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									Major Carlos Rascon



   NS310 Evolution of Warfare
NS310 Evolution of Warfare
              SOURCES
• Dupuy and Dupuy, “Understanding War
  from Historical Perspective”, Marine Corps
  Gazette, June 1985, pp. 53-58
• American National Security, “Terrorism”,
  September 11, 2002
• RADM Zelibor, “The Warfighter’s
  Perspective”


               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
        Learning Objectives
• Comprehend the proliferation of terrorism
  and its use as a political and military
  method of warfare
• Comprehend the acts against the U.S. on
  Sept. 11, 2001 and explain the U.S.’s
  response towards Afghanistan in
  Operation Enduring Freedom


               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
    Terrorism is a Political Act
• A weapon of psychological purposes
• Premeditated, politically motivated
  violence perpetrated against
  noncombatant targets by subnation or
  clandestine agents usually intended to
  influence an audience



               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
    Terrorism is a Political Act
• Creates extreme fear and anxiety in a
  target group larger than immediate victims
  • “Extra-normal violence in a symbolic act”
  • Specific victims have no particular
    significance to terrorist




                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
     Terrorism is Not Irrational
• Terrorist use logic that links
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Strategy




                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
   Political Goals of Terrorism
• Create sense of vulnerability in larger
  target population
• To publicize terrorists’ plight (gain
  recognition)
• To embolden their allies and supporters
  • Provoke violent reaction



                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
   Political Goals of Terrorism
• Force policy change by adversary through
  public pressure
  • Turn public against authorities
• Push adversary into self-constraining acts
  • Martial law




                  NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Terrorism in Historical Perspective
• Acts of terrorism recorded over 2000 years
  ago in Middle East
• Term “terrorism” coined during the French
  Revolution (1790’s)




               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
         “Traditional” Terrorism
• Terrorists’ Concern for legitimacy
   • Moderated strategy of violence
• Violence calibrated in relation to political
  objectives
   • Leaves future possibility for negotiation and political
     settlement
   • Excessive violence reduces legitimacy and claims for
     support
      • PLO & Israel (until 2001)
• Terrorists always claimed credit for their acts
                       NS310 Evolution of Warfare
       “Traditional” Terrorism
• 10% Terrorists caught or killed
  • 50% caught went to jail
• Therefore low personal risk
• Origins and Actions Nation- Based




                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Recent Terrorists Acts against the
              U.S.
• 1983- U.S. Embassy & Marine Corps
  Barracks, Lebanon
• 1989- Lockerbe PA103 bombing
• 1993- World Trade Center
• 1996- Oklahoma City
• 1998- East Africa Embassy Bombings
• 2000- USS Cole, Yemen
• 2001- WTC & Pentagon
              NS310 Evolution of Warfare
States Sponsoring Terrorism Today
•   Iran
•   Iraq
•   Syria
•   Sudan
•   Libya
•   North Korea
•   Cuba

                  NS310 Evolution of Warfare
        The “New” Terrorism
• Religion based
  • Self legitimacy – no need for restraint
  • Sense of superiority- no need for restraint
  • Personal risk is unimportant; sacred misson
• Greater Violence – Greater “Good”
  • Death of victims reduces number of non-
    beleivers


                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
         The “New” Terrorism
• 1995: 25% of terrorist
  attacks religion-
  based
• Claiming credit for
  specific acts less
  important
  • Political message is
    vulnerability and
    destruction of
    adversary

                   NS310 Evolution of Warfare
          The “New” Terrorism
• Transitional
• Better technology and means
  for terror effects
  • Communications
  • Financial
  • Weaponry and explosives
• Greater Vulnerability of
  Modern Urban Technological
  Societies
  • Fragile complex systems
  • Energy
  • Transport
                    NS310 Evolution of Warfare
September 11, 2001




    NS310 Evolution of Warfare
NS310 Evolution of Warfare
  Operation Enduring Freedom
• United States response to September 11
  • Afghanistan harbored terrorists
  • War against Taliban, not all of Afghanistan




                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
NS310 Evolution of Warfare
  Operation Enduring Freedom




• Different than Desert Storm
  •   Extended ranges
  •   Targets intermingled with non-targets
  •   Few fixed targets
  •   Non-traditional targets
                      NS310 Evolution of Warfare
NS310 Evolution of Warfare
         Tactics
• 92% LGB’s
• 85% Non-Fixed
• After day 12, 93% of
  targets not ID’d to
  pilot until after launch




                    NS310 Evolution of Warfare
      Non-Standard Targeting
• Emphasis on:
  • Positive ID
  • Precision Targeting
  • Blue/White Force
    Deconfliction
  • SOF control direct to
    cockpit
  • Minimal collateral damage




                   NS310 Evolution of Warfare
NS310 Evolution of Warfare
  Operation Enduring Freedom
• Leaflets were dropped on sites before bombing
• Both in English and the native languages in
  which they were dropped. Quite a variety

• “OSAMA BIN LADEN THE MURDERER AND
  COWARD HAS ABANDONED AL QAIDA . HE
  HAS ABANDONED YOU AND RUN AWAY.
  GIVE YOURSELF UP AND DO NOT DIE
  NEEDLESSLY. YOU MEAN NOTHING TO HIM.
  SAVE YOUR FAMILIES THE GRIEF AND PAIN
  OF YOUR DEATH.”

                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Al- Qaida Caves in Tora Bora




         NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Leadership Interception Operations
• After Taliban Fell, Navy was tasked with
  ensuring no Taliban or Al-Qaida members
  fled by sea




               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Large Naval Contingent of Coalition
            Partners
• 100+ Ships from 12 nations




               NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Targets and Tactics




     NS310 Evolution of Warfare
                 Summary
• To counteract terrorism the U.S. has
  aggressively encouraged countries to stop
  harboring terrorists.
• The U.S. is working on Homeland Defense to
  enhance the response capabilities of military,
  federal, state, and local emergency responders
  to terrorist incidents and incidents involving
  weapons of mass destruction
• War on Terrorism

                 NS310 Evolution of Warfare
Questions?




NS310 Evolution of Warfare

								
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