RAY PROPERTIES

   X ray, invisible, highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation of
much shorter wavelength (higher frequency) than visible light.
The wavelength range for X rays is from about 10-8 m to about
10-11 m, the corresponding frequency range is from about 3 ×
1016 Hz to about 3 × 1019 Hz.

3
X-RAY ENERGY
   Electromagnetic radiation described as having packets of
energy, or photons. The energy of the photon is related to
its frequency by the following formula:

E  h
hc                     c
E
                 


hc
 =Wavelength , ‫ = ע‬Frequency , c = Velocity of light     E 


  x-ray ≈   10-10 ≈ 1A°                     E ~ 104 ev

4
PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS

   Visible light photons and X-ray photons are both
produced by the movement of electrons in atoms.
Electrons occupy different energy levels, or orbitals,
around an atom's nucleus.

    When an electron drops to a lower orbital, it needs to
release some energy; it releases the extra energy in the
form of a photon. The energy level of the photon depends
on how far the electron dropped between orbitals.

5
6
X-RAY TUBE
   X rays can be produced in a highly evacuated glass bulb, called
an X-ray tube, that contains essentially two electrodes—an
anode made of platinum, tungsten, or another heavy metal of
high melting point, and a cathode. When a high voltage is
applied between the electrodes, streams of electrons (cathode
rays) are accelerated from the cathode to the anode and
produce X rays as they strike the anode.
Evacuated glass bulb

Cathode
Anode

7
Spectrum of X-rays
   X-rays can be created by bombarding a metal target with
high energy (> 104 ) electrons.

   Some of these electrons excite electrons from core states in
the metal, which then recombine, producing highly
monochromatic X-rays. These are referred to as
characteristic X-ray lines.

   Other electrons, which are decelerated by the periodic
potential of the metal, produce a broad spectrum of X-ray
frequencies.

   Depending on the diffraction experiment, either or both of
these X-ray spectra can be used.      10 4

8
ABSORPTION OF X-RAYS

   The atoms that make up your body         ...something
tissue absorb visible light photons        you won't
very well. The energy level of the           see very
photon fits with various energy               often
differences   between       electron         (Visible
positions.                                    Light)

   Radio waves don't have enough
energy to move electrons between
orbitals in larger atoms, so they pass
through most stuff. X-ray photons also      X-ray
pass through most things, but for the
opposite reason: They have too much
energy.

9
Generation of X-rays (K-Shell
Knockout)
An electron in a higher orbital immediately falls to the lower
energy level, releasing its extra energy in the form of a photon. It's
a big drop, so the photon has a high energy level; it is an X-ray
photon.

The free electron collides
with the tungsten atom,
knocking an electron out of a
lower orbital. A higher orbital
electron fills the empty
position, releasing its excess
energy as a photon.

10
Absorption of X-rays

   A larger atom is more likely to absorb an X-ray photon in
this way, because larger atoms have greater energy
differences between orbitals -- the energy level more
closely matches the energy of the photon. Smaller atoms,
where the electron orbitals are separated by relatively low
jumps in energy, are less likely to absorb X-ray photons.

   The soft tissue in your body is composed of smaller
atoms, and so does not absorb X-ray photons particularly
well. The calcium atoms that make up your bones are
much larger, so they are better at absorbing X-ray
photons.

11
DIFFRACTION

   Diffraction is a wave phenomenon in
which the apparent bending and
spreading of waves when they meet an
obstruction.
   Diffraction occurs with electromagnetic
waves, such as light and radio waves,
and also in sound waves and water
Width b Variable
waves.
(500-1500 nm)
   The most conceptually simple example         Wavelength Constant
of diffraction is double-slit diffraction,
(600 nm)
that’s why firstly we remember light
diffraction.                                 Distance d = Constant

12
LIGHT DIFFRACTION

   Light diffraction is caused by light bending around the edge of
an object. The interference pattern of bright and dark lines from
the diffraction experiment can only be explained by the additive
nature of waves; wave peaks can add together to make a
brighter light, or a peak and a through will cancel each other out
and result in darkness.

Thus Young’s light interference
experiment proves that light
has wavelike properties.

13
LIGHT INTERFERENCE

14
Constructive & Destructive Waves

   Constructive interference is        Destructive İnterference     .
the result of synchronized           results when two out-of-phase
light   waves     that    add        light waves cancel each other
together to increase the light       out, resulting in darkness.
intensity.

15
Light Interference

16
Diffraction from a particle and solid

Single particle
 To understand diffraction we also
have to consider what happens when
a wave interacts with a single particle.
The particle scatters the incident
beam uniformly in all directions
Solid material
 What happens if the beam is
incident on solid material? If we
consider a crystalline material, the
in a few directions and reinforce
each other to give diffracted beams
17
Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

A crystal is a periodic structure
( unit cells are repeated regularly)

Solid State Physics deals how the waves are propagated
through such periodic structures. In this chapter we study the
crystal structure through the diffraction of photons (X-ray),
nuetrons and electrons.

Diffraction
X-ray     Neutron      Electron

The general princibles will be the same for each type of waves.
18
Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

   The diffraction depends on the crystal structure and on
the wavelength.
   At optical wavelengths such as 5000 angstroms the
superposition of the waves scattered elastically by the
individual atoms of a crystal results in ordinary optical
refraction.
   When the wavelength of the radiation is comparable
with or smaller than the lattice constant, one can find
diffracted beams in directions quite different from the

19
Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

   The structure of a crystal can be determined by
studying the diffraction pattern of a beam of radiation
incident on the crystal.

   Beam diffraction takes place only in certain specific
directions, much as light is diffracted by a grating.

   By measuring the directions of the diffraction and the
corresponding intensities, one obtains information
concerning the crystal structure responsible for
diffraction.
20
X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY

   X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in
which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through
the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and
then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice.

   X-ray diffraction = (XRD)

21
X-Ray Crystallography

   The wavelength of X-rays is
typically 1 A°, comparable to the
interatomic spacing (distances
between atoms or ions) in solids.

   We need X-rays:

hc   hc
Exray      h           12.3x103 eV
 1x10 m
10

22
Crystal Structure Determination

A crystal behaves as a 3-D diffraction grating for x-rays
   In a diffraction experiment, the spacing of lines on the grating
can be deduced from the separation of the diffraction maxima
Information about the structure of the lines on the
grating can be obtained by measuring the relative
intensities of different orders
   Similarly, measurement of the separation of the X-ray
diffraction maxima from a crystal allows us to determine
the size of the unit cell and from the intensities of
diffracted beams one can obtain information about the
arrangement of atoms within the cell.
23
X-Ray Diffraction

W. L. Bragg presented a simple
explanation of the diffracted beams from a
crystal.
The Bragg derivation is simple but is
convincing only since it reproduces the
correct result.

24
X-Ray Diffraction & Bragg Equation

   English physicists Sir W.H. Bragg
and his son Sir W.L. Bragg
developed a relationship in 1913 to
explain why the cleavage faces of
crystals appear to reflect X-ray
beams at certain angles of incidence
(theta, θ).This observation is an          Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942),
example of X-ray wave interference.        William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971)

o 1915, the father and son were awarded the Nobel prize for physics
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of
Xrays".

25
Bragg Equation
   Bragg law identifies the angles of the incident
radiation relative to the lattice planes for which
diffraction peaks occurs.
   Bragg derived the condition for constructive
interference of the X-rays scattered from a set of
parallel lattice planes.

26
BRAGG EQUATION
   W.L. Bragg considered crystals to be made up of parallel
planes of atoms. Incident waves are reflected specularly from
parallel planes of atoms in the crystal, with each plane is
reflecting only a very small fraction of the radiation, like a
lightly silvered mirror.
   In mirrorlike reflection the angle of incidence is equal to the
angle of reflection.

ө              ө

27
Diffraction Condition

 The diffracted beams are found to occur
when the reflections from planes of atoms
interfere constructively.
 We treat     elastic scattering, in which the
energy of X-ray is not changed on reflection.

28
Bragg Equation
   When the X-rays strike a layer of a crystal, some of them will
be reflected. We are interested in X-rays that are in-phase
with one another. X-rays that add together constructively in x-
ray diffraction analysis in-phase before they are reflected and
after they reflected.

 Incident angle
 Reflected angle
  Wavelength of X-ray
                  2

Total Diffracted
Angle  2
29
Bragg Equation

   These two x-ray beams travel slightly different distances. The
difference in the distances traveled is related to the distance
   Connecting the two beams with perpendicular lines shows the
difference between the top and the bottom beams.

The line CE is equivalent
to the distance between
the two layers (d)

DE  d sin

30
Bragg Law
   The length DE is the same as EF, so the total distance
traveled by the bottom wave is expressed by:

EF  d sin
DE  d sin

DE  EF  2d sin
n  2d sin 

   Constructive interference of the radiation from successive
planes occurs when the path difference is an integral
number of wavelenghts. This is the Bragg Law.
31
Bragg Equation
2d sin  n
where, d is the spacing of the planes and n is the order of diffraction.

   Bragg reflection can only occur for wavelength

n  2d
   This is why we cannot use visible light. No diffraction occurs when
the above condition is not satisfied.

    The diffracted beams (reflections) from any set of lattice planes
can only occur at particular angles pradicted by the Bragg law.
32
lattice points A and B
X-rays are incident at an angle  on one of the planes
of the set.
There will be constructive interference of the waves
scattered from the two successive lattice points A and B in
the plane if the distances AC and DB are equal.

D         C

            2
A                 B
33
Constructive interference of waves
scattered from the same plane
If the scattered wave makes the same angle to the plane as
the incident wave

The diffracted wave looks as if it has been reflected from the
plane

We consider the scattering from lattice points rather
than atoms because it is the basis of atoms associated with
each lattice point that is the true repeat unit of the crystal;
The lattice point is analoque of the line on optical diffraction
grating and the basis represents the structure of the line.

34
Diffraction maximum
Coherent scattering from a single plane is not
sufficient to obtain a diffraction maximum. It is also
necessary that successive planes should scatter
in phase

 This will be the case if the path difference for
scattering off two adjacent planes is an integral
number of wavelengths

2d sin  n
35
Labelling the reflection planes

   To label the reflections, Miller indices of the planes
can be used.
   A beam corresponding to a value of n>1 could be
identified by a statement such as ‘the nth-order
reflections from the (hkl) planes’.
   (nh nk nl) reflection
Third-order reflection from (111) plane

(333) reflection
36
n-th order diffraction off (hkl)
planes
   Rewriting the Bragg law
d 
2  sin   
n
which makes n-th order diffraction off (hkl) planes of
spacing ‘d’ look like first-order diffraction off planes
of spacing d/n.

   Planes of this reduced spacing would have Miller
indices (nh nk nl).

37
X-ray structure analysis of NaCl
and KCl
The GENERAL PRINCIBLES of X-RAY STRUCTURE ANALYSIS to
DEDUCE the STRUCTURE of NaCl and KCl
Bragg used an ordinary spectrometer and measured the intensity of
specular reflection from a cleaved face of a crystal

found six values of  for which a sharp peak in intensity occurred,
corresponding to three characteristics wavelengths (K,L and M x-
rays) in first and second order (n=1 and n=2 in Bragg law)
   By repeating the experiment with a different crystal face he could
use his eqn. to find for example the ratio of (100) and (111) plane
spacings, information that confirmed the cubic symmetry of the
atomic arrangement.
38
Details of structure
Details of structure were than deduced from the differences
between the diffraction patterns for NaCl and KCl.
   Major difference; absence of (111) reflection in KCl compared to a
weak but detectable (111) reflection in NaCl.

   This arises because the K and Cl ions both
have the argon electron shell structure and
hence scatter x-rays almost equally whereas
Na and Cl ions have different scattering
strengths. (111) reflection in NaCl corresponds
to one wavelength of path difference between
neighbouring (111) planes.

39
Experimental arrangements
for x-ray diffraction

   Since the pioneering work of Bragg, x-ray
diffraction has become into a routine
technique for the determination of crsytal
structure.

40
Bragg Equation
Since Bragg's Law applies to all sets of crystal planes,
the lattice can be deduced from the diffraction pattern,
making use of general expressions for the spacing of the
planes in terms of their Miller indices. For cubic structures

a
d
h2  k 2  l 2

Note that the smaller the spacing the higher the angle
of diffraction, i.e. the spacing of peaks in the diffraction
pattern is inversely proportional to the spacing of the planes
in the lattice. The diffraction pattern will reflect the
symmetry properties of the lattice.
2d sin   n
41
Bragg Equation
A simple example is the difference between
the series of (n00) reflections for a simple
cubic and a body centred cubic lattice. For the
simple cubic lattice, all values of n will give Bragg
peaks.
However, for the body centred cubic lattice
the (100) planes are interleaved by an equivalent
set at the halfway position. At the angle where
Bragg's Law would give the (100) reflection the
interleaved planes will give a reflection exactly out
of phase with that from the primary planes, which
will exactly cancel the signal. There is no signal
from (n00) planes with odd values of n. This kind
of argument leads to rules for identifying the
lattice symmetry from "missing" reflections, which
are often quite simple.
42
Types of X-ray camera

There are many types of X-ray camera to
sort out reflections from different crystal
planes. We will study only three types of X-ray
photograph that are widely used for the simple
structures.
1.   Laue photograph
2.   Rotating crystal method
3.   Powder photograph

43
X-RAY DIFFRACTION METHODS

X-Ray Diffraction Method

Laue           Rotating Crystal           Powder

Orientation        Lattice constant     Lattice Parameters
Single Crystal       Single Crystal    Polycrystal (powdered)
Polychromatic Beam   Monochromatic Beam   Monochromatic Beam
Fixed Angle         Variable Angle        Variable Angle

44
LAUE METHOD
   The Laue method is mainly used to determine the
orientation of large single crystals while radiation is
reflected from, or transmitted through a fixed crystal.

       The diffracted beams form arrays of
spots, that lie on curves on the film.

        The Bragg angle is fixed for every
set of planes in the crystal. Each set
of planes picks out and diffracts the
particular wavelength from the white
radiation that satisfies the Bragg law
for the values of d and θ involved.
45
Back-reflection Laue Method

   In the back-reflection method, the film is placed between the
x-ray source and the crystal. The beams which are diffracted
in a backward direction are recorded.

   One side of the cone of Laue
reflections is defined by the
transmitted beam. The film
intersects the cone, with the
diffraction spots generally lying
on an hyperbola.                                 Single
Crystal
X-Ray     Film

46
Transmission Laue Method

   In the transmission Laue method, the film is placed behind
the crystal to record beams which are transmitted through
the crystal.

   One side of the cone of Laue
reflections is defined by the
transmitted beam. The film
intersects the cone, with the
diffraction spots generally
lying on an ellipse.
Single         Film
X-Ray
Crystal
47
Laue Pattern        The symmetry of the
spot pattern reflects the
symmetry of the crystal
when viewed along the
direction of the incident
beam. Laue method is
often used to determine
the orientation of single
crystals by means of
illuminating the crystal
with a continuos spectrum
of X-rays;
 Single crystal
 Continous spectrum of x-
rays
48              Symmetry of the crystal;
orientation
Crystal structure
determination by Laue method
   Therefore, the Laue method is mainly used to
determine the crystal orientation.
   Although the Laue method can also be used to
determine the crystal structure, several
wavelengths can reflect in different orders from
the same set of planes, with the different order
reflections superimposed on the same spot in
the film. This makes crystal structure
determination by spot intensity diffucult.
   Rotating crystal method overcomes this
problem. How?
49
ROTATING CRYSTAL METHOD

   In the rotating crystal method, a
single crystal is mounted with
an     axis    normal     to    a
monochromatic        x-ray beam.
A cylindrical film is placed
around it and the crystal is

   As the crystal rotates, sets of lattice planes will at some
point make the correct Bragg angle for the monochromatic
incident beam, and at that point a diffracted beam will be
formed.
50
ROTATING CRYSTAL
METHOD
Lattice constant of the crystal can be
determined by means of this method; for a
given wavelength if the angle  at which a
reflection occurs is known,    d hkl can be
determined.
a
d 
h2  k 2  l 2

51
Rotating Crystal Method

The reflected beams are located on the surface of
imaginary cones. By recording the diffraction patterns (both
angles and intensities) for various crystal orientations, one
can determine the shape and size of unit cell as well as
arrangement of atoms inside the cell.

Film

52
THE POWDER METHOD

If a powdered specimen is used, instead of a
single crystal, then there is no need to rotate
the specimen, because there will always be
some crystals at an orientation for which
diffraction is permitted. Here a monochromatic
X-ray beam is incident on a powdered or
polycrystalline sample.
This method is useful for samples that are
difficult to obtain in single crystal form.

53
THE POWDER METHOD

The powder method is used to determine the value
of the lattice parameters accurately. Lattice parameters
are the magnitudes of the unit vectors a, b and c which
define the unit cell for the crystal.

For every set of crystal planes, by chance, one or
more crystals will be in the correct orientation to give
the correct Bragg angle to satisfy Bragg's equation.
Every crystal plane is thus capable of diffraction. Each
diffraction line is made up of a large number of small
spots, each from a separate crystal. Each spot is so
small as to give the appearance of a continuous line.
54
The Powder Method

      sample of consists of some
A the samplesome x-ray beam
If a monochromatic hundreds of
crystals
tens of (i.e. a a powdered
at     single crystal,
is directedrandomly orientated
single crystals, two
sample) show or the
then only one thatthe diffracted
form seen
are continuous cones.
beams may result. to lie on the
surface of film is used to record
A circle of several cones. The
the diffraction emerge in all
cones may pattern as shown.
Each cone        forwards
directions, intersects the and  film
backwards.
giving diffraction lines. The lines
are seen as arcs on the film.

55
Debye Scherrer Camera
A very small amount of powdered material is sealed
into a fine capillary tube made from glass that does not
diffract x-rays.

The specimen is placed
in the Debye Scherrer
camera and is accurately
aligned to be in the centre
of the camera. X-rays enter
the camera through a
collimator.

56
Debye Scherrer Camera

The powder diffracts
the x-rays in accordance
with     Braggs     law   to
produce        cones      of
diffracted beams. These
cones intersect a strip of
photographic film located
in the cylindrical camera to
produce a characteristic
set of arcs on the film.

57
Powder diffraction film

When the film is removed from the camera,
flattened and processed, it shows the diffraction
lines and the holes for the incident and
transmitted beams.

58
Application of XRD
XRD is a nondestructive technique. Some of the uses of
x-ray diffraction are;

1.     Differentiation between crystalline and amorphous
materials;
2.     Determination of the structure of crystalline materials;
3.     Determination of electron distribution within the atoms, and
throughout the unit cell;
4.     Determination of the orientation of single crystals;
5.     Determination of the texture of polygrained materials;
6.     Measurement of strain and small grain size…..etc

59
    X-ray is the cheapest, the most convenient and
widely used method.
    X-rays are not absorbed very much by air, so
the specimen need not be in an evacuated
chamber.
    They do not interact very strongly with lighter
elements.

60
Difraction Methods

Diffraction
X-ray          Neutron          Electron

Different radiation source of neutron or
electron can       also be used in diffraction
experiments.
The physical basis for the diffraction of
electron and neutron beams is the same as that
for the diffraction of X rays, the only difference
being in the mechanism of scattering.
61
Neutron Diffraction

   Neutrons were discovered in 1932 and their wave
properties was shown in 1936.
E = p2/2m        p = h/λ
E=Energy λ=Wavelength
p=Momentum
mn=Mass of neutron = 1,67.10-27kg

   λ ~1A°; Energy E~0.08 eV. This energy is of the same
order of magnitude as the thermal energy kT at room
temperature, 0.025 eV, and for this reason we speak of
thermal neutrons.

62
Neutron Diffraction

   Neutron does not interact with electrons in the crystal.
Thus, unlike the x-ray, which is scattered entirely by
electrons, the neutron is scattered entirely by nuclei

   Although uncharged, neutron has an intrinsic magnetic
moment, so it will interact strongly with atoms and ions
in the crystal which also have magnetic moments.

   Neutrons are more useful than X-rays for determining
the crystal structures of solids containing light
elements.

   Neutron sources in the world are limited so neutron
diffraction is a very special tool.
63
Neutron Diffraction

Neutron diffraction has several advantages over its x-
ray counterpart;
   Neutron diffraction is an important tool in the investigation
of magnetic ordering that occur in some materials.

   Light atoms such as H are better resolved in a neutron
pattern because, having only a few electrons to scatter
the X ray beam, they do not contribute significantly to the
X ray diffracted pattern.

64
Electron Diffraction
Electron diffraction has also been used in the analysis of
crystal structure. The electron, like the neutron, possesses wave
properties;

E
 2k 2

h2
 40eV                  2A     0
2me 2me    2

Electrons are charged particles and interact strongly with
all atoms. So electrons with an energy of a few eV would be
completely absorbed by the specimen. In order that an
electron beam can penetrate into a specimen , it necessitas a
beam of very high energy (50 keV to 1MeV) as well as the
specimen must be thin (100-1000 nm)
65
Electron Diffraction

If low electron energies are used, the penetration depth
will be very small (only about 50 A°), and the beam will be
reflected from the surface. Consequently, electron diffraction is
a useful technique for surface structure studies.

Electrons are scattered strongly in air, so diffraction
experiment must be carried out in a high vacuum. This brings
complication and it is expensive as well.

66
Diffraction Methods

X-Ray                 Neutron                Electron

λ = 1A°                λ = 1A°                  λ = 2A°

E ~ 104 eV              E ~ 0.08 eV             E ~ 150 eV

interact with electron   interact with nuclei   interact with electron
Penetrating         Highly Penetrating       Less Penetrating

67

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