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					                    SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION
                    An initiative of the Association of Research Libraries




                    Igniting Change in the
www.arl.org/sparc



                     Scholarly
                     Communication
                     System
                    Julia Blixrud • SPARC Assistant Director, Public Programs
                    New Routes to Scholarly Communication
                    11 March 2002 • London • CURL Staffing Event
            1
                    Presentation Overview

                       Identifying the problem
www.arl.org/sparc


                       Developing a response
                       SPARC activities
                       SPARC accomplishments
                       Other initiatives
                       What you can do


            2
                      The Global Journals Problem

                           UK 1989-99              North America 1986-00
www.arl.org/sparc


                    Journals unit cost   +364% Journal unit cost    +226%
                    Faculty salaries      +60% Journals expenditure +192%
                                               Journals purchased     -7%
                                               Monographs purchased -17%
                                               Faculty salaries      +68%
                                               Consumer Price Index +57%

                                Australia 1986-98
                            Serials unit cost     +474%
                            Serials expenditure   +263%
            3               Titles purchased      - 37%
                    Journal Prices and UK Academic
                    Libraries (SCONUL Statistics)
                      140%           Journal price index
                                     Current serials per fte
www.arl.org/sparc

                      120%           Journal expenditure per fte
                                     Book price index
                      100%
                                     Books acquired per fte
                                     Book expenditure per fte
                      80%
                                     Retail Price index

                      60%


                      40%


                      20%


                       0%


                      -20%


                      -40%
            4                91-92   92-93    93-94       94-95    95-96   96-97   97-98   98-99   99-00
5
    www.arl.org/sparc
                    Marketplace Factors

                       Robust supply side
www.arl.org/sparc


                       Scarce good - inelastic market
                       Barriers to market entry
                       Library acquisitions practices
                       Faculty expectations
                       Disjunction between creator/user and fiscal
                        agent
                       Commercial firms, consolidations and
                        mergers
            6
                    Developing a Response
                       Reactive
                           Ask for more money
                            Journal cancellations
www.arl.org/sparc

                        
                           Improve document delivery
                           Cooperative collection development
                           Consortial buying & site licenses for electronic information
                       Proactive
                           Improve value signals between faculty & library
                           Increase promotion & tenure emphasis on quality
                           Create competition in the marketplace
                           Editorial boards gain control over journal business policies
                           Partner for mutual benefit with other players in the
                            information chain
                           Introduce alternatives to institutional subscription model
                           Deconstruct the journal

            7
                    SPARC

                       Worldwide alliance of universities,
                        research libraries, and organizations built
www.arl.org/sparc



                        as a constructive response to market
                        dysfunctions in the scholarly
                        communication system
                       Serves as a catalyst for action, helping to
                        create systems that expand information
                        dissemination and use in a networked
                        digital environment while responding to
                        the needs of scholars and academe
            8
                    SPARC Strategic Thrusts

                     INCUBATION OF ALTERNATIVES
                     Publishing   Alternative Build
www.arl.org/sparc


                     partnerships business    capacity in
                                  models      non-profit
                     PUBLIC ADVOCACY
                     Outreach to  Promote            Stimulate
                     stakeholders action             expansion of
                                  options            non-profit
                     EDUCATION CAMPAIGNS
                     Publicize       Stimulate       Encourage
                     pricing issue   discussion of   institution &
                                     solutions       society roles
            9
                    SPARC Supports Alternatives

                     Theory and Practice of
                      Logic Programming
                                              EXAMPLES
www.arl.org/sparc


                                              50-person editorial board and sponsoring
                                              society quit commercially published
                                              Journal of Logic Programming to start
                                              alternative in 2001.
                                               www.cwi.nl/projects/alp/

                                Editorial board of
                         commercially published
                                Machine Learning
                           resigned to launch free
                       electronic journal in 2001.
            10                                www.jmlr.org
                    Pressure to Reduce Prices

                                                    “SPARC played an
                                                    essential role in our
www.arl.org/sparc


                                                    successful negotiations
                                                    with our journal's
                     Societydemanded new
                                                    publisher.... [The
                     deal with publisher            publisher] knew we'd
                     Institutional
                                price               been in contact with
                                                    SPARC. Both our
                     dropped from $2085 to
                                                    journal and association
                     $1390                          stand to benefit
                     Expanded   editorial office   substantially.”
                                                       Chair, AAPA
                     support                           Publications Committee
            11
                    Impact of Price Reductions


                    Making more money available ...
www.arl.org/sparc



                    Hypothetical Library
                    2000 spend with one Large Publisher   £ 500,000
                    “Double-digit” rate increase at 12%   £ 60,000
                    Actual 2001 increase at 6.5%*         £ 32,500
                    Hypothetical savings                  £ 27,500




            12
                    SPARC Supports New Players

                                            University Initiatives
                                               Univ. Arizona: J. Insect Science
www.arl.org/sparc


                             Journal of        Univ. Bielefeld: Documenta
                           Insect Science       Mathematica
                                               Univ. California: eScholarship
                    www.insectscience.org      Columbia Univ: Earthscape
                                               Univ. Warwick: Geometry &
                                                Topology Publications
                                            Independent startups
                                               Evolutionary Ecol. Research.
                                               Internet Journal of Chemistry
                                            Collaborative Partnerships
                                               BioOne
                                               Cornell Univ Lib/Duke Press:
            13         www.BioOne.org           Project Euclid
                    The Value of Alternatives

                                                   Tetrahedron Letters: U.S. Institutional Price
www.arl.org/sparc


                                         $13,000
                                                                                                                        $12,070    Alternative
                                         $12,000                                                                                     $2,438

                                         $11,000
                                                                                                     $10,495            $3.034
                                         $10,000                                                                        Saving
                    Subscription Price




                                                                                      $9,126
                                          $9,000
                                                                                                               $8,859     $9,036
                                          $8,000                                                  $8,602
                                                                                     $7,936
                                          $7,000
                                                                     $6,895
                                          $6,000                                             Organic
                                                            $6,003                    SPARC Letters
                                          $5,000                                      Launch Launch
                                                   $5,199
                                          $4,000
                                                    '95      '96      '97             '98            '99        '00         '01
                                                                              Subscription Year
            14
                                                                            Actual          Trend (+15%)
www.arl.org/sparc   Impact of Competition on Price




            15
                    SPARC Titles are Less Expensive

                              Establishe d Title                  SPARC Alternativ e         Savings
                              Title             Price              Title          Price       Oppty
www.arl.org/sparc


                    Topol ogy & Its              $2,509   Algebraic and               Free   $2,509
                    Appl ications                         Geometri c Topol ogy
                    Journal of Crystal           $8,657   Crystal Growth &          $1,600   $7,057
                    Growth                                Desi gn
                    Evolutionary Ecology           $560   Evolutionary Ecology        $305    $255
                    (price reduced in 2001)               Research
                    Topol ogy                   $1,223    Geometry &                  Free   $1,223
                                                          Topol ogy
                    Organi c                    $2,359    Geochemical                 $100   $2,259
                    Geochemistry                          Transacti ons
                    Sensors & Actuators,        $4,989    IEEE Sensors                $395   $4,594
                    A& B                                  Journal
                    Machine Learni ng           $1,006    Jnl of Machi ne             Free   $1,006
                                                          Learning Research
                    Tetrahedron Letters         $9,036    Organi c Letters          $2,438   $6,598
                    Chemical Physics            $9,637    PhysChemComm                $100   $9,537
                    Letters
                    Jnl of Logi c &              $701     Theory & Practice of       $300     $401
                    Algebraic                             Logic Programmi ng
                    Programming
            16
                                              $40,677                             $5,238     $35,439
www.arl.org/sparc   Authors Are Making the Switch




                          Tet. Lett.
                           decline
                          following
                          Org. Lett.
                           launch


                                            Strong
                                          Org. Lett.
                                           take-off




                                 ACTUAL                TREND

            17
                    SPARC Encourages New Models

                                     OPEN ARCHIVES
www.arl.org/sparc


                                Open            Value-added




                                                  Interoperability Standards
                             Repositories         Services

                                                                                Integrated
                              Institutional
                                                                                 scholarly
                                Servers                                        communities
                    Author                                                                    Reader
                              Disciplinary
                                                                               Search tools
                                Servers


                                Journals                                        Workflow
                             (e.g., PLoS model)                                Applications

            18
www.arl.org/sparc   Raising Public Attention




                     “Although the battle is being fought
                       over subscription prices, what is
                        really at stake...is the scientific
                                 process itself.”
                             New York Times, Dec. 8, 1998


            19
                    Education and Advocacy

                                                            Shift control of scholarly
                                                             publication back to
www.arl.org/sparc


                                                             scholars
                                                            Influence scholarly
                                                             publishers to abide by
                                                             friendly pricing policies
                      www.createchange.org                  Create alternatives to
                                                             commercial scholarly
                    Sponsored by the Association of          publications
                    Research Libraries, Association of
                    College and Research Libraries,         Foster changes in faculty
                    and SPARC with support from the          peer review system
                    Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation

            20
                    Create Change Resources

                     Brochure for local adaptation
www.arl.org/sparc


                     Web resources
                         Detailed description of the issues, including data
                          and case studies
                         Suggestions for action

                         Templates for letters to publishers

                         Reading list

                         Success stories

                         Information on managing your copyright


            21
                    Education and Advocacy
                                                         Aimed at Editorial Boards
                                                          of high-priced commercial
www.arl.org/sparc


                    A Guide to Creating                   journals
                    Community-controlled
                    Science Publications
                                                         Components
                                                             Brochure/mailings
                                                             Web resources
                                                             SPARC advisory services
                                                         Contents
                                                             Diagnosis of Current
                                                              Situation
                                                             Exploration of Alternatives
                             DECLARING INDEPENDENCE
                                                             Evaluation of Options
                                                             Making a Decision
            22                                            www.arl.org/sparc/DI
                    SPARC Accomplishments
                       Demonstrated that new journals can successfully compete
                        for authors and quickly establish quality
www.arl.org/sparc


                       Has been effective in driving down the cost of journals
                       Created environment in which editors and editorial board
                        members claim more prominent roles in the business aspects
                        of their journals
                       Stimulated the development of increased publishing
                        capacity in the not-for-profit sector and encouraged new
                        players to enter the market
                       Provided help and guidance to scientists and librarians
                        interested in creating change
                       Carried the methods and message of change to international
                        stakeholders
            23
                    Introducing SPARC Europe
                    What is SPARC              Why SPARC Europe?
                    Europe?                     Organize campus
www.arl.org/sparc


                     Europe-based coalition     education & advocacy
                      of academic &              in Europe
                      research libraries        Demonstrate potential
                     Supported by               of Open Archives
                          LIBER                Reach out to European
                          CURL                  societies
                          JISC
                          SCONUL
                                                  More information at:
                          UKB
            24                                 www.sparceurope.org
                    Other Initiatives and Activities
                       Budapest Open Access Initiative (www.soros.org/openaccess/)
                       Public Library of Science (www.publiclibraryofscience.org)
www.arl.org/sparc


                       Tempe Principles (www.arl.org/scomm/tempe.html)
                       Physics (www.arXiv.org)
                       MIT dSpace (web.mit.edu/dspace/live/home.html)
                       BioSciences
                          PubMed Central (www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov)

                          BioMed Central (www.biomedcentral.com)

                          BioLine (www.bioline.org.br/)

                       History E-Book Project (www.historyebook.org)
                       William Blake Archive (www.blakearchive.org)
            25
                    Challenges to New Forms

                       Resistance to abandoning print
www.arl.org/sparc


                       User tradition
                       Costs
                       Changing economic model takes time
                       Archivability of electronic publications
                       Incompatible standards
                       Willingness to cooperate
                       Ability and capacity for universities to be
            26
                        publishers
                    What Can You Do?
                       Scholars                             Librarians
                           Encourage discussion of the          Encourage discussion of
www.arl.org/sparc


                            issues within department              issues on campus
                           Encourage professional               Meet with departments and
                            society to consider new               hold discussions at faculty
                            technologies as well as               meetings
                            enhanced competitors                 Participate in development
                           Modify publishing contract            of institutional intellectual
                            to ensure your right to use           property policies
                            and post your own work               Become familiar with (or
                           Examine pricing, licensing,           even conduct) cost-per-use
                            and copyright agreements              studies
                            for any journal for which            Support participation in
                            you write, review, or edit            SPARC Europe
                           Support open access                  Support open access
            27
                    Scholars Are The Key To Change

                    “There is a great deal that you can do. In fact,
www.arl.org/sparc


                    it is you and only you who can bring about
                    the changes that need to happen. Unless you
                    want access to more published research,
                    unless you want costs that truly reflect value,
                    you won’t get either.”

                             Michael Rosenzweig, Editor
                             Evolutionary Ecology Research
            28
                    SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING & ACADEMIC RESOURCES COALITION
                    An initiative of the Association of Research Libraries



                                  Julia C. Blixrud
www.arl.org/sparc


                                  Assistant Director, Public Programs
                                  SPARC
                                  21 Dupont Circle, Ste 800
                                  Washington, DC 20036
                                         jblix@arl.org
                                         +1 202-296-2296 ext. 133
                                         +1 202-872-0884 (fax)
                                         +1 202-251-4678 (mobile)

            29

				
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