Recipes are made of Dry ingredients are usually in
individual particle form, such as flour, sugar,
ingredients that are baking powder, baking soda, salt
put together in a
specific way to create and spices. These ingredients
a final product. It tend to need sifting.
goes without saying
that each ingredient Wet ingredients are ingredients
that need to be poured. These
should be of the
highest quality, but
ingredients also carry
include milk, water, juice, eggs,
out specific oil, etc.
Solid ingredients refer to non-
ingredient plays a
role within a recipe liquids and include butter, cream
to form a final cheese, sour cream, yogurt,
chocolate, nuts and fruit.
Wheat Flour is the most important ingredient in a bakeshop because it provides
structure and strength to products, including breads, cakes, cookies and pastries.
Hard Wheat Soft Wheat
Hard wheat flours contain Soft Wheat flours
greater quantities of proteins have a low protein
called gluten when the flour content.
is moistened and mixed.
Used for making
cookies, cakes and
Strong Flours are flours
made from hard wheat with
a high protein content Weak Flours are
Used for making breads and flours made from soft
yeast products. wheat.
Composition of Wheat Kernel: 3 Parts
• Hard outer covering of kernel.
Bran • Present in whole wheat flour and high in
• Part of the kernel that becomes new wheat
Germ plant if allowed to sprout.
• High in fat and can quickly become rancid.
• Is the white starchy part of the kernel that
Endosperm remains when bran and germ are removed.
• This portion is milled into white flour.
The Milling of Wheat
Harvested wheat is
broken by rollers, Purifying: Any remaining
separating bran and germ bran particles are
The Milling Process: A layers from endosperm removed by air blowers.
into “break flour”
Wheat was once
made into flour
by grinding it
Sifting: Flour is sifted Reducing: Smoother
between two according to particle size rollers finely grind
into different streams. endosperm into flour.
the grain was
ground, it was
sifted to remove
some of the Classifying: Places
specific types of flour
bran. This together depending upon
the type of wheat.
sifting is called
Grades of Flours:
Patent Flour: Highest quality of all commercial grades of white
flour. It contains no bran or germ, but contains the inner most part of the
endosperm. Low in ash, white in color. Extra-short or fancy patent are
high quality patent flours.
Clear Flour: The lowest quality of all commercial grades of flour. It
is milled from the outer part of the endosperm. High in protein and ash,
and slightly gray in color. It is less expensive than patent flour. It is
commonly used in rye and whole grain breads.
Straight Flour: Is milled from the entire endosperm. Straight flour
uses all streams of the milling process and is darker in color than patent
flour. Straight flour is not often used in North American baking.
Composition of Flour
•Starch: White flour consists of 68 to 76% starch. Starch can absorb ¼ to ½ of
its weight in water.
•Protein: About 6 to 18% of white flour is protein, depending on the variety of
wheat. Proteins act as binding agents that hold the starch granules together in the
endosperm. About 80% of the proteins in flour are gluten.
•Moisture: Flour should always be stored in a dry place. The moisture content of
flour in good condition is 11-14%. Any higher and spoilage will occur.
•Gums: Gums are forms of carbohydrates that make up 2-3% of white flour.
Some gums can absorb 10 to 15 times their weight in water and serve as a source of
•Fats: Fats only make up about 1% of white flour but it is important to be aware
of them for gluten development and spoilage, giving flour an off flavor.
•Ash: Is the mineral content of flour. The higher the ash content, the darker the
flour. The ash content is determined by burning a sample of flour in a controlled
•Pigments: Orange-yellow pigments called carotenoids are present in flour in
tiny amounts. It gives flour a creamy color, rather than white.
You Should Also Know………
Absorption refers to the amount of
water a flour can take up and hold
Types of Flours:
while being made into a simple Straight flour
Patent Bread flour
Freshly milled flour is not good for
bread making. Aging flour is costly
and haphazard, however, so millers
may add small quantities of certain
chemicals to accomplish the same Hi-Gluten flour
Enriched Flour is flour to which
vitamins and minerals, mostly All Purpose flour
vitamins B and Iron, were added
to compensate for the nutrients
lost when the bran and germ were
Bread Flour: Is patent flour made from
Types of hard wheat and is ideal for yeast breads.
Patent Flours High-Gluten Flour: Flour with an
especially high protein content that is
Bakers generally sometimes used for hard crusted breads, pizza
dough and bagels. It is also used to strengthen
use the term dough that contain little or no gluten. A high
patent flour to gluten flour has 14% protein.
mean patent Cake Flour: Is a weak or low-gluten flour
bread flour. made from soft wheat. It has a soft smooth
Technically, all texture and a pure white color. It is used for
cakes and other delicate baked goods that
white flour require low gluten content.
except clear flour Pastry Flour: Is also a weak flour or low-
and straight flour gluten flour, but is slightly stronger than cake
is patent flour, flour. It has a creamy white color. Pastry flour is
including cake used for pie dough, cookies, biscuits and
and pastry flours.
A typical small Bread • Lump falls apart as soon as hand
bakery keeps three
white wheat flours Flour • Color is creamy white and feels
on hand: cake flour,
pastry flour, and
bread flour such as Cake • Feels smooth and fine. Color is
patent. You should
be able to identify
Flour • It stays in a lump when squeezed in
these by sight and
sooner or later, Pastry • Feels smooth and fine. It can be
squeezed into a lump.
someone will dump a Flour • Has creamy color of bread flour.
bag of flour into the
wrong bin or label it
incorrectly. You will
need to recognize the
Hand Test For Flour
Other Wheat Flours……..
All-purpose Flour: Used in retail markets and used as a general purpose
flour in restaurants. Protein content is 11-11.5%.
Durum Flour: Made from durum wheat and used primarily to make
spaghetti and dried pastas. Also used in semolina bread.
Self-rising Flour: White flour to which baking powder uniformly and
sometimes, salt has been added. However, different formulas call for
different proportions of baking powder. Also, baking powder loses its
aerating or leavening power with time.
Whole Wheat Flour: Made with the entire wheat kernel and high in fat.
The whole wheat flavor is strong.
Bran Flour: Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
Cracked Wheat: Is not a flour, but a type of meal, in which the grains
are broken into coarse pieces. It is used to give texture and flavor to
Other Flours, Meals, Starches……
Rye Flour Corn
Contains some protein, but does Contains no gluten
not form gluten of good quality. forming proteins, but is
Therefore breads made with
100% rye flour hare heavy and very important in
dense. vegetarian diets.
To make a lighter loaf, typical Blue and Yellow cornmeal
formulas call for 25 to 40% rye
flour and 60 to 75% hard wheat are available.
flour. Most cornmeal is only
Rye flour is high in pentosan made from the
gums, which give structure to endosperm.
breads, but they interfere with
gluten development and make Cornmeal is available
dough stickier than wheat dough. from grinds made from
fine to coarse.
• Used for porridge and
Rolled steamed to soften them.
Buckwheat is Oats
• Used for textural interest for
breads and ingredients in
technically not a cookies.
grain because it is
the seed not of a
Oats in • Whole grains that have
grass but of a plant various forms
Steel- been cut into small
with branched cut
find uses in • They have a long
stems and leaves. Oats cooking time and a
the bakeshop. chewy texture.
Buckwheat flour is
mostly found in • Oat Flour is whole
pancakes and Oat grain oats ground into
a fine flour.
crepes, but can also Flour • Oat Bran is a good
be used in small & Bran source of dietary fiber
used in muffins.
specialty breads Spelt is considered to be an ancestor of modern
and multigrain wheat. It contains gluten proteins but they form a
products. rather weak gluten structure that can’t withstand
much mixing. It has become increasingly popular as
an ingredient in specialty breads.
Soy is not a grain but a legume or bean. It can be ground
into flour like a grain.
It is low in starch and contains no gluten.
It is high in fat and protein. This makes it valuable in
In baking, soy flour can aid in yeast action but must be
used in small quantities because high amounts produce
a beany flavor to breads that also result in poor texture.
When soy flour is toasted the enzymes that aid in yeast
action are destroyed and the flour has a more pleasant
• This product sets up almost like gelatin
Starches Cornstarch • It is used to thickened cream pies and
other products that must hold their
they are used • Is made from a different type of corn
primarily to Waxy
and almost always manufactured in a
form called modified food starch.
thicken Maize • It does not break down when frozen
and gives a clear appearance to fruit
puddings, pie pie fillings.
similar • Are precooked or pregelatinized so
Instant they thicken cold liquids without
• They are useful when heat will damage
the flavor of a product.