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					Horticulture Terms

           Pope High School
     Joe Green, Agriculture Teacher
               July 2005
 • The ART of cultivating
 fruits, nuts, vegetables, or
     ornamental plants.
      • Horti = garden
• Culture = garden culture
 • The cultivation of
ornamental flowering
• The SCIENCE of plants to
      include anatomy,
  physiology and taxonomy.
• The science and practice of growing,
  harvesting and marketing tree fruits
               and nuts.

• The science and practice of growing,
       harvesting and marketing
• A plant which grows, flowers, produces
   seeds, and dies in one year. Must be
           replanted each year.

  • A plant that grows year after year
    without replanting. A plant whose
         roots lives year to year.
  • The study of plant names and the
         identification of plants.

        Scientific name
• The Latin name of a plant giving its
          genus and species.
     (Plural: Media)
• Any material, which is used
   to start and grow, seeds
          and plants.
            Seed coat
   • The outer covering of a seed.
• The stored food supply for the young
      developing seedling, which is
  contained in the seed. (“rocket fuel”)
Embryo (embryonic plant)
  • The entire plant inside the seed
         before germination.
• An offspring of two different
   varieties of one plant type,
  which possesses certain traits
       of each plant type.
    Named varieties
• Specific individual strains of
 one type of plant, which have
  been named to indicate their
        particular traits.
        Cross Pollination
• A process in which pollen (male sex cell)
  of one plant unites with the egg (female
        sex cell) of a different plant.

         Self Pollination
  • Fertilization of a plant by its own
 pollen. Male and female flower parts on
             the same flower.
Hardening Off Process
• Gradually subjecting plants
   to more difficult growing
  conditions like withholding
     water and decreasing
  temperature, this prepares
  plants for transplanting by
  reducing transplant shock.
 Cotyledons vs. True Leaves
• Cotyledons are the first set of leaves
        that emerge from a seed at
  • All other leaves are “true” leaves.
     • Cotyledons = “seed leaves”
   Seed Germination
 • The miracle process when
   seeds begin to sprout and
   grow to begin a new plant
• Germination occurs when a
    seed receives the correct
amounts of light, temperature
   and water simultaneously.
  Plant Propagation
• The process of reproducing
   or increasing plants. Can
     be sexual or asexual.
 • Loss of water through the
leaves or stems of plants. Sort
  of like “sweating” 90% of a
   plant’s water loss is here.
 • A normal daily process of
 plants. Higher water loss on
           sunny days.
• A plant whose tissues are swollen,
   filled with moisture. Not wilted.
    • Turgid plant = happy plant
• The “joint” of a stem, the swollen place
   where leaves and buds are attached.
 Roots form here when cuttings are made.

• The space between the nodes on a stem.
• Mass of cells which forms
around the wounded area of
 a plant to start the healing
process. Similar to a “scab.”
 New roots will form in this
        callus tissue.
        Softwood Cutting
• A cutting made from a stem whose tissue is
  softer and not as mature as the older wood.

       Hardwood Cutting
     • A cutting made from a current
    seasons stem tissue, which is mature
            or harder in texture.
  Rooting Hormone
• A plant chemical used to
  help new cuttings to form
      new roots faster.
• Sort of like a “steroid” to
      enhance growth.
      Tissue Culture
       • “micro-propagation”
    • The process of reproducing
 thousands of plants from a few cells
taken from the terminal bud tissue of
                 a plant.
         • “test tube plants”
  • Must have extremely sanitary
   laboratory conditions for tissue
          Root Division
• The physical separation of roots to form
   new plants from one “mother” plant.

    Terminal Tip Growth
 • Softer tissue from the tip of the plant
   where most of the new growth occurs.
• The international naming system
   that gives every plant 2 names,
    genus and the specie in Latin.
• Scientific Name = Botanic Name.
• The Swedish botanist that
  came up with the 2 name
         system for
     classifying plants .
           • 1750
• The first name of a plant scientific name.
     A group of plants that are grouped
   together because of their similarities to
       one another. (genera = plural).
               • A NOUN.

• The second name in scientific name, more
             specific in nature.
• An ADJECTIVE that describes the genus.
     • Acer rubrum : Red Maple
      • Acer is the noun or genus.
• rubrum is the adjective or specie that
  describes the genus (rubrum = red in
      • Quercus alba = White Oak
• Zebrina pendula, Setcresea purpurea
   • Another name for a specific
        plant, same as variety.
   • Example: There are several
    cultivars or “varieties”of Red
             Maple Tree.
• “Red Sunset”, “October Glory”
   Common Name
• The local English name of a
   plant, which may differ in
       various localities.
  • Common names are not
      precise enough for
        commercial use.
• A person who studies plant
         names and the
  identification of plants as a
    career or field of study.
 International Code of
Botanical Nomenclature

  • A set of rules that are
  international for naming
• Any material used to cover
   the soil for weed control
   and moisture retention.
   • Pine straw, pine bark
  nuggets, cypress shavings
• A slow release fertilizer.
  Allows the plant to feed
  gradually over a longer
 period of time. Saves you
       labor. 14-14-14
• Any plant that has soft tissue and
 does not form wood or bark. A non-
 woody plant. Houseplants, annuals
         & some perennials.

 • A plant which loses its leaves each
autumn. It goes dormant in the winter.
• A plant which has leaves or
    needles throughout the
          whole year.
• The stalk structure which
  supports the blade of the
   leaf. It attaches the leaf
      blade to the stem.
          Simple leaf
• A solitary leaf attached to a stem
             by a petiole.

       Compound Leaf
• A group of leaflets which compose
      the entire compound leaf.
• Classification of those plants having
    only one cotyledon or seed leaf.
     Grasses, chives and corn are
            • Parallel veins.
• A classification of plants having two
       cotyledons or seed leaves.
     • Vascular or woody plants.
      Leaf Margin
• The outer edge of a leaf ….
 • Serrate, entire, lobed, etc.
        Root Cap
• The actively growing cells
 at the tip of the plant root.
• Small pores or holes in the
  leaf, which allow the plant
    to breathe and give off
   moisture. They open and
   close with day and night.
• Breathing pores in the bark of
  woody stems. They open and
    close with day and night.
• Movement and exchange of air in a

• The response of plants to different
   periods of light and darkness in
      terms of their flowering.
      Short Day Plant
 • A plant that blooms in the short
             winter days.
• Some plants can be “tricked” into
   blooming by giving them short
           days artificially.
  Chrysanthemums and Poinsettias
• New shoots that develop as a
      result of “pinching”.
• Same results as pruning out
  the terminal bud of a plant.
  Growth Regulators
• Chemicals that retard plant
  growth. It slows down the
  plant growth so they don’t
    get too tall and floppy.
      Root Rot
• Most common disease of
Poinsettia. Caused by: Bad
 drainage, Bad ventilation
    or too much water.
• Any substance which
destroys or prevents the
    growth of fungi.
• A type of pesticide to
 control plant diseases.
       J.R. Poinsett
   • The U.S. Ambassador to
   Mexico who introduced the
    Poinsettia to America for
       future production.
• Named the plant after himself.
       Plant Hardiness
• The ability of a plant withstand to the
   minimum temperature of an area.

          Plant Form
  • The outer shape of a tree and it’s
    branches. The outer silhouette.
• Round, columnar, oval, weeping, etc.
         Plant Texture
• The size and thickness of the plant’s
   leaves and stems. Fine, Medium,

       Bare Root Plants
 • Plants sold with no soil on the roots.
               A. Cheaper
           B. Very perishable
  Balled and Burlapped
• Plants- (B&B) Roots in burlap held
together by twine. Dug up at a nursery
           and sold this way.

      Container Stock
 • Planted in a basket or plastic; or
   metal can. Can be planted at any
           time of the year.
   Drip Line of a Tree
• The imaginary line where water
  drops off from the farthest point
             of branches.
   Narrow leaf Evergreen
 • Evergreen plants with needle-like or
      scaly foliage. Pines, Junipers.

    Broad leaf Evergreen
• Evergreen plants with broad leaf blade.
    BLE Hollies and broad leaf plants.
• The sheathes or bundles that contain
   needle like leaves attached to the
          branch in conifers.
            Heeling in
• The process of temporarily covering the
  plant roots when a tree has to be out of
    the ground for transplanting. The
     purpose is to retain the moisture
     around the roots with an organic
   material such as straw, mulch or soil
           during transplanting.
 • A ridge of soil placed around a
    newly planted tree to retain
    water. “a saucer” or “moat”.
• Traps the water to stay on top of
            the root zone.
Ground Cover Plant
• Any low growing plant, under 12” tall,
   that completely covers the ground.

• Used in place of grass for large areas
 (saves labor of mowing) usually planted
in mass. Creeping junipers, ivy, monkey
  grass, etc. Usually very durable plants.
 Foundation Plantings
• Plants which are used next to
  buildings to help accent and
    tie the buildings into the
        landscape. Usually
   Specimen Plant
• A plant that is used alone
 for accent or focal point to
        a landscape.
   Soil Conditioner
• Organic matter added to
  the native soil to improve
    texture, drainage, and
 overall quality of the soil.
    Peat moss, pine bark,
      rotted compost etc.
        Hard Pan
• The unprepared or untilled
   soil line. Dense and hard
   section of soil. The roots
  cannot penetrate hard pan.
  Boundary Plants
 • Plants used to separate
property or boundary lines.
      Planted in rows.
   • Can be low or high
   depending on purpose.
    • A food storage organ.
  • A plant structure which
   consists of layers of fleshy
scales overlapping each other,
   such as the onion or tulip.
• Method of propagation that
       occurs naturally.
   Reproductive organs of a
 plant detach from the parent
  plant to become new plants.
• A method of propagation
   requiring the physical
   cutting and dividing of
     plants. Ferns and
 herbaceous perennials are
        often divided.
• Swollen underground stem
which grows upright, is a food
storage organ and a means of
     • Similar to a bulb.
     • Gladiolus plants.
• Underground stem which
produces roots on the lower
 surface, and extends leaves
 and flowering shoots above
      the ground. Iris.
   • A fleshy root which
  reproduces by growing
roots from an “eye” or bud.
     Potatoes are tubers.
   • The measuring scale of a
           soil’s acidity.
  • A pH of 1-6 is acid. pH 7 is
   neutral, and 8-14 is base. To
    raise the soil pH, add lime.
• Most plants prefer a pH of 5.5
             to 7 range.
• It is when the fertilizer nutrients
   are leached out (washed out) of
     soil over time from excessive
  • Caused from excessive rain or
   • This is why you have to keep
     applying fertilizers to plants.
       Major Elements
• Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are
  the Major elements all plants need.
• N-P-K example: 10-10-10
• Required in large amounts. They must
  be added by applying NPK fertilizer. 10-
  10-10, or 14-14-14, etc.
• Also called the Macronutrients
     Minor Elements
• Elements that plants need in
  minor amounts. They may or
  may not need to be added to the
• Calcium, boron, iron and others.
• Micronutrients!
 Landscape Architect
• Professionals who integrate
art and science, and know how
 plants and landscape factors
 will react to the environment
         around them.
Landscape Contractor
• A company or person who
   deals primarily with the
  installation of landscapes.
    They install what the
      architect designs.
Landscape Maintenance
• A firm that maintains the
    landscape under the
  guidelines of a contract.
• The hiring of a 2nd firm or
    contractor to complete
   specialized tasks such as
 irrigation, tree surgery, etc.
     Site Analysis
• Making an evaluation of
    the landscape site to
determine how many of the
clients needs can be met. It
tells what is present on the
  site and what is desired.
        Branch Collar
• The swollen area of a tree where the
  branch attaches to the main trunk.
 Warm Season Grass
• Those grasses that grow best in
 the warm months (80-90 degrees)
 of spring, summer and early fall.
 They grow vigorously during this
   time and become brown and
        dormant in winter:
   Bermudagrass, Zoysia grass,
         Centipede grass.
 Cool Season Grass
• Grasses that grow well in the
 cool months (60-75 degrees) of
   the year. They may become
 dormant or injured during the
 hot months of summer: Fescue
  and rye grass are cool season.
    Annual rye – temporary.
• A type of pesticide chemical intended to
  control weeds.
• Pre-emergent: applied before weeds
  emerge to kill seeds.
• Post-emergent: applied after weeds
• Selective: kills only certain species and
  safe on turf.
• Non-selective: kills any plant it comes in
  contact with.

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