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					 European Commission
 Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




Green Paper on CFP reform
                                COM(2009)163
                                 April 2009
     European Commission
     Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




    The structure of the Green Paper
                 Vision 2020
•
                 2002 CFP Reform
    Healthy marine ecosystems
                 Structural failing
•   Profitable and economically independent sector
                 Further improvements
                 Questions
•   Supply to European market from sustainable fisheries and
    aquaculture Next steps

•   Contribution to development of coastal regions

•   External dimension oriented towards the development of third
    world countries while defending interests of EU industry

•   Simpler and less costly policy with implementation closer to
    the people
     European Commission
     Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




    The structure of the Green Paper
           Vision 2020
           2002 CFP Reform
           Structural failings
• Stakeholders involvement (RACs)
• Long termFurther improvements
            management plans
•   Effort management
•   CFCA
•   Transitions towards FPA’s
•   End to direct subsidies for fishing capacity
•   Environmental actions

But more needs to be done
      European Commission
      Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


                                                                     We
•   Overexploitation stocks (86% beyond MSY, 30% are outside
    safe limits)                                                 are far
•   Insufficient supply to European market                         from
•   Overcapacity – for many stocks capacity to fish at 2-3 x
    sustainable level
                                                                     the
•   Poor profitability - too many boats chase too few fish        vision
•   Low resilience to external pressures

•   Sector is heavily subsidised – direct and indirect.
                                                                    The
•   Public management costs exceed landings value in some          need
                                                                     for
    countries.

•   Complex and costly policy – for public authorities and for
    the sector (top-down micromanagement).
                                                                 reform
                European Commission
                Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




                                                                                      Outcomes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Actual capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     development assuming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     3% technological creep
                                                                                                                                                                                 Trend in the EU fishing fleet capacity in terms of installed engine power (kW)
                         Landings 1950-2006, EU15                                                                                                    11,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                            between 1992 and 2008

                                                                                                                                                                                      EU 12                     EU 15                EU 25                EU12 effective
                                                                                                                                                     10,000
         7000
                                                                                                                                                      9,000




                                                                                                               Total fleet engine power in 1000 kW
         6000                                                                                                                                         8,000

                                                                                                                                                      7,000
         5000
                                                                                                                                                      6,000
1000 t




         4000
                                   Total landings NE atlantic + medit                                                                                 5,000

         3000                      Landings NE atlantic (area 27)                                                                                     4,000                                                 FIFG 1994-1999                                                FIFG 2000-2006                                EFF

                                   Landings Medit (area 37)                                                                                           3,000
         2000
                                                                                                                                                      2,000                          MAGP III                                                    MAGP IV                                              Entry exit
         1000                                                                                                                                                                       1992-1996                                                    1997-2002                                             regime
                                                                                                                                                      1,000

           0                                                                                                                                             0




                                                                                                                                                              1.1.92

                                                                                                                                                                        1.1.93

                                                                                                                                                                                   1.1.94

                                                                                                                                                                                              1.1.95

                                                                                                                                                                                                       1.1.96

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1.1.97

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.1.98

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.1.99

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1.1.00

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.1.01

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1.1.02

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1.1.03

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.1.04

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1.1.05

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.1.06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1.1.07

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.1.08
                  1956      1966    1976                       1986                   1996      2006




Decreasing                                                                      Percentage contribution of domestic production,

landings
                                                                                         EU 15 landings + aquaculture
                                                EU15 catches + aquaculture as




                                                                                100
                                                  % of raw material supply




Decreasing                                                                       80

supply                                                                           60

                                                                                 40

Overcapacity                                                                     20

prevails                                                                          0
                                                                                  1961   1966    1971   1976                          1981                             1986                 1991                 1996                2001
      European Commission
      Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries



                                  Why a reform?
  Need to adapt to changed global context
  •   Financial crisis
  •   Volatile fuel prices
  •   Climate change
  •   New policy directions - sustainability and integration:
       • WSSD/MSY; IMP/Marine Strategy
       • Increased public awareness and consumer
         demands for sustainably sourced products


Change framework for long-term perspective
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




5 structural shortcomings
        Fleet overcapacity
                  Core problem – fishing pressure 2-3 times MSY on
                  many stocks
  Focus the policy us from
What prevented objectives attaining
     Capacity targets/entry-exit schemes little effect
         the objectives?
  Focus decision making
           Need to reduce number of vessels/adapt capacity to
           resources - Options:
        Encourage industry responsibility (industrial
            Market based allocation of access rights
           fleet) with safeguards against excessive concentration
           and to protect coastal fleet from being bought out.
            Direct public intervention - Public aid
        Develop culture of compliance only for
           scrapping, not for any support of catch capacity
 European Commission
 Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




5 structural shortcomings
       Fleet overcapacity

       Focus the policy objectives

                         making
       Focus decisioncushion immediate economic and social
          Compromises to
                 impact must be compatible with long term sustainability
                     industry responsibility
       Encouragesustainability is basic premise for the economic
          Ecological
                 and social future of European fisheries

       Develop culture of compliance
 European Commission
 Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

           No distinction between principles and implementation:

5 structural shortcomings
           all decisions taken on same level  short term/micromanagement

           Need to get rid of centralised micro-management - which will also be
           made impossible with the Lisbon Treaty
       Fleet overcapacity
           Put politics in its proper place: a hierarchy of decision making from
           principles to technical implementation
       Focus the policy objectives

       Focus decision making
           Decisions on principles and strategy on Council/Parliament level
       Encourage industry responsibility
           Leave detailed management to:
               •Commission in cooperation with member states
               •Member States / regional MS bodies?
               •The industry?
       Develop culture of compliance
           Delegation within Community principles and standards, subject to
           Community control and sanctions
           Enhancing the role of the RACs and ACFA
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

           Presently industry not given responsibility in implementing the

5 structural shortcomings
           policy

    “Responsibilising” the industry:
        Fleet overcapacity self-management/comanagement
         Taking Responsibility through
         Industry operates within limits set by public authorities (results
         based management)
         • Industry demonstrates objectives
        Focus the policythat it operates responsibly in return for
         access to fishing (reversal of burden of proof)
          We already have several examples of this - management of the
        Focus decision making video monitoring
         quota uptake by industry through POs,


        Encourage industry responsibility

         Giving industry responsibility for capacity adaptation through
        Develop culture of compliance
         Rights
 European Commission
 Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




5 structural shortcomings
       Fleet overcapacity
            Poor implementation in the past - Report of the
            EU Court of Auditors
       Focus the policy objectives
            Control reform on-going
       Focus decision making

       Encourage industry responsibility

       Develop culture of compliance
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries



Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets

  Compliance with MSY
  concept
  Relative stability
  Trade and markets

  Aquaculture

  Scientific advice

  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets

  Making the most of our
  fisheries   Loss of employment from capacity reduction
  Relative stability
  Trade and markets
              Compatibility with protection of coastal communities
              which depend on fisheries?
  Aquaculture
                Adapt instruments to the specifics of fleets by a
  Scientific advice
                differentiated approach:

                      Artisanal fleet: regime linked to social objectives such
  Public financial support
                     as employment or linkage to local community
  External dimension
                      Large scale fleet: regime aiming at capacity
                     adaptation, profitability and economic independence
  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets

  Making the most of our fisheries

  Relative stability
         MSY should now be enshrined as principle for EU fisheries
  Trade and markets
         management
  Aquaculture
       Need to move further to long term management plans

  Scientific advice
        Need to identify the best instruments for the various and diverse
        European fisheries
  Public financial support
              • TAC basic instrument but generates discards in mixed
              fisheries
  External dimension
              • Effort used in some fisheries – esp. small-scale mixed
              fisheries
  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
                                                  Developed into complex systems of
  small-scale coastal fleets
                                                  transfer, which also have made relative
                                                  stability less relevant
  Making the most of our
  fisheries
                                                  Relative stability has negative
  Relative stability                              consequences:
  Trade and markets                                   • Limits industry flexibility
                                                      • Encourages inflated TAC setting
  Aquaculture                                         • May lead to discards

                                                  12 nm regime has worked well – could be
  Scientific advice
                                                  stepped up in relation to small scale fleet
                                                  regime
  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries
          Catching sector receives small share of retail price
  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets – producers cannot pass increasing costs on
          Prices stagnating

  Making Price „trap‟ encourages overfishing – focus on quantity as
          the most of our
          compensation
  fisheries
  Relative stability
  Trade and markets

          Present CMO has reduced importance - should encourage „fish
  Aquaculture
          to sell‟, adjust production to consumer demands for higher
          value
  Scientific advice

          Stimulate processors, retailers and consumers to take
  Public financial support
          responsibility - transparency and certification through the
          production-marketing chain
  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets                               Important economic activity in many
                                                           coastal and continental regions in EU
  Making the most of our
  fisheries                                                Big expectations initially -
                                                           contribution from aquaculture stable
  Relative stability
                                                           in recent years.
  Trade and markets
                                                           Communication on aquaculture
  Aquaculture                                              addresses the specific, short and
                                                           medium term problems of
  Scientific advice                                        aquaculture

  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
                          Scientific knowledge/data crucial for the policy
  small-scale coastal fleets
                        Questions more complex and human and
  Making the most of ourinstitutional resources for advice increasingly
  fisheries             limited
  Relative stability
                        Research base: policy-supporting research and
  Trade and markets     advice must be secured also in the future
  Aquaculture                         Need to further develop communication between
                                      stakeholders, researchers and policy makers
  Scientific advice

  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for                         Substantial – exceeding primary value in
  small-scale coastal fleets                        some MS

  Making the most of our                            Often been in contradiction with CFP
  fisheries                                         objectives and little conditionality
  Relative stability
                                                    Need closer link between public funding
  Trade and markets                                 and the objectives of the policy – focus
                                                    on new challenges and policy objectives
  Aquaculture
                                                    Promotion of a restructured and modern
  Scientific advice                                 industry while not maintaining
                                                    overcapacity
  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets                       Further extend principles of sustainable
                                                   and responsible fisheries internationally
  Making the most of our                           as an objective within the aims of the IMP
  fisheries                                        on good governance:
  Relative stability
                                                           • Through international forums
  Trade and markets
                                                           • Through strengthened RFMOs
  Aquaculture                                              commitment to stringent
                                                           conservation measures, compliance
  Scientific advice                                        and control means

  Public financial support                                 • Through revisited agreements with
                                                           Third Countries
  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


Improving management of European fisheries

  Differentiated regime for
  small-scale coastal fleets

  Making the most of our
  fisheries
  Relative stability
  Trade and markets

  Aquaculture

  Scientific advice

  Public financial support

  External dimension

  Integration into IMP
     European Commission
     Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




Maritime policy and sector policies
•   The Maritime Policy is basically about ensuring coherence and
    synergy whenever human activities which depend on the
    marine domain or which impacts marine ecosystems interacts
•   Two situations:
    • Strong interaction - activities where two or more sectors interact or
      there are strong synergy potentials
        • Indirectly through the environment • Marine strategy
        • Competition for space                 • Spatial planning
        • Economically – living conditions and development in coastal
          communities                           • Regional development
        • Data and information                  • EMODNET, Research strategy
        • Etc
    • Weak interaction - Activity which does not (or only marginally)
      interact with other sectors
        • Fishing herring away from shipping lanes and oil rigs
        • Building a wind mill farm outside zones of interest to transport,
          fishing, tourism etc (if such exist!)
European Commission
Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries


                                Objectives IMP:

                          CFP and IMP
                                    Maximise sustainable use oceans/seas
                                    Build knowledge/innovation base
                                    Deliver high quality of life in coastal regions
      Integration                   Promote Europe‟s leadership globally
                                    Raise visibility of maritiime Europe


      Strong interaction: Spaceparticular sector is only one
                Maritime sectors interact in many ways, CFP
                of them - in principle not a

                CFP should be Environment
      Strong interaction:coherent with maritime policies, regional
                                and cohesion policies, other sector policies

      Strong interaction: Coastal Development
                Focus on strong interaction

                                Look for synergy potential

      Strong interaction: Climate Change
European Commission
Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




                          CFP and IMP
      Integration

      Strong interaction: Space

      Strong interaction: Environment
          Space (and competition for space)
            • interaction: Coastal Development
      Strong Fisheries/aquaculture have potentially
            great interest, because: large spatial user,
            small contributor – rationalization of use
      Strong interaction: Climate Change
            of space supportive
            • Knowledge underlying spatial planning
            may help focus fisheries
   European Commission
   Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




                             CFP and IMP
Environment (Marine strategy – H/B Directives) -
Ecosystems approach
   •
         Integration
     Goes beyond fisheries – but fisheries impact is important
   • Address both impacts from and on fisheries

       Strong interaction: Space
   • Good environmental status obligations (healthy ecosystem
   including healthy stocks, sustainable use)
         Strong interaction: Environment
   •   CFP dimension in all steps of marine strategy implementation
        Strong interaction: Coastal Development
   (definition good environmental status, targets, measures, implementation,
   assessment)
   • Measures that work for both ecosystem and fisheries
         Strong interaction: Climate Change
   (reduction of fishing pressure / effort; area protection; species protection)
   European Commission
   Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




                             CFP and IMP
Coastal development
     Integration
  Fisheries essential for coastal communities?
   Economy? Culture? Social fabric?
      Strong compensation for loss
   Adaptation -interaction: Space of employment?
   Coastal communities development from CFP
      Strong interaction: Environment
   perspective?

         Strong interaction:
         Coastal Development
         Strong interaction: Climate Change
European Commission
Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




                          CFP and IMP
      Integration
                  Climate change
      Strong interaction: Space
           • Effects from fisheries
                    •   Effects on fisheries
      Strong interaction: Environment

      Strong interaction: Coastal Development

      Strong interaction:
      Climate Change
    European Commission
    Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

                                                                         ?
                     CFP reform process
?
                    ?
               •    Adoption of Green Paper 22 April 2008

               •    Presentation in Council April 2008           ?
                                                                             ?
               •
                               ?
                    Council discussion May 2008
    ?          •                                             ?
                    Publication (web) background diagnosis of CFP performance

               •    Public debate until 31 December

               •         ?
                    Summary of debate first half of 2010
                                                                             ?
               •    Impact assessment

                         ?
                                         Have your say!
               •    Proposal beginning 2011

                                                                     ?
    ?
               •    Adoption end 2012
  European Commission
  Directorate General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries




http://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/reform

				
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