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					              Types of Information System

                                 Information Systems

                                Lachlan M. MacKinnon

12.3IA1 : Information Systems                          Lachlan M. MacKinnon
           4 Levels of Information System
        Operational-level      Systems
             Support operational managers by keeping
              track of the elementary activities and
              transactions of the organisation. The principle
              purpose of systems at this level is to answer
              routine questions and track the flow of
              transactions through the organisation. Covers
              things such as sales, receipts, cash deposits,
              payroll, credit decisions, flow of materials.

12.3IA1 : Information Systems                         Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Knowledge-level        Systems

             Support knowledge and data workers in an
              organisation. The purpose of these systems is
              to help the organisation discover, organise and
              integrate new and existing knowledge intothe
              business, and to help control the flow of
              paperwork. These systems, specially in the
              form of collaboration tools, workstations, and
              office systems, are the fastest growing
              applications in business today.


12.3IA1 : Information Systems                        Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Management-level         Systems
             Designed to serve the the monitoring,
              controlling, decision-making, and
              administrative activities of middle managers.
              These typically provide periodic reports rather
              than instant information on operations. Some
              of these systems support non-routine decision-
              making, focusing on less-structured decisions
              for which information requirements are not
              always clear. This will often require
              information from outwith the organisation, as
              well as from normal operational-level data.

12.3IA1 : Information Systems                        Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Strategic-level        Systems

             Help senior management tackle and address
              strategic issues and long-term trends, both
              within the organisation and in the external
              environment. Principal concern is matching
              organisational capability to changes, and
              opportunities, occurring in the medium to
              long term (i.e. 5 - 10 years) in the external
              environment.



12.3IA1 : Information Systems                         Lachlan M. MacKinnon
             Typically, an organisation might have
              operational, knowledge, management and
              strategic level systems for each functional area
              within the organisation. This would be based
              on the management model adopted by the
              organisation, so, while the most commonly-
              adopted systems structure would simply follow
              the standard functional model, structures
              reflecting bureaucratic, product and matrix
              models are also possible.
             As identified before, enterprise level
              information systems attempt to encompass the
              whole organisation in one system.
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                         Lachlan M. MacKinnon
12.3IA1 : Information Systems   Lachlan M. MacKinnon
12.3IA1 : Information Systems   Lachlan M. MacKinnon
                  Operational-level Systems
        Transaction-Processing        Systems (TPS)
             Basic business systems
             Perform daily routine transactions necessary
              for business functions
             At the operational level, tasks, resources and
              goals are predefines and highly structured
             Generally, five functional categories are
              identified, as shown in the diagram.

12.3IA1 : Information Systems                         Lachlan M. MacKinnon
12.3IA1 : Information Systems   Lachlan M. MacKinnon
                   Knowledge-level Systems
        Office           Automation Systems (OAS)
             Targeted at meeting the knowledge needs of
              data workers within the organisation
             Data workers tend to process rather than
              create information. Primarily involved in
              information use, manipulation or
              dissemination.
             Typical OAS handle and manage documents,
              scheduling and communication.
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                        Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Knowledge              Work Systems (KWS)
             Targeted at meting the knowledge needs of
              knowledge workers within the organisation
             In general, knowledge workers hold degree-
              level professional qualifications (e.g.
              engineers, scientists, lawyers), their jobs
              consist primarily in crating new information
              and knowledge
             KWS, such as scientific or engineering design
              workstations, promote the creation of new
              knowledge, and its dissemination and
              integration throughout the organisation.
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                        Lachlan M. MacKinnon
                Management-level Systems
        Management             Information Systems (MIS)
             MIS provide managers with reports and, in
              some cases, on-line access to the organisations
              current performance and historical records
             Typically these systems focus entirely on
              internal events, providing the information for
              short-term planning and decision making.
             MIS summarise and report on the basic
              operations of the organisation, dependent on
              the underlying TPS for their data.
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                         Lachlan M. MacKinnon
12.3IA1 : Information Systems   Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Decision-Support       Systems (DSS)
             As MIS, these serve the needs of the
              management level of the organisation
             Focus on helping managers make decisions
              that are semi-structured, unique, or rapidly
              changing, and not easily specified in advance
             Use internal information from TPS and MIS,
              but also information from external sources
             Greater analytical power than other systems,
              incorporate modelling tools, aggregation and
              analysis tools, and support what-if scenarios
             Must provide user-friendly, interactivetools
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                        Lachlan M. MacKinnon
                     Voyage-estimating Decision Support System
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                                Lachlan M. MacKinnon
                       Strategic-level Systems
        Executive              Support/Information Systems
            (ESS/EIS)
             Serve the strategic level of the organisation
             ESS/EIS address unstructured decisions and
              create a generalised computing and
              communications environment, rather than
              providing any fixed application or specific
              capability. Such systems are not designed to
              solve specific problems, but to tackle a
              changing array of problems
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                           Lachlan M. MacKinnon
             ESS/EIS are designed to incorporate data about
              external events, such as new tax laws or
              competitors, and also draw summarised
              information from internal MIS and DSS
             These systems filter, compress, and track
              critical data, emphasising the reduction of
              time and effort required to obtain information
              useful to executive management
             ESS/EIS employ advanced graphics software to
              provide highly visual and easy-to-use
              representations of complex information and
              current trends, but they tend not to provide
              analytical models
12.3IA1 : Information Systems                       Lachlan M. MacKinnon
12.3IA1 : Information Systems   Lachlan M. MacKinnon
        Inter-relationships and inter-dependencies between IS types

12.3IA1 : Information Systems                             Lachlan M. MacKinnon

				
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