Ingredients Ingredients FLOURS Recipes are

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Ingredients Ingredients FLOURS Recipes are Powered By Docstoc
Recipes are made of       Dry ingredients are usually in
individual                 particle form, such as flour, sugar,
ingredients that are       baking powder, baking soda, salt
put together in a
specific way to create     and spices. These ingredients
a final product. It        tend to need sifting.
goes without saying
that each ingredient      Wet ingredients are ingredients
                           that need to be poured. These
should be of the
highest quality, but
ingredients also carry
                           include milk, water, juice, eggs,
out specific               oil, etc.

functions. Each
                          Solid ingredients refer to non-
ingredient plays a
role within a recipe       liquids and include butter, cream
to form a final            cheese, sour cream, yogurt,
                           chocolate, nuts and fruit.
 Wheat Flour is the most important ingredient in a bakeshop because it provides
structure and strength to products, including breads, cakes, cookies and pastries.

Hard Wheat                                  Soft Wheat
 Hard wheat flours contain                  Soft Wheat flours
  greater quantities of proteins              have a low protein
  called gluten when the flour                content.
  is moistened and mixed.
                                             Used for making
                                              cookies, cakes and
 Strong Flours are flours
  made from hard wheat with
  a high protein content                     Weak Flours are
 Used for making breads and                  flours made from soft
  yeast products.                             wheat.
 Composition of Wheat Kernel: 3 Parts

             • Hard outer covering of kernel.
  Bran       • Present in whole wheat flour and high in
               dietary fiber.

             • Part of the kernel that becomes new wheat
  Germ         plant if allowed to sprout.
             • High in fat and can quickly become rancid.

             • Is the white starchy part of the kernel that
Endosperm      remains when bran and germ are removed.
             • This portion is milled into white flour.
The Milling of Wheat
                            Harvested wheat is
                             broken by rollers,       Purifying: Any remaining
                         separating bran and germ         bran particles are
The Milling Process: A    layers from endosperm        removed by air blowers.
                             into “break flour”
Simplified Flowchart

  Wheat was once
  made into flour
  by grinding it
                          Sifting: Flour is sifted      Reducing: Smoother
  between two            according to particle size      rollers finely grind
                          into different streams.      endosperm into flour.
  stones. Once
  the grain was
  ground, it was
  sifted to remove
  some of the               Classifying: Places
                           specific types of flour
  bran. This             together depending upon
                             the type of wheat.
  sifting is called
          Grades of Flours:
Patent Flour: Highest quality of all commercial grades of white
flour. It contains no bran or germ, but contains the inner most part of the
endosperm. Low in ash, white in color. Extra-short or fancy patent are
high quality patent flours.

Clear Flour: The lowest quality of all commercial grades of flour. It
is milled from the outer part of the endosperm. High in protein and ash,
and slightly gray in color. It is less expensive than patent flour. It is
commonly used in rye and whole grain breads.

Straight Flour: Is milled from the entire endosperm. Straight flour
uses all streams of the milling process and is darker in color than patent
flour. Straight flour is not often used in North American baking.
     Composition of Flour
•Starch: White flour consists of 68 to 76% starch. Starch can absorb ¼ to ½ of
its weight in water.
•Protein: About 6 to 18% of white flour is protein, depending on the variety of
wheat. Proteins act as binding agents that hold the starch granules together in the
endosperm. About 80% of the proteins in flour are gluten.
•Moisture: Flour should always be stored in a dry place. The moisture content of
flour in good condition is 11-14%. Any higher and spoilage will occur.
•Gums: Gums are forms of carbohydrates that make up 2-3% of white flour.
Some gums can absorb 10 to 15 times their weight in water and serve as a source of
•Fats: Fats only make up about 1% of white flour but it is important to be aware
of them for gluten development and spoilage, giving flour an off flavor.
•Ash: Is the mineral content of flour. The higher the ash content, the darker the
flour. The ash content is determined by burning a sample of flour in a controlled
•Pigments: Orange-yellow pigments called carotenoids are present in flour in
tiny amounts. It gives flour a creamy color, rather than white.
  You Should Also Know………
Absorption refers to the amount of
water a flour can take up and hold
                                         Types of Flours:
while being made into a simple           Straight flour
                                         Patent Bread flour
 Freshly milled flour is not good for
 bread making. Aging flour is costly
 and haphazard, however, so millers
                                         Clear flour
 may add small quantities of certain
 chemicals to accomplish the same        Hi-Gluten flour
 results quickly.
                                         Cake Flour
                                         Pastry flour
 Enriched Flour is flour to which
 vitamins and minerals, mostly           All Purpose flour
 vitamins B and Iron, were added
 to compensate for the nutrients
 lost when the bran and germ were
                      Bread Flour: Is patent flour made from
Types of               hard wheat and is ideal for yeast breads.
Patent Flours         High-Gluten Flour: Flour with an
                       especially high protein content that is
Bakers generally       sometimes used for hard crusted breads, pizza
                       dough and bagels. It is also used to strengthen
use the term           dough that contain little or no gluten. A high
patent flour to        gluten flour has 14% protein.
mean patent           Cake Flour: Is a weak or low-gluten flour
bread flour.           made from soft wheat. It has a soft smooth
Technically, all       texture and a pure white color. It is used for
                       cakes and other delicate baked goods that
white flour            require low gluten content.
except clear flour    Pastry Flour: Is also a weak flour or low-
and straight flour     gluten flour, but is slightly stronger than cake
is patent flour,       flour. It has a creamy white color. Pastry flour is
including cake         used for pie dough, cookies, biscuits and
and pastry flours.
A typical small         Bread    • Lump falls apart as soon as hand
bakery keeps three
white wheat flours      Flour    • Color is creamy white and feels
                                   slightly coarse.
on hand: cake flour,
pastry flour, and
bread flour such as     Cake     • Feels smooth and fine. Color is
                                   pure white.
patent. You should
be able to identify
                        Flour    • It stays in a lump when squeezed in
                                   the hand.
these by sight and
touch, because
sooner or later,        Pastry   • Feels smooth and fine. It can be
                                   squeezed into a lump.
someone will dump a     Flour    • Has creamy color of bread flour.
bag of flour into the
wrong bin or label it
incorrectly. You will
need to recognize the
                        Hand Test For Flour
         Other Wheat Flours……..
 All-purpose Flour: Used in retail markets and used as a general purpose
    flour in restaurants. Protein content is 11-11.5%.
   Durum Flour: Made from durum wheat and used primarily to make
    spaghetti and dried pastas. Also used in semolina bread.
   Self-rising Flour: White flour to which baking powder uniformly and
    sometimes, salt has been added. However, different formulas call for
    different proportions of baking powder. Also, baking powder loses its
    aerating or leavening power with time.
   Whole Wheat Flour: Made with the entire wheat kernel and high in fat.
    The whole wheat flavor is strong.
   Bran Flour: Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
   Cracked Wheat: Is not a flour, but a type of meal, in which the grains
    are broken into coarse pieces. It is used to give texture and flavor to
    specialty breads.
Other Flours, Meals, Starches……

Rye Flour                                 Corn
 Contains some protein, but does     Contains no gluten
  not form gluten of good quality.     forming proteins, but is
  Therefore breads made with
  100% rye flour hare heavy and        very important in
  dense.                               vegetarian diets.
 To make a lighter loaf, typical     Blue and Yellow cornmeal
  formulas call for 25 to 40% rye
  flour and 60 to 75% hard wheat       are available.
  flour.                              Most cornmeal is only
 Rye flour is high in pentosan        made from the
  gums, which give structure to        endosperm.
  breads, but they interfere with
  gluten development and make         Cornmeal is available
  dough stickier than wheat dough.     from grinds made from
                                       fine to coarse.
                                                      • Used for porridge and
                                             Rolled     steamed to soften them.
Buckwheat is                                  Oats
                                                      • Used for textural interest for
                                                        breads and ingredients in
technically not a                                       cookies.

grain because it is
the seed not of a
                          Oats in                              • Whole grains that have
grass but of a plant      various forms
                                                 Steel-          been cut into small
with branched                                     cut
                          find uses in                         • They have a long
stems and leaves.                                Oats            cooking time and a
                          the bakeshop.                          chewy texture.
Buckwheat flour is
mostly found in                                          • Oat Flour is whole
pancakes and                                  Oat          grain oats ground into
                                                           a fine flour.
crepes, but can also                         Flour       • Oat Bran is a good
be used in small                             & Bran        source of dietary fiber
                                                           used in muffins.
quantities in
specialty breads       Spelt is considered to be an ancestor of modern
and multigrain         wheat. It contains gluten proteins but they form a
products.              rather weak gluten structure that can’t withstand
                       much mixing. It has become increasingly popular as
                       an ingredient in specialty breads.
 Soy is not a grain but a legume or bean. It can be ground
    into flour like a grain.
   It is low in starch and contains no gluten.
   It is high in fat and protein. This makes it valuable in
    vegetarian diets.
   In baking, soy flour can aid in yeast action but must be
    used in small quantities because high amounts produce
    a beany flavor to breads that also result in poor texture.
   When soy flour is toasted the enzymes that aid in yeast
    action are destroyed and the flour has a more pleasant
                             • This product sets up almost like gelatin
                               when cooled.
Starches        Cornstarch   • It is used to thickened cream pies and
                               other products that must hold their
Unlike flour,
they are used                • Is made from a different type of corn
primarily to      Waxy
                               and almost always manufactured in a
                               form called modified food starch.
thicken           Maize      • It does not break down when frozen
                               and gives a clear appearance to fruit
puddings, pie                  pie fillings.

fillings and
similar                      • Are precooked or pregelatinized so
                  Instant      they thicken cold liquids without
products.        Starches
                               further cooking.
                             • They are useful when heat will damage
                               the flavor of a product.

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