AN ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY UNDER PRESIDENT OLUSEGUN OBASANJO’S ADMINISTRATION 19

					AN ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
 UNDER PRESIDENT OLUSEGUN OBASANJO’S
        ADMINISTRATION, 1999-2007




                      BY



              OMOTERE TOPE
              N.C.E., B.A. (Ed)




             SEPTEMBER, 2011




              Published Online By:
               EgoBooster Books
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                          © 2011 Omotere Tope

                         ISBN: 978-1-105-18705-6



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                                    2
                    ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Omotere Tope attended Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto- Ijanikin,
Lagos from 2002 to 2006 (N.C.E. in Christian Religious Studies/ History) and holds a
B.A. (Ed) in History and Diplomatic Studies from Tai Solarin University of
Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State. He has undergone training at the United
States Institute of Peace (Online Training Program) with a certificate of course
completion in Conflict Analysis.

He conducts researches (both online and offline) to produce academic works that
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                                         3
AN ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
 UNDER PRESIDENT OLUSEGUN OBASANJO’S
        ADMINISTRATION, 1999-2007

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.3 Statement of the problem
1.4 Literature Review
1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Research Methodology


CHAPTER TWO
Evolution and Development of Nigerian Foreign Policy
2.1 Concept of Foreign Policy
2.2 Evolution of Nigerian Foreign Policy
2.3 Objectives of Nigerian Foreign Policy
2.4 Principles of Nigerian Foreign Policy
2.5 Instrument of Nigerian Foreign Policy
2.6 Institutional Actors of Nigerian Foreign Policy

CHAPTER THREE
President Olusegun Obasanjo's Foreign Policy
3.1 Foreign Policy Under Obasanjo’s Administration
3.2 Philosophy Guiding Nigerian Foreign Policy
3.3 Domestic Factors Influencing Nigeria’s Foreign Policy
3.4 Influence of the Personality of President Olusegun Obasanjo
     on Nigerian Foreign Policy

                              4
3.5   Nigeria’s Relations with Major Powers
3.6   Relations with Rising Powers and African Countries

CHAPTER FOUR
Evaluation of President Olusegun Obasanjo's Foreign Policy,
4.1 Obasanjo’s Shuttle Diplomacy: Successes and Failures
4.2 Achievements of President Olusegun Obasanjo’s Foreign
     Policy
4.3 Challenges Faced by President Olusegun Obasanjo in the
     Implementation of Nigerian Foreign Policy

CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation.

Bibliography




                               5
AN ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
 UNDER PRESIDENT OLUSEGUN OBASANJO’S
        ADMINISTRATION, 1999-2007



ABSTRACT


This study examines Nigeria’s foreign policy under President

Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration (1999-2007). It provides a

detailed background on the impact of Obasanjo’s shuttle

diplomacy in re-building Nigeria’s image in international politics.

The study analyses the domestic policies of the Obasanjo’s

administration and how it shaped the country’s policy of

partnership especially with the western powers and the

implication of this partnership on Nigeria economic growth

between 1999 and 2007. Historical research method was employed

in this study. Both primary and secondary source materials were

used by the researcher. The study established that while President

Olusegun Obasanjo had his shortcomings in foreign policy

                                6
implementation, the nation has achieved significant gains through

the regime’s shuttle diplomacy. Generally, Nigeria’s increasing

profile in its foreign relations implies that the nation has regained

its role as a leading player in multilateral politics and diplomacy.




                                 7
                                   CHAPTER ONE


                                  INTRODUCTION




1.1     Background of the Study


        The history of Nigerian foreign policy since 1960 has

constantly been changing, though the principles guiding her

foreign relations remain the same.1 Nigerian leaders are largely

responsible for these unstable external relations. Since Nigeria’s

foreign policy is deeply rooted in Africa with strategic emphasis

on     political      and      economic          cooperation,        peaceful        dispute

resolution, and global nonalignment,2 Nigerian leaders also have

their attention fixed on the successful implementation of these

principles. However, the influence of personality on Nigeria’s


1 I. A. Gambari, Theory and Reality in Foreign Policy Making: Nigeria After the Second Republic,

Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1989, p.21.

2 M. B., Ogunbanjo, ‘’Theoretical Perspectives on Nigeria Foreign Policy’’ Monograph Series,
Department of Political Science and Sociology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo, 2002, No. 2,
p.2


                                             8
relations with other countries cannot be totally ignored as

different leaders adopt different styles in conducting external

relations.


        Examining the personality of the leader both at the

theoretical and practical levels is therefore important in

understanding Nigeria’s foreign policy. Again, analysis of

Nigeria’s foreign policy show that her leaders operate within four

“concentric circles” of national interest. The innermost circle

represents Nigeria’s own security, independence and prosperity

and is centered on its immediate neighbours - Benin, Cameroon,

Chad and Niger; the second circle revolves around Nigeria’s

relations with its West African neighbors; the third circle focuses

on continental African issues of peace, development and

democratization; and the fourth circle involves Nigeria’s relations

with organizations, institutions and states outside Africa.3 With

3A. Adebajo and A. R. Mustapha, eds. Gulliver's Troubles: Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the Cold
War. Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press, 2008.

                                              9
this in mind, each Nigerian head of state or president work to

ensure that no single part is defected in pursuing the country’s

foreign policy. Evidences abound on how past Nigerian heads of

state or presidents have worked within these four concentric

circles.


      At independence, Nigeria as a sovereign state began to

conduct her foreign relations under the political and governmental

leadership of its Prime Minister, the late Alhaji (Sir) Abubakar

Tafawa Balewa whose administration emphasized Africa to be

centre piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy. His own foreign relation

was pro-west particular with Britain, Nigeria’s erstwhile colonial

master. With the bloody military coup of January 15, 1966, the late

Major General J.T.U. Aguiyi Ironsi came to power only, to be

killed in a counter coup staged six months later. This development

brought the General Yakubu Gowon to power. Gowon borrowed a

leaf from Balewa by being pro-West in his foreign affairs. He


                                10
entered into agreement with Britain, the United States and other

Europeans countries. However, his administration reluctantly

allowed the Soviet Union to open its embassy in Lagos.


     The Gowon led Federal Military Government was sacked in

a bloodless coup which led to the assumption of power by the late

General Murtala Ramat Mohammed and the General (now Chief)

Olusegun Obasanjo who was his second in command and Chief of

Staff Supreme Headquarters.


     The assumption of power by these two men served as a

catalyst in the history of international relations as far as Nigeria

was concerned. Their government injected new innovations and

dynamism into the nation’s foreign affairs. Mohammed was

prepared to counter the imperial moves of the Western powers

especially the United States who had emerged as a major power

broker in Africa particularly in Angola. Britain and Portugal also

became targets of the new military administration while not

                                11
leaving Cube, a surrogate of the Soviet Union both of whom were

present in Angola, challenging the United States (US) presence

there. These Western Powers, Cuba as wells as South Africa

became the target of Mohammed/Obasanjo military regime in

Africa.4 One basic fact that must be stressed is the fact that this

was the age of the Cold War during which the US and the Soviet

Union were competing for military supremacy and searching for

satellite countries who would support them in their bid to

permanently polarize the world into Capitalist and Communist

Blocs under the US and Soviet Union respectively.


       Given the above situation the Muhammed Obasanjo regime

arose as a diplomatic gadfly ready to sting these powers in its

resolve to emancipate African countries that were still under the

tyranny of colonial masters; eradicate neo-colonialism, racism and



4A., Ogunsanwo, Nigerian Military and Foreign Policy, 1975-1979 Unpublished Manuscript,
University of Lagos Pol. Science Dept. 1980, pp 190-201.


                                         12
apartheid on the African continent particularly in Portuguese

colonies in Africa and racism/apartheid in Southern Africa.


With all these involvements in international politics, Nigeria

became a regional power and centre of influence, particularly in

Africa. This combined with a viable economy until the mid-1980s,

Nigeria was a toast of many states seeking either its influence or

support on global issues or financial assistance. Concomitantly,

Nigerians were respected abroad, while the tendency to emigrate

abroad was not popular. Fraudulent tendencies on the part of

Nigerians abroad were at the lowest ebb.



However, the post-Shagari administration’s military regimes

played deciding roles in the image- destruction of the Nigerian

state in foreign affairs. Thus, the period covering 1980-1999,

Nigeria’s foreign policy during this period received some setbacks.

First, the draconian policies of the Buhari regime attracted wide


                                13
criticism from the international community. Second, the failure of

the economic diplomacy of Gen. I.B. Babangida through the

Structural        Adjustment            Programme            (SAP)        and      subsequent

annulment of June 12, 1993 general elections led to the breakdown

of domestic policies in the country. Third, the Bazuka foreign

policy style of late Gen. Sani Abacha                          further deteriorated the

foreign image of Nigeria especially with its key allies in Europe

and America. These were the situations when President Olusegun

Obasanjo came to power in 1999. 5



President Olusegun Obasanjo, at inauguration in May, 1999,

inherited a nation with a battered image and without credibility

externally. In his determination to regain Nigeria’s lost glory and

re-integrate it to




5
 U. B. Inamete, Foreign policy decision-making in Nigeria, Susquehanna University Press, 2001, Pp.
290-203
                                                14
the civilized world, he engaged in a deft shuttle diplomacy across

the major capitals of the globe. The president, during his extensive

foreign trips, have addressed the UN, ECOWAS, the Group of 8

(G-8), Group 77 (G-77), the Commonwealth, African Union (AU)

and EU.

      The nation has achieved significant gains through the

regime’s shuttle diplomacy. Apart from the psychological relief

following its re-integration and accommodations into the world

affairs,   Nigeria   had   assumed   the   leadership   of   several

international organizations notably the ECOWAS, AU, and G-77.

It had hosted very important international summits including

those of the Commonwealth Heads of State and Government and

the AU in 2004, the New Partnership for African Development

(NEPAD) in 2005, and severally, the ECOWAS since 1999. The

nation had also hosted the All Africa Games in 2004. Obasanjo had

been the guest of honour to the UN Educational, Scientific and



                                15
Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in May 2004.6 All these imply

that the international system has restored its confidence in

Nigeria. The regime’s economic diplomacy also has yielded

economic dividends for the nation. In addition to increased

Development Finance Inflow (DFI) and foreign investments, the

Paris Club had cancelled $18 billion (60%) of the nation’s over $30

billion external, a gesture, which signifies the Club’s confidence in

the nation’s economy and credibility as an external debtor.7

Generally, Nigeria’s increasing profile in its foreign relations

implies that the nation has regained its role as a leading player in

multilateral politics and diplomacy.

       It can be said therefore that period covering 1999-2007

Nigeria’s foreign policy received a new turn in restoring the image

of the country through a global shuttle diplomacy of President

Olusegun Obasanjo Therefore, the focus of this present study is to


6 E. Okpokpo1999. The Challenges facing Nigeria's Foreign Policy in the Next Millenium
African Studies Quarterly | Volume 3, Issue 3 | 2000, 3(2) P. 4.
7 U. B. Inamete, Op. Cit., P. 308


                                           16
examine the role played by President Olusegun Obasanjo in

restoring the image of the country, analyse his foreign policy

posture and give a critical appraisal of the success and failures in

terms of domestic and international repositioning.


1.2          Objectives of the Study


             This study seeks to achieve the following objectives:


      (i)      Provide a detailed background to Nigeria’s foreign policy

               under President Olusegun Obasanjo from 1999 to 2007

               focusing on his achievements and shortcomings;

      (ii)     Examine the impact of Obasanjo’s shuttle diplomacy in

               re-building Nigeria’s image as a regional power in Africa;

      (iii)    Analyse Obasanjo’s policy of partnership especially with

               the western powers and the implication of this

               partnership on Nigeria economic growth between 1999

               and 2007;



                                       17
      (iv)    Discuss    the   contributions     of    Nigeria   under   the

              administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo to the

              security and peace-building in Africa; and lastly,

      (v)     Provide a critique of the personality of President

              Olusegun     Obasanjo        and   its    influence   in   the

              implementation of Nigeria’s foreign policy towards other

              states as well as international organizations.

1.3         Statement of the problem


            Relations between Nigeria and other state and non–state

actors in international politics from 1999 onward were based on

democratic principles. The tit-for-tat diplomacy of late Gen. Sani

Abacha, de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998 had greatly

damaged the image of Nigeria. The government was accused of

human rights abuses and was repeatedly condemned by the U.S.

State Department. There were break in relationship with many

countries with threats of economic sanctions from others. Apart


                                      18
from this, the government was characterized by an inconsistent

foreign policy which made Nigeria a scorn in the comity of

nations. The coming of President Olusegun Obasanjo and the

various reforms which he embarked upon actually brought

Nigeria out of the messy situation that Gen. Sani Abacha led the

country into. For President Olusegun Obasanjo to have achieved

such a feat in restoring the image of the country deserves scholarly

attention. This study therefore aims to provide a critical appraisal

of Obasanjo’s foreign policy with emphasis on his use of

expatriates in the conduct of external relations; shifting of policy to

accommodate China, India and other rising powers; reintegration

of Nigeria into the African Union, the United Nations and other

international organizations; and the revolution in domestic

policies that favoured strategic repositioning of Nigerian

economy.




                                 19
1.4        Literature Review


           Review of literature in historical research is sin qua non in

determining the nature of the research as it provides the basis for

the understanding of what other have said or written about the

subject matter. It therefore becomes imperative to review what

other scholars have written about Nigerian foreign policy since

1960 with special attention on President Olusegun Obasanjo’s

foreign policy from 1999 to 2007.


           One of the most important works on Nigerian foreign policy

is Ufot Bassey Inamete, Foreign policy decision-making in Nigeria,8

which examines Nigeria's foreign policy decision-making system

together with the other factors that shape and determine foreign

policy. It gives the reader an understanding of the foreign-policy

structures, processes, dynamics, and outputs in Nigeria. It also

looks at how personalities affect foreign policy decision making in


8
    U. B. Inamete, Op. Cit., P. 2
                                     20
Nigeria. The reader also gains an understanding of how foreign-

policy decision-making system impact on foreign-policy outputs

in medium-sized countries. Although, no special attention was

given to the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo which

is the major concern of this study, this work is of importance to

this study as it discusses the issues of personality in the

development of Nigerian foreign policy.


Bassey Ate’s Decolonization and Dependence: The Development of

Nigeria-US Relations, 1960-19849 is a good contribution to the

study. Despite the variations in the years, the work systematically

analyses the development of the relationship between Nigeria and

the US during the dynamic era of decolonization with special

attention on General Olusegun Obasanjo first outing as head of

state. This study serves as a basis for analyzing Nigeria’s stand on

some key issues with the major world powers. Although, Bassey is


9 A. Bassey, Decolonization and Independence: The Development of Nigerian-US Relations, 1960-
1984, Colorado: West View Press Inc., 1987, p. 193.
                                             21
not directly connected to the present study, it gives a vivid

background on the historical past of the friendly Olusegun

Obasanjo when he was the military head of state between 1976

and 1979 and how this later helped in running the affairs of

Nigeria from 1999 to 2007.


        Ray Ofoegbu’s Foreign Policy and Military Rule10 examined

three military governments in Nigeria and played much emphasis

on the third Military Government (1975-1979). To Ofoegbu, it was

the third Military Government first led by General Murtala

Mohammed that brought radicalism into Nigeria’s foreign policy.

The radicalism which was introduced into Nigeria’s foreign policy

led to confrontation with major powers which invariably caused

diplomatic conflict especially with the United States in 1975. From

1977, the relationship began to normalize. Lieutenant General

Olusegun Obasanjo, being the new leader of Nigeria, renewed


10R. Ofoegbu, “Foreign Policy and Military Rule” in O. Oyediran (ed) Nigerian Government
and Politics under military Rule. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillian Press, 1979, p. 135
                                             22
Nigeria’s radical foreign policy and once again, began to make

close ties with President Jimmy Carter of the United States.

Ofoegbu’s work will be of immense value to this study. Once

again, one notices that the work does not centre on President

Olusegun Obasanjo but did provide a detailed background of his

past activities which will make us to understand his policy

positions between 1999 and 2007 on international relations.


       Olayiwola Abegunrin, Nigerian Foreign Policy under Military

Rule, 1966-1999,11           provides a significant and comprehensive

examination of Nigerian foreign policy (1966-1999) during the

almost 33 years of military rule, punctuated by the four-year

civilian interregnum, 1979-1983. He analyzes what led to the

military rule in 1966, and the foreign policy performance of each

military regime that ruled the country since 1966. He also

discusses extensively the economic dimension of the nation's

11
 O. Abegunrin, Nigerian Foreign Policy under Military Rule, 1966-1999, Greenwood Publishing
Group, Pp 2-10
                                           23
foreign policy. He shows that the last 15 years, the period of

Generals Babangida and Abacha, were the most corrupt and

brutal that Nigeria had seen since independence. The mysterious

sudden death of General Sani Abacha led to the appointment of

General Abubakar, who handed power over to an elected civilian

government in May 1999, led by President Olusegun Obasanjo. Of

particular interest to scholars, students, and other researchers

involved with African politics and foreign policy and the role of

the military in political affairs. This work is directly useful to this

study as it help in providing information regarding nigeria’s

political and economic situations before the coming of President

Olusegun Obasanjo in 1999.


        Adekeye Adebajo and Abdul Raufu Mustapha,(eds.)

Gulliver's Troubles: Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the Cold War12

examines Nigerian foreign policy during the first 12 years after the


12
 A. Adebajo and A. R. Mustapha,(eds.) Gulliver's Troubles: Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the
Cold War, Scottsville, South Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press, 2008, Pp . 1-22
                                              24
end of the Cold War in order to answer questions associated with

changes in the global arena and determines whether Nigerian

foreign policy remains relevant in this new period of international

relations. Its sixteen chapters provide incisive analytical coverage,

conceptual insights and empirical richness, pointing to the factors

and imperatives which have shaped Nigeria’s foreign policy since

the end of the Cold War. That it succeeds so admirably is a tribute

to the editors and well-chosen authors. Each chapter helps to

impose order on this complex mosaic.


     There are challenges for Nigeria’s foreign policy, especially

with a change of guard since the significant but deeply flawed

elections of April 2007. Critically, how it meets these challenges

will depend on how it balances the demands and dynamics of the

three concentric circles that underpin its foreign policy. This book

is path-breaking in helping us to understand why this ‘giant with




                                25
clay feet’ under the leadership of President Olusegun Obasanjo

shaped the fortunes of Nigeria in the world.


        Osita C. Eze, Beyond 50 Years of Nigeria's Foreign Policy: Issues,

Challenges and Prospects,13                   looks at fifty years of Nigeria's

relationship with the rest of the world and how it has generally

reflected its efforts at promoting Africa's interests and at the same

time grappling with its domestic development.


        The work examines how other institutional actors affect

Nigerian foreign policy under Obasanjo. The foreign policy

implementers and monitors identified in part two are the Ministry

of Foreign Affairs, the Directorate of Technical Aid Corps, the

Directorate of Technical Cooperation in Africa, and the Mass

Media. The issues and challenges with which they are faced are

explicated. For instance, Ummuna H. Orjiako of the Foreign

Ministry, analysed some major constraints facing the Ministry and

13 O. C. Eze, Beyond 50 Years of Nigeria's Foreign Policy: Issues, Challenges and Prospects, NIIA,
P. 400
                                               26
noted that ‘to stem the tide of eroding professionalism and

decline, to take advantage of the prospects and opportunities

presented by a changing domestic and external environment, the

Nigerian foreign policy establishment must seek to confront and

address the litany of known challenges in the Foreign Ministry.’14


          However, as authoritative as these works were, there is

much to be covered on President Olusegun Obasanjo’s on

Nigeria’s foreign policy and how other countries view or relate

with Nigeria since 1999. This research work therefore seeks to

update and cover areas such as the long term effect of Obasanjo’s

foreign policy on Nigeria’s external relations.




14   ThisDay Newspaper, The New Roundtable on Nigeria’s Foreign Policy 09 Oct 2010, P. 12



                                            27
1.5   Scope and Limitations of the Study


      This study focuses on Nigeria’s foreign policy under the

administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo from 1999 to 2007.

It looks at the influence of personality on the conduct of foreign

policy. Other areas which this study covers include the domestic

factors that influenced the foreign policy of President Olusegun

Obasanjo. Moreover, the key achievements of Obasanjo’s foreign

policy as regards domestic economic growth, political stability,

regional security, and international participation are covered in

this research. However, the research will be limited to the foreign

policy implementations of President Olusegun Obasanjo and does

not intend to provide a biography of the man nor do a

comprehensive study of all his political activities in Nigeria.


      In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting

the researcher is not the scarcity of materials but its availability

some of which are bias in their presentation. Moreso, this research

                                 28
work is contemporary and politically sensitive. The researcher

therefore is confronted with the problem of interpretation of the

actions of President Olusegun Obasanjo as some of the policies

initiated are still an on-ongoing process.


      Finally, there is the question of time and fund which may

serve as impediments to this research.         Nevertheless, these

limitating factors will greatly be managed to make the research

work more objective in its presentation.


1.6   Significance of the Study


This study is very important for certain reasons.


First, the study is of paramount importance to decision makers

and the would-be diplomats for it traces the historical

development of Nigeria foreign policy since 1960.


      Second, it helps to re-affirm the bold attempt made by the

democratic government under the leadership of            President


                                  29
Olusegun Obasanjo to rebuild the lost image of Nigeria in the

comity of nations by addressing the issues of corruption, debt and

political tensions in the country.


      Third, this research work will help in providing information

on the domestic factors that influenced Nigeria’s foreign policy

under President Olusegun Obasanjo from 1999 to 2007.


      Fourth, it is useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic

historians, political scientists, economists and international

relations experts in their research. Diplomats like ambassadors,

high commissioners and staffers of foreign ministries will benefit

from the work.


      Finally, the political and military class will learn, through

this study, the need for them to be patriotic like President

Olusegun Obasanjo who acted as Nigeria’s arrowhead in the

international arena.



                                 30
1.7   Research Methodology


      Historical research method is used in carrying out this

study. However, a critical examination of the dramatic relations

between Nigeria and other countries during President Olusegun

Obasanjo’s administration from 1999 to 2007 will be analyzed

using findings from both primary and secondary sources.


      The primary sources include written documents such as

government publications, letters, correspondence, documentaries

and newspapers. Oral interviews were conducted to complement

the other sources.


      Furthermore, this research work depends largely on archival

materials to gather relevant materials on the study. Field trips will

also be employed to access information from the Nigerian Institute

of International Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in

order to get relevant information regarding the research work.



                                31
Moreover, this study depends on secondary sources such as

books, journals, conference proceedings and internet sources

which are to be explored to enrich this work.




                                32
                           Endnotes


1. A. Gambari, Theory and Reality in Foreign Policy Making:
   Nigeria After the Second Republic, Atlantic Highlands, New
   Jersey: Humanities Press International, 1989, p.21.

2. M. B., Ogunbanjo, ‘’Theoretical Perspectives on Nigeria
   Foreign Policy’’ Monograph Series, Department of Political
   Science and Sociology, Babcock University, Ilisan Remo,
   2002, No. 2, p.2

3. A. Adebajo and A. R. Mustapha, eds. Gulliver's Troubles:
   Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the Cold War. Scottsville, South
   Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press, 2008.


4. A., Ogunsanwo, Nigerian Military and Foreign Policy, 1975-
   1979 Unpublished Manuscript, University of Lagos Pol.
   Science Dept. 1980, pp 190-201.

5. U. B. Inamete, Foreign policy decision-making in Nigeria,
   Susquehanna University Press, 2001, Pp. 290-203

6. E. Okpokpo1999. The Challenges facing Nigeria's Foreign
   Policy in the Next Millenium African Studies Quarterly |
   Volume 3, Issue 3 | 2000, 3(2) P. 4.

7. U. B. Inamete, Op. Cit., P. 308

8. U. B. Inamete, Op. Cit., P. 2




                               33
9. A. Bassey, Decolonization and Independence: The Development of
   Nigerian-US Relations, 1960-1984, Colorado: West View Press
   Inc., 1987, p. 193.

10. R. Ofoegbu, “Foreign Policy and Military Rule” in O.
   Oyediran (ed) Nigerian Government and Politics under military
   Rule. London and Basingstoke: The Macmillian Press, 1979,
   p. 135

11. O. Abegunrin, Nigerian Foreign Policy under Military Rule,
   1966-1999, Greenwood Publishing Group, Pp 2-10

12. A. Adebajo and A. R. Mustapha,(eds.) Gulliver's Troubles:
   Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the Cold War, Scottsville, South
   Africa: University of KwaZulu Natal Press, 2008, Pp . 1-22

13. O. C. Eze, Beyond 50 Years of Nigeria's Foreign Policy: Issues,
   Challenges and Prospects, NIIA, P. 400


14. ThisDay Newspaper, The New Roundtable on Nigeria’s
   Foreign Policy 09 Oct 2010, P. 12




                               34
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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: This study examines Nigeria’s foreign policy under President Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration (1999-2007). It provides a detailed background on the impact of Obasanjo’s shuttle diplomacy in re-building Nigeria’s image in international politics. The study analyses the domestic policies of the Obasanjo’s administration and how it shaped the country’s policy of partnership especially with the western powers and the implication of this partnership on Nigeria economic growth between 1999 and 2007. Historical research method was employed in this study. Both primary and secondary source materials were used by the researcher. The study established that while President Olusegun Obasanjo had his shortcomings in foreign policy implementation, the nation has achieved significant gains through the regime’s shuttle diplomacy. Generally, Nigeria’s increasing profile in its foreign relations implies that the nation has regained its role as a leading player in multilateral politics and diplomacy.