THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION (PowerPoint)

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					Enduring Understandings
1. International conflict often leads to domestic changes.
3. In times of crisis, people often turn to strong leaders in search of stability.
5. Conflicts of the 20th Century were rooted in political and ideological differences
around the world.


       THE RUSSIAN
       REVOLUTION
Key Questions
1. Describe the long-term and short-term causes of the Russian Revolution. Focus
   particularly on ideology, social, economic, military and political conditions.
2. Are all revolutions the same? Compare the Russian Revolution to the French
   Revolution.
 Day 1 – Crisis leads to Revolution
• Watch The Origins and Ideas of Communism and
  Socialism – answer the questions (page 1) to
  understand the ideologies of socialism and
  communism.
• Read (page 2) and answer the questions to
  understand the problems that Russians faced.
• Complete (page 3 part A) to understand the factors
  that led to the Russian Revolution while we go
  through the slide show.
Marxists
• Communism explained video –
  as you watch, answer the
  questions on the sheet.
 Unrest Begins in Russia due to
 the Czar
• Russia was a large empire and
  largely unindustrialized. (Not
  modern)
• Peasants lived in poverty, with a
  small elite in charge who
  mistreated them.
• The Czar was very autocratic
  (dictatorial)
• Used harsh police tactics to put
  down opponents
• Czar Nicholas had tried to improve
  conditions only following a
  revolution in 1905, but had no real
  effect.
• Nicholas was a weak and
  ineffective leader.
Industrialization helps Unrest to
Continue in Russia
• As industrialization occurred, urban workers
  began to feel mistreated and angry because:
   •   Low wages
   •   Bad working conditions
   •   Child labor
   •   Outlawed labor unions
   •   No political power
   •   Huge gap between rich and poor
• Many radical groups attempted revolutions,
  including Marxists,
• who tried to ignite revolution among the proletariat
  (growing class of factory workers and miners, etc).
Unrest Continues in Russia –
Russia loses to Japan

• The Czar makes a bad
  choice to mess with
  Japan.
• Japan beats up on the
  Russians
• Russia loses life, land and
  money
• People are unhappy and
  begin to protest.
Unrest Continues in Russia – Czar
makes things worse on Bloody
Sunday
• In 1905, workers marched in St Petersburg to
  demand better working conditions and a say in
  government.
• The Czar had them shot by soldiers – hundreds
  were killed – this was Bloody Sunday
• But a Duma – a legislature – was created to give
  people a voice – the Czar had it dissolved 10 weeks
  later.
Impact of WWI
•   The beginning of WWI fueled
    national pride and
    temporarily stopped calls for
    revolution.
•   By 1915, many troops were
    poorly supplied and starving,
    and casualties reached
    2,000,000.
•   In an effort to increase
    morale, Nicholas went to the
    front to lead his troops,
    leaving Czarina Alexandra in
    charge.
•   She relied on the advice of
    Rasputin, a self-proclaimed
    holy man.
•   After realizing this, Russian
    nobles murdered Rasputin in
    1916.
Somebody was Crazy
  The March Revolution forces The
  Czar to Step Down
• As WWI got worse for the Russians, many soldier
  mutinied or deserted
• People demanded change
• A huge protest and strike occurred in March 1917 in
  St Petersburg
• The protests spread across the country.
• The Duma (legislature) set up a provisional
  (temporary) government to deal with the war, strikes
  and starvation
• Revolutionaries began creating soviets (local
  councils of a democratic nature) outside of the
  provisional government to deal with these problems
  on a local level.
• The Czar was forced to step down in favor of the
  provisional government.
The Last Czar and why
Lenin and the
Bolsheviks
• Lenin, born to a middle class family,
  was familiar with the works of Karl
  Marx.
• He spread Marxist ideas to factory
  workers, which got him exiled from
  Western Russia.
• Lenin adapted Marx’s ideas because
  Russia did not have a large urban
  proletariat. He wanted an elite group
  to lead the revolution instead.
• He established the Bolsheviks,
  meaning majority, as a group
  supporting socialism.
The Provisional
Government’s Mistakes
• Led by Alexander
  Karensky, the provisional
  government continued to
  concentrate on the war
  effort in World War I and
  neglected to deal with
  land reform.
• These became fatal
  mistakes.
• Lenin, along with Leon
  Trotsky, gained support
  of many who were angry
  with the provisional
  government.
The Bolshevik Takeover
• In November of 1917, the
  Red Guards, who were
  armed factory workers,
  attacked the Russian
  government.
  • Seized control within days,
    and continued to takeover
    other cities.
• Land redistributed to
  peasants and control of
  mines and factories given
  to workers.
• Bolsheviks renamed
  Communists.
The Russian Revolution Begins
Civil War

• Reds (Communists) vs. Whites
  (counterrevolutionaries)
• The Allies intervened by helping
  the Whites because they
  needed Russia’s assistance in
  WWI.
• Reds win after 3 years
The New Government
• Russia became the USSR (Soviet Union)
• The Communist Party reigned supreme
• Lenin’s New Economic Policy
  • Allowed some capitalist ventures
  • Retreated from war communism
  • State controlled large industries and banks
  • Peasants controlled small plots of land and their
    own crops
  • Lenin saw this as a temporary retreat from
    Communism
Stalin Takes Over

• When Lenin dies, there are two
  possible successors, Trotsky
  and Stalin.
• Stalin strips Trotsky of party
  membership and returns the
  USSR to pure Communism.
                    QUICKWRITE


    How did War Communism differ
    from the New Economic Policy?

Give at least three specific
 differences.


•   Allgyer, 2007

				
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