THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE

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					Horney        (1885-1952)
Part 2




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Neurotic trends
          (in contrast to normal needs)

    disproportionate in intensity
    indiscriminant in application
        everyone must love me; I must be
         better than everyone; etc.
    disregard for reality
    intense anxiety if not satisfied
    Self

   Healthy:
        Real self  self-realization (full potential)


   Unhealthy:
        Idealized self  neurosis
           Tyranny of the “shoulds




             ALIENATION FROM THE REAL SELF
Externalization (self-obliteration)
   everything happens “outside of self,” and
    only changes outside of self will “fix things”
   external factors maintain idealized self

   externalization of rage
       Anger turned against others (instead of self)
       Fear that person’s faults will be intolerable to
        others (anger at self)
       Body disorders (anger at self)
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control
   arbitrary rightness
   elusiveness
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-control
   arbitrary rightness
   elusiveness
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control
   arbitrary rightness
   elusiveness
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control (no emotion)
   arbitrary rightness
   elusiveness
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control
   arbitrary
    rightness
   elusiveness
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control
   arbitrary rightness
   Elusiveness (no
    decision)
   cynicism
SECONDARY ADJUSTMENT
TECHNIQUES:
   blind spots
   compartmentalizing
   rationalization
   excessive self-
    control
   arbitrary rightness
   elusiveness
   Cynicism (so not
    disappointed)
Goals of Therapy
   Self-realization
       Being productive, truthful, and cooperative with
        others
       Prevent externalization
       In touch with real self
   Healthy characteristics:
       Responsibility
       Inner independence
       Spontaneity of feeling
       Wholeheartedness
Feminine
psychology

   Penis envy



   “womb” envy
Horney vs. Freud
   Early childhood
   Unconscious motivation
   Biological motivation (environment more
    important than anatomy)
   Optimistic, not pessimistic
   Therapy (self-analysis)
   Prognosis for change
Critique
Criticisms:
   Unoriginal ideas
   Little empirical support
   Disregard of healthy people


Contributions:
   Original ideas
   Self-analysis
   Feminine psychology
Erik Erikson
 (1902-1994)
The Epigenetic Principle

 "anything that grows has a ground plan”
  psychosocial

Personality affected by both:
 Biology
 Culture

Importance of the ego

life span approach
     General Sequence of Stages
                                   Ego
                             Strengthened or
                                weakened
                                               Ritualization


           Crisis:
Genetics   1.   immature              Virtue
           2.   critical
           3.   resolution
                                                 Ritualism


                        8 of
                       these
Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust

                  Age: 0-1
                  Value: Hope
Stage 1
   Ritualization:
        Numinous – cultural ways mother

         and child interact


   Ritualism:
        Idolism – excessive admiration

         instead of warm feeling to others
Stage 2: Autonomy versus
Shame, Doubt

                  Age: 1-3
                  Value: Will
Stage 2
   Ritualization:
        Judiciousness – learning right from

         wrong


   Ritualism:
        Legalism – preoccupation with rules

         instead of reason for rules
Stage 3: Initiative versus Guilt
(“imagination vs. limits”)


                        Age: 4-5
                        Value: Purpose
Stage 3
   Ritualization:
        Authenticity – role playing




   Ritualism:
        Impersonation – confusing playing

         a role with real personality
Stage 4: Industry versus
Inferiority
                   Age: 6-11
                   Value:
                   Competence
     As in Adler’s
“inferiority complex”?
         Wow!
Stage 4
   Ritualization:
        Formality – learning how things

         work in one’s culture


   Ritualism:
        Formalism – preoccupation with

         work, no interest in why things
         work
Stage 5: Identity versus Identity
Confusion
                        Age: 12-20
   moratorium
                        Value: Fidelity


   identity crisis

   role confusion
   negative identity
Stage 5
   Ritualization:
        Ideology – embracing a philosophy

         of life


   Ritualism:
        Totalism – embrace simplistic ideas

         of heroes
Stage 6: Intimacy versus
Isolation

                  Age: 20-24
                  Value: Love
Stage 6
   Ritualization:
        Affiliation – intimate relationship




   Ritualism:
        Elitism – superficial relationships w/

         a small group of people
Stage 7: Generativity versus
Stagnation
                     Age: 25-64
                     Value: Care
Stage 7
   Ritualization:
        Generationalism – transmit cultural

         values to next generation


   Ritualism:
        Authoritism – using power for

         selfish gains
Stage 8: Integrity versus Despair

                  Age: 65-death
                  Value: Wisdom
Stage 8
   Ritualization:
        Integralism – unification of

         previous ritualizations, see one’s
         life contributing to immortal culture

   Ritualism:
        Sapientism – pretense of being

         wise
Psychosocial Stages Compared with
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Psychosocial Stage (Erikson) Psychosexual Stage (Freud)
1. Trust vs. Mistrust                 Oral
2. Autonomy vs. Shame, Doubt          Anal
3. Initiative vs. Guilt               Phallic

4. Industry vs. Inferiority           Latency

5. Identity vs. Identity Diffusion

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
                                      Genital
7. Generativity vs. Self-Absorption

8. Integrity vs. Despair
Goal of Therapy
   Strengthen the ego, encourage growth
    of values

				
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