Pope High School
Joe Green, Agriculture Teacher
• The ART of cultivating
fruits, nuts, vegetables, or
• Horti = garden
• Culture = garden culture
• The cultivation of
• The SCIENCE of plants to
physiology and taxonomy.
• The science and practice of growing,
harvesting and marketing tree fruits
• The science and practice of growing,
harvesting and marketing
• A plant which grows, flowers, produces
seeds, and dies in one year. Must be
replanted each year.
• A plant that grows year after year
without replanting. A plant whose
roots lives year to year.
• The study of plant names and the
identification of plants.
• The Latin name of a plant giving its
genus and species.
• Any material, which is used
to start and grow, seeds
• The outer covering of a seed.
• The stored food supply for the young
developing seedling, which is
contained in the seed. (“rocket fuel”)
Embryo (embryonic plant)
• The entire plant inside the seed
• An offspring of two different
varieties of one plant type,
which possesses certain traits
of each plant type.
• Specific individual strains of
one type of plant, which have
been named to indicate their
• A process in which pollen (male sex cell)
of one plant unites with the egg (female
sex cell) of a different plant.
• Fertilization of a plant by its own
pollen. Male and female flower parts on
the same flower.
Hardening Off Process
• Gradually subjecting plants
to more difficult growing
conditions like withholding
water and decreasing
temperature, this prepares
plants for transplanting by
reducing transplant shock.
Cotyledons vs. True Leaves
• Cotyledons are the first set of leaves
that emerge from a seed at
• All other leaves are “true” leaves.
• Cotyledons = “seed leaves”
• The miracle process when
seeds begin to sprout and
grow to begin a new plant
• Germination occurs when a
seed receives the correct
amounts of light, temperature
and water simultaneously.
• The process of reproducing
or increasing plants. Can
be sexual or asexual.
• Loss of water through the
leaves or stems of plants. Sort
of like “sweating” 90% of a
plant’s water loss is here.
• A normal daily process of
plants. Higher water loss on
• A plant whose tissues are swollen,
filled with moisture. Not wilted.
• Turgid plant = happy plant
• The “joint” of a stem, the swollen place
where leaves and buds are attached.
Roots form here when cuttings are made.
• The space between the nodes on a stem.
• Mass of cells which forms
around the wounded area of
a plant to start the healing
process. Similar to a “scab.”
New roots will form in this
• A cutting made from a stem whose tissue is
softer and not as mature as the older wood.
• A cutting made from a current
seasons stem tissue, which is mature
or harder in texture.
• A plant chemical used to
help new cuttings to form
new roots faster.
• Sort of like a “steroid” to
• The process of reproducing
thousands of plants from a few cells
taken from the terminal bud tissue of
• “test tube plants”
• Must have extremely sanitary
laboratory conditions for tissue
• The physical separation of roots to form
new plants from one “mother” plant.
Terminal Tip Growth
• Softer tissue from the tip of the plant
where most of the new growth occurs.
• The international naming system
that gives every plant 2 names,
genus and the specie in Latin.
• Scientific Name = Botanic Name.
• The Swedish botanist that
came up with the 2 name
classifying plants .
• The first name of a plant scientific name.
A group of plants that are grouped
together because of their similarities to
one another. (genera = plural).
• A NOUN.
• The second name in scientific name, more
specific in nature.
• An ADJECTIVE that describes the genus.
• Acer rubrum : Red Maple
• Acer is the noun or genus.
• rubrum is the adjective or specie that
describes the genus (rubrum = red in
• Quercus alba = White Oak
• Zebrina pendula, Setcresea purpurea
• Another name for a specific
plant, same as variety.
• Example: There are several
cultivars or “varieties”of Red
• “Red Sunset”, “October Glory”
• The local English name of a
plant, which may differ in
• Common names are not
precise enough for
• A person who studies plant
names and the
identification of plants as a
career or field of study.
International Code of
• A set of rules that are
international for naming
• Any material used to cover
the soil for weed control
and moisture retention.
• Pine straw, pine bark
nuggets, cypress shavings
• A slow release fertilizer.
Allows the plant to feed
gradually over a longer
period of time. Saves you
• Any plant that has soft tissue and
does not form wood or bark. A non-
woody plant. Houseplants, annuals
& some perennials.
• A plant which loses its leaves each
autumn. It goes dormant in the winter.
• A plant which has leaves or
needles throughout the
• The stalk structure which
supports the blade of the
leaf. It attaches the leaf
blade to the stem.
• A solitary leaf attached to a stem
by a petiole.
• A group of leaflets which compose
the entire compound leaf.
• Classification of those plants having
only one cotyledon or seed leaf.
Grasses, chives and corn are
• Parallel veins.
• A classification of plants having two
cotyledons or seed leaves.
• Vascular or woody plants.
• The outer edge of a leaf ….
• Serrate, entire, lobed, etc.
• The actively growing cells
at the tip of the plant root.
• Small pores or holes in the
leaf, which allow the plant
to breathe and give off
moisture. They open and
close with day and night.
• Breathing pores in the bark of
woody stems. They open and
close with day and night.
• Movement and exchange of air in a
• The response of plants to different
periods of light and darkness in
terms of their flowering.
Short Day Plant
• A plant that blooms in the short
• Some plants can be “tricked” into
blooming by giving them short
Chrysanthemums and Poinsettias
• New shoots that develop as a
result of “pinching”.
• Same results as pruning out
the terminal bud of a plant.
• Chemicals that retard plant
growth. It slows down the
plant growth so they don’t
get too tall and floppy.
• Most common disease of
Poinsettia. Caused by: Bad
drainage, Bad ventilation
or too much water.
• Any substance which
destroys or prevents the
growth of fungi.
• A type of pesticide to
control plant diseases.
• The U.S. Ambassador to
Mexico who introduced the
Poinsettia to America for
• Named the plant after himself.
• The ability of a plant withstand to the
minimum temperature of an area.
• The outer shape of a tree and it’s
branches. The outer silhouette.
• Round, columnar, oval, weeping, etc.
• The size and thickness of the plant’s
leaves and stems. Fine, Medium,
Bare Root Plants
• Plants sold with no soil on the roots.
B. Very perishable
Balled and Burlapped
• Plants- (B&B) Roots in burlap held
together by twine. Dug up at a nursery
and sold this way.
• Planted in a basket or plastic; or
metal can. Can be planted at any
time of the year.
Drip Line of a Tree
• The imaginary line where water
drops off from the farthest point
Narrow leaf Evergreen
• Evergreen plants with needle-like or
scaly foliage. Pines, Junipers.
Broad leaf Evergreen
• Evergreen plants with broad leaf blade.
BLE Hollies and broad leaf plants.
• The sheathes or bundles that contain
needle like leaves attached to the
branch in conifers.
• The process of temporarily covering the
plant roots when a tree has to be out of
the ground for transplanting. The
purpose is to retain the moisture
around the roots with an organic
material such as straw, mulch or soil
• A ridge of soil placed around a
newly planted tree to retain
water. “a saucer” or “moat”.
• Traps the water to stay on top of
the root zone.
Ground Cover Plant
• Any low growing plant, under 12” tall,
that completely covers the ground.
• Used in place of grass for large areas
(saves labor of mowing) usually planted
in mass. Creeping junipers, ivy, monkey
grass, etc. Usually very durable plants.
• Plants which are used next to
buildings to help accent and
tie the buildings into the
• A plant that is used alone
for accent or focal point to
• Organic matter added to
the native soil to improve
texture, drainage, and
overall quality of the soil.
Peat moss, pine bark,
rotted compost etc.
• The unprepared or untilled
soil line. Dense and hard
section of soil. The roots
cannot penetrate hard pan.
• Plants used to separate
property or boundary lines.
Planted in rows.
• Can be low or high
depending on purpose.
• A food storage organ.
• A plant structure which
consists of layers of fleshy
scales overlapping each other,
such as the onion or tulip.
• Method of propagation that
Reproductive organs of a
plant detach from the parent
plant to become new plants.
• A method of propagation
requiring the physical
cutting and dividing of
plants. Ferns and
herbaceous perennials are
• Swollen underground stem
which grows upright, is a food
storage organ and a means of
• Similar to a bulb.
• Gladiolus plants.
• Underground stem which
produces roots on the lower
surface, and extends leaves
and flowering shoots above
the ground. Iris.
• A fleshy root which
reproduces by growing
roots from an “eye” or bud.
Potatoes are tubers.
• The measuring scale of a
• A pH of 1-6 is acid. pH 7 is
neutral, and 8-14 is base. To
raise the soil pH, add lime.
• Most plants prefer a pH of 5.5
to 7 range.
• It is when the fertilizer nutrients
are leached out (washed out) of
soil over time from excessive
• Caused from excessive rain or
• This is why you have to keep
applying fertilizers to plants.
• Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are
the Major elements all plants need.
• N-P-K example: 10-10-10
• Required in large amounts. They must
be added by applying NPK fertilizer. 10-
10-10, or 14-14-14, etc.
• Also called the Macronutrients
• Elements that plants need in
minor amounts. They may or
may not need to be added to the
• Calcium, boron, iron and others.
• Professionals who integrate
art and science, and know how
plants and landscape factors
will react to the environment
• A company or person who
deals primarily with the
installation of landscapes.
They install what the
• A firm that maintains the
landscape under the
guidelines of a contract.
• The hiring of a 2nd firm or
contractor to complete
specialized tasks such as
irrigation, tree surgery, etc.
• Making an evaluation of
the landscape site to
determine how many of the
clients needs can be met. It
tells what is present on the
site and what is desired.
• The swollen area of a tree where the
branch attaches to the main trunk.
Warm Season Grass
• Those grasses that grow best in
the warm months (80-90 degrees)
of spring, summer and early fall.
They grow vigorously during this
time and become brown and
dormant in winter:
Bermudagrass, Zoysia grass,
Cool Season Grass
• Grasses that grow well in the
cool months (60-75 degrees) of
the year. They may become
dormant or injured during the
hot months of summer: Fescue
and rye grass are cool season.
Annual rye – temporary.
• A type of pesticide chemical intended to
• Pre-emergent: applied before weeds
emerge to kill seeds.
• Post-emergent: applied after weeds
• Selective: kills only certain species and
safe on turf.
• Non-selective: kills any plant it comes in