Developing a Disaster Risk Reduction Strategy (PowerPoint download) by ewghwehws

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									  Disasters and Poverty
 Reduction in a changing
  Climate - International
Experience and Implications
           for China
   17th International Forum for
        Poverty Reduction

          Beijing, China
          October 2009
“Interventions geared towards mitigating the adverse effects of
 disasters and crises are a vital part of efforts to achieve the
 Millennium Development Goals… it is the poor, the vulnerable
 and the oppressed who are most affected by environmental
 degradation, natural hazards…….



 (UN General Assembly 2004: 20).
 The Risk-Poverty Nexus
• “Poverty and vulnerability to disasters are closely
  linked” – Managing disaster risk in emerging economies,
  World Bank (ed., 2000).

• “Sustainable poverty reduction is proving to be an
  elusive goal, and this is partly because disasters
  are not being properly factored into development”
  - DFID policy brief (2004).

• “Only 11% of those exposed to hazards live in low
  human development countries, but 53% of
  disaster mortality is concentrated in those
  countries” - Reducing Disaster Risk: a Challenge for
  Development, UNDP-BCPR (2004)
ISDR GAR09: Global risk is driven by
   poverty and weak governance
          Risk levels: Top 30%:Red; Middle 30%:yellow; Lowest 40%: Blue:



Poor in Asia concentrated in Disaster
              Hotspots
Approach to mainstreaming DRR into Poverty Reduction Plans

        1. Analytical and diagnostic
          work: role of natural hazards                  Significant disaster risk?
               on poverty level.
            CHINA : Droughts,                             Yes                                                                                            No
              Floods,Seismic risk




                                                                                         representatives from highly vulnerable segments of the poor.
       2. Set poverty reduction objectives:. to build disaster risk reduction                                                                           No further need




                                                                                             On-going consultation with stakeholders, including
                 into the key medium and long-term objectives.                                                                                            to consider
                                                                                                                                                         disaster risk



        3. Prioritise public actions for poverty reduction: actions to reduce
      vulnerability to natural hazards in designing macroeconomic, structural
      & social policies & programmes to reduce poverty & promote pro-poor
                                       growth.


      4. Establish M&E procedures: Include relevant disaster risk reduction
        short- and long-term targets and indicators, in particular capturing
       impacts on the poor & on reduced vulnerability rather than reduced
                                      losses.


        5. World Bank-IMF assessment: whether natural hazard
            risks & related measures to enhance resilience.


                                               6. Implementation, evaluation and feedback: Assess disaster risk
                                             achievements & shortcomings, including adequacy of initial analysis.
    Step 1: Analytical and Diagnostic Work

• Whether vulnerability to natural hazards
  helps to identify the poor
• analyse the severity of poverty, identify
  correlated factors :
• National Platforms can participate in
  Poverty reductions analytic and
  Diagnostic work
China :Where are the
Poor
Dramatic decline in
poverty from 31% in
1990 to 10% by 2005
Persistent Poverty
remains in remote,
hazard prone regions
:superimposing
drought and flood risk
map on Poverty : to
prioritize public
investments to
reduce risk of
droughts and
earthquakes and
floods affecting the
livelihoods of the
poor
Step 2 :Prioritize public actions for poverty reduction
• Sectoral policies and programmes to address MDGs
  Education, health, infrastructure made disaster resilient
• Macroeconomic and structural policies
  Ensure that structural adjustments, like user fees on irrigation do not
  reduce coping capacity of vulnerable
• Governance :
  decentralisation and empowerment and fiscal autonomy to address
  risk at local Government level,
• Costs, budget and financing : mitigation funds as part of regular
  Plan budgets to ensure disaster resilient infrastructure and
  livelihoods assets
Priority Public actions risk-poverty nexus


 1. Diversifying livelihoods to address local
    disaster risks sustainability in rural areas
 2. Financial and executive autonomy to urban
    and rural local governments to reduce local
    risks
 3. Financing private risk mitigation through
    micro finance and risk transfer through
    parametric insurance
 4. Restoring ecosystem for sustainable
    livelihoods
 5. Instituting community and local level
    disaster risk reduction
     urban and local governance reduces risk and
                       poverty
Good urban governance                 Disaster risk reduction
Partnerships between community        Hazard mapping used to identify safe
   organizations and local               sites for housing
   governments to acquire land with
   secure tenure for low-income
   households
Loan schemes for house-building and   Technical assistance to introduce safe
   improvement                           building standards as part of loan
                                         package
Improvements in sanitation and other Improved drainage in flood prone
   infrastructure provision             areas and public works to
                                        mitigate hazards
Participatory planning involving      Disaster preparedness and response
   community organizations and           plans and early warning systems
   local governments
Public investments in schools and     Retrofitting existing facilities and
   health facilities in low-income       ensuring that all new community
   areas                                 infrastructure is built safely on
                                         secure sites
Step 3 Establish monitoring and evaluation procedures



• quantitative indicators (with related
  baseline data from which to measure
  progress where relevant)
• use indicators disaggregated by geo
  climatic or geophysical zones, related to
  MDG indicators which the national
  Governments have committed to monitor
     Examples of quantitative Indicators
Goals and Targets                        Disaster risk Indicators
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1.                              Proportion of population below $1 per
                                       day does not fluctuate with variations in
Halve, between 1990 and 2015,
                                       hydro-meteorological phenomenon
the proportion of people whose         (rainfall, cyclones, floods) and hazard
income is less than one dollar a       events like earthquakes
day
                                       Share of poorest quintile in national
                                       consumption does not decline in years of
                                       extreme weather and hazard events like
                                       cyclones, earthquakes

Target 2.                              Prevalence of underweight children (under
                                       five years of age) does not increase during
Halve, between 1990 and 2015,          occurrence of droughts, floods, earthquakes
the proportion of people who           event
suffer from hunger

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education :Wenchuan earthquake, 7000
Children died

Target 3.                                Percentage of primary schools certified to
                                         be in conformity with hazard resistant
Ensure that, by 2015, children           standards relevant for the region
everywhere, boys and girls alike,        Loss of school days at schools used as
will be able to complete a full          shelters does not exceed x% over that of
                                         other schools.
course of primary schooling
 Step 4: Implementation, evaluation feedback
• Assess disaster risk achievements and
  shortcomings as part of the evaluation and draw
  on lessons learned
• Participatory consultation – Consultations on
  the contribution of disasters to problems of
  poverty and related options for strengthening
  resilience should be repeated several times
  during the Poverty Reduction Planning – for
  instance, in determining programmes of action;
  and in evaluation and lessons learning
What's next on the risk-poverty agenda? –
               Recommendations of GAR09
 1. Known Disaster Risk reduction methods are cost effective
    means of adapting to climate change
 2. Focus development policy on addressing the underlying
    risk drivers
  Build the capacities of urban and local governments to integrate disaster
     risk reduction considerations into a broader strategy.
  Invest in natural resource management, infrastructure development,
     livelihood generation and social protection to reduce vulnerability and
     strengthen the resilience of rural livelihoods.
  Protect and enhance ecosystem services through mechanisms such as
     protected area legislation, payment for ecosystem services and integrated
     planning.
  Shift the emphasis of social protection from an exclusive focus on response
     to include pre-disaster mechanisms and more effective targeting of the
     most vulnerable groups.
 3. Invest to reduce risk
  additional investments factor disaster risk reduction considerations into all
     new development
               Conclusion
In order to:

   – Achieve Millennium Development Goal of Halving
     number of poor by 2015

We need to urgently address the underlying disaster
  risk drivers:

   –   poor urban governance;
   –   ecosystem decline;
   –   vulnerable rural livelihoods
   –   Increase investments in disaster reduction can avertt
       impacts of changing climate

Fortunately, we know what to do. We must act now!

								
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