Bath by yurtgc548


									Keara Plaisance,
Michelle Lambert,
  Jason Naquin
The city of Bath is the only country borough in Somerset.
  Located 12 miles southeast of Bristol, the city has a crater-like
  shape and is surrounded by the Cotswold Hills in the Avon
  River valley.
Bath has been made famous by its natural hot springs that have
  a constant temperature of 120°F(49 °C) and its ancient
  Roman ruins surrounding it.

                                   Ancient Bath
                                            According to legends, Bath was founded by
                                               Bladud, the oldest son of the Celtic King
                                               Lud, in 836 B.C. When Bladud contracted
                                               leprosy, he was exiled to live as a
                                               swineherd away from the region. There
                                               he discovered the healing power of the hot
                                               springs and returned home to be crowned
                                               king after his leprosy had miraculously
                                               been cured. Bladud is credited with
                                               establishing Britain’s first universities and
                                               is said to be the father of the famous King
                                            During the time of Celtic Bath, the Celtic
                                               Druids worshipped the goddess Sul, who
                                               was the goddess of arcane prophecy and
                                               guardian to the entrance of the
                                               Underworld. Bath’s early inhabitants
                                               believed that the hot spring was a
                                               gateway to the dead.
                                             Roman Bath
When the Romans arrived in 43 A.D. and overthrew the Celts, they established the city of
    Aquae Sulis in Bath’s place. The Romans incorporated the Celtic beliefs with their own
    and created the goddess Sulis Minerva. They built a large bathing complex around the
    spring that contained at least five healing hot baths, sweat rooms, swimming rooms, and
    cold rooms. The Great Bath was located in the heart of the complex. It was lined with
    massive sheets of lead and was surrounded by statues of gods. The Roman Temple,
    dedicated to Sulis Minerva, was built at the source of the sacred spring and contained a
    massive statue of the goddess. The temple’s main purpose was for sacrifices.
Flooding from the Avon River was the initial ruin of the baths and temple. The Romans left
    England, and the temple collapsed after Emperor Theodosius ordered the closing of all
    Pagan temples throughout the Empire.

        Discoveries in the Roman Baths
                  The Gorgon’s Head/Celtic Sun God
                  Head of Sulis Minerva
                  The Haruspex Stone

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      Bath in the Dark & Medieval Ages
Bath is believed to be the site of the famous siege of Mount Badon, which was
    supposed 12th and greatest battle fought by King Arthur against the invading
After Bath fell to the Saxons at the Battle of Dyrham, the Benedictine monks
    founded a monastery in the ruins of the Roman Baths. The city became a
    cathedra in the 11th century. The city was also the site of the coronation of
    the first king of all England.
The monks established Bath’s famous cloth trade. The cloth was referred to as
    “Bath Beaver” and was known across England. The city is even mentioned by
    Chaucer with the “Wife of Bath” being an excellent cloth-weaver.
At the end of Saxon rule, John de Villula, a Norman, bought the city and ordered
    the constructions of a massive cathedral and the restoration of the Roman
    baths. The baths prospered in the Medieval era for their curing qualities.
With the passing of the Elizabethan Poor Acts, the poor and sick were allowed
    access to the baths. Their splendor reduced, and the baths fell again to ruin.
    When the cloth trade declined, the city and streets were in poor conditions,
    and Bath reached a low point.
 Bath Abbey – The Last of the Great Medieval
              English Churches


Present Abbey is built on same site as two earlier churches:
  Anglo-Saxon Abbey Church (757A.D. – 1066 A.D) fell to Norman Conquers
  Norman Cathedral (1090 A.D. – end of 15th century) fell ruin due to expenses
Bath Abbey was built in 1499 A.D. by Oliver King, the Bishop of Bath, after a “heaven
   sent” dream. It was again restored by Bishop Montangue in the 1600s after Henry
   VIII’s dissolution of the monasteries. His tomb can be found inside the Abbey.
The Abbey is most noted for its fan-vaulted ceilings, the 100s of memorial tablets lining
   its walls, and the huge stained glass window depicting Christ’s life over the Altar
               The Georgian Era –
               Bath’s Golden Age
In the early 18th century, Richard “Beau” Nash, an Oxford drop-out, arrived
    in Bath to transform it into a fashionable city where his gambling and
    social skills would thrive. As his influence grew, he was able to raise
    money to repair Bath’s roads and construct new buildings that even
    rivaled London.
Ralph Allen contributed to the “Golden Era” by providing his administrative
    skills and the Bath stones from his quarry to the numerous new
    buildings. During the Industrial Revolution, Allen constructed a canal
    and later a railroad on the Avon River to transport cloth and Bath stone
    all over Britain.
John Wood the Elder and John Wood the Younger are credited for the
    classic architecture built during the period. The Elder Wood created the
    Assembly Rooms, Queen Square, the Parades, and began work on the
    Circus. The Younger Wood finished his father’s Circus and built the
    Royal Crescent, the first open curved terrace in Europe.
The city’s Roman heritage was re-discovered during this era with the
    unearthing of the Sulis Minerva head and later the Roman temple
    floors. At the beginning of the 19th century, England went into a
    recession due to the costs of the Napoleonic Wars. Bath’s banks
    collapsed, and the city’s “Golden Age” came to an end.
             Georgian Architecture
   The Royal Crescent                                                    Queen Square

                    Institution Gardens & Assembly Rooms

        Bath in the               20th     Century
In the beginning of the 20th century, the city grew largely. The
   railroads linked several areas of Bath, and the tram was introduced.
During WWI, Bath’s Combe Park supplied a hospital for the wounded
   with room for about 1,000 soldiers. As the was progressed, the
   increasing number of wounded soldiers were treated in tents and at
   the Royal Mineral Water Hospital.
During WWII, Bath was heavily damaged by the German bombing
   raids. It is estimated that over 19,000 buildings were damaged and
   417 lives were lost in the blitz. The Abbey Church House, one of
   the city’s few remaining Medieval buildings, was demolished. Along
   with the British cities of York, Exeter, and Canterbury, Bath was a
   cultural target and was attacked to shatter British morale.
After the war, Bath’s tourism trade prospered although much of the
   past elegance was gone. Because of the city’s unique cultural and
   historic significance, Bath was given the title of a World Heritage
   Site. Other areas who share this honor include Stonehenge, Easter
   Island, and Venice.
   Famous Bath and Northeast Somerset
         Residents and Visitors
Queen Anne - visited in 1702 and 1703; her patronage attracted visitors
Jane Austen - stayed in four houses in the city
Queen Charlotte - visited in 1817 to take the waters before her death
Charles Dickens - stayed in two houses in the city
Queen Elizabeth I - visited in 1574
Sir William Herschel - lived in the city and discovered the planet Uranus there
Louis XVIII - King of France who visited the city in 1813
Sally Lunn - inventor of the Bath Bun and lived in the oldest house in Bath
Napoleon III - often stayed in the city the last few years of his life
Queen Victoria – visited the city as a young princess; Royal Victoria Park is
named for her, but she never returned to Bath.
John Wesley - founder of Methodism who preached in Bath in 1739; he laid the
foundation stone of the Methodist Chapel in 1777
Winston Churchill – made his maiden political speech in 1897 in the city
Recent residents and visitors to Bath include:
    Jane Seymour, Johnny Depp, and Princess Anne
              Politics in Bath
Mayor: Ray Cliffe the right worshipful

Deputy Mayor: Marian McNeis

Conservative leader: Councilor M C Henney

Liberal Democrat: Councilor Nigel Roberts

Labor Leader: Councilor D J Herod

Independent Labor Leader: Councilor P Gay
                                       Attractions in Bath

   Victoria Art Gallery                                                                                 Beckford’s Tower
                                                   Jane Austen Centre                                   http://www.bath-preservation-    

           Pulteney Bridge                                                                Holburne Museum of Art                    holburnemuseum1.jpg
           Hotels and Restaurants
Royal Crescent Hotel                        Salley Lunn’s

Bath Spa Hotel                              Green-net. At Green Brasserie

Homewood Park                               Restaurant Le Clos

The Francis                                 Pump Room

Best Western Cliff Hotel                    Lettonie

                                            Popjoy’s Restaurant

                                            The Moon and Sixpence


                                            Alfresco Restaurant
                             Bristol grew up in Saxon
                            times at the confluence of
                          the rivers Avon and Frome. A
                            bridge was built there and
                          the settlement was known as
                            Brigstow. The local dialect
                           caused an 'L' to be added to
                              the end of this - hence
This decorative motif                   Bristol.                Street layout of the
from a modern building    Now Bristol is the largest city       mediaeval city.
shows a portion of the    in the south west of England,         The heart of the modern
mediaeval bridge, lined         with a population of            city still adheres to this
with houses. It was        approximately half a million.        plan,
taken down in 1761 and                                          and road lines are much
                              Bristol is about 12 miles
a new, wider one built                                          the same today.
on the foundations.
                               from the city of Bath.

     "The most beautiful, interesting and distinguished city in England"
     John Betjeman, former Poet Laureate
                              History of Bristol
In Anglo-Saxon times a settlement grew up between the Rivers Avon and Frome. the
    settlement grew in importance after the Norman Conquest of 1066 when a castle
    was built on what is now Castle Park.
Bristol's trading activity increased and the existing port soon became inadequate so, in
    1239 a cut was excavated to divert the course of the River Frome. Trade started to
    flourish. Wealthy merchants built large houses near the quays and churches were
By the 17th century Bristol was becoming an important centre for non-conformism.
    Quakers erected a meeting house in 1670 and John Wesley, the Methodist leader,
    had a chapel, or 'New Room' built in 1739. It remains today the oldest Methodist
    building in the world.
In the late 18th century the elegant suburb of Clifton began to expand as merchants
    built houses away from the docks area. The Theatre Royal opened in King Street in
    1766 and the city entered a more elegant and cultured era. Many of the Romantic
    Poets of this period spent time in the city.
By the late 18th century the harbor was starting to become a problem. Work began on
    a Floating Harbor but the cost was so high that dock dues forced shipping to other
    ports. Bristol, as a port, began to decline and the city suffered violent riots in 1831
    which saw the destruction of many buildings.
New docks were built at the mouth of the Avon in the 1870's and Bristol continued as
    an industrial centre. The construction of aircraft, including Concorde, at Filton
    became an important post-war industry. Bristol is also the home of Rolls Royce.
    Today, Bristol is a large commercial centre, one of the most popular cities for
    business relocation and a major focus for media industries. Bristol offers a quality of
    life far above many other major cities. The harbor area continues to be developed,
    the old city is substantially restored and Clifton remains charming and elegant.
             Pictures of Old Bristol

Tramway Centre Bristol                             St. Mary Redcliffe Church

Old Market Place Street                         Interior of Free Methodist Church

                    St. Nicholas Market and St. John’s

    Fortified gateways pierced the          Traders originally set up their
    town wall at intervals. St John's       market stalls in High Street and
    Gateway, originally one of these,       Broad Street. However, according
    is the only Bristol one to survive.     to the 18th century historian
    Portcullis channels are still visible   Barrett, these stalls became the
    within the arch.                        cause of 'great obstruction of
                                            passengers and general
    St John's church was built on the       inconvenience of the inhabitants.'
    wall at this gateway at the end of
    the 14th Century, when a new            In preparation for the building of
    outer wall was constructed.             the Exchange in Corn Street,
    Originally a single gateway, the        several old houses were pulled
    side passages were pushed               down. There was enough space
    through in 1820.                        left over for the construction of St
                                            Nicholas Market in 1743 as a way
                                            of solving the problem.
            Old Bristol Castle and The High Cross
                                            The High Cross stood at
                                            the junction of High
                                            Street, Broad Street,
                                            Wine Street and Corn
                                            Street, the four principal
                                            thoroughfares of the
     Bristol Castle was built by the        There were niches
     Normans and demolished in              containing the statues of
     1650 by Act of Parliament. As          Kings John, Henry III,
     a result, very little evidence of      Edward III and Edward
     the large buildings is visible.        IV. All these had
                                            contributed to Bristol's
     A few fragments are all that           expansion and trade by
     remain of Robert, Earl of              conferring important
     Gloucester's Keep. Built of            charters. The whole
     Caen stone around 1120, it             Cross was gilded and
     stood above the great                  colored.
     Dungeon. The foundation walls
     of the Keep are reputed to
     have been 25ft thick.
                 Expansion of Bristol
   Bounded as it was by walls            As prosperity and success as a
   and rivers, land in Bristol was       port increased, so the city,
   always at a premium. As a             which had been tightly
   result, when monasteries,             constrained by its encircling
   priories, friaries, and hospitals     wall, spread outwards. Initially,
   were founded they were built          a second defensive wall was
   outside the walls on sites            constructed some distance
   granted by local land-owners.         beyond the first. Later, houses
                                         were even built into these
St. Bartholomew’s Hospital was           walls.
    built outside the wall just
    across from St. John’s Gate.       After the Reformation, monastic
    Founded in the 13th Century,          lands were sold off and
    by the 16th Century it was            became available, leading to
    being used as a grammar               expansion into the surrounding
    school.                               area.
                 Redcliffe and Temple Fee
       South of the river were the areas known as Redcliffe and Temple Fee.

                                                 The Temple Fee was the eastern
    Redcliffe had grown up as a                  part of the marshland from the
    separate settlement on the cliffs            manor of Bedminster given in 1145
    above marshland which belonged to            by Robert, Earl of Gloucester to the
    the manor of Bedminster.                     Knights Templar. These soldier-
The Lords of Berkeley, who owned the             monks, formed the guard to the
    manor, considered that Redcliffe             Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and
    came under their jurisdiction. The           pilgrims enroute to the Holy Land,
    burgesses of Bristol considered that         were also traders with their own
    Redcliffe was in their harbour area          fleet of ships.
    and shared its benefits, therefore       Like the Berkeley’s in Redcliffe, the
    should be under their control.               Templars were in constant conflict
It was a bitter feud. In the early 1300’s,       with the Bristol burgesses over
    when Maurice of Berkeley was in              jurisdiction matters in their
    Scotland with the King, Thomas de            settlement on the banks of the river
    la Grove and other men from Bristol          Avon. Even when the Knights were
    marched on his manor house at                suppressed for unacceptable
    Bedminster and ransacked it. They            conduct, their land confiscated and
    carried off a vast amount of booty,          granted to the Knights of St. John
    plus a Bristol man who had been              (Hospitallers), the situation
    imprisoned there on a murder                 remained much the same. It was not
    charge.                                      until the Reformation and closure of
                                                 the monasteries that Bristol gained
                                                 jurisdiction over the Temple area.
                 Famous People of Bristol
  Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) Great Victorian engineer of some of the
city’s most famous attractions including the Clifton Suspension Bridge, the former
Temple Meads railway, and the SS Great Britain.
  Mary Robinson (1758-1800) Author, actress, and mistress known as ‘Perdita’. She
took leading roles in Shakespearean productions which brought her to the attention of
George IV.
  Robert Southey (1774-1873) The poet who was chosen to be the Poet Laureate in
1813 . There is a portrait bust of him in Bristol Cathedral.
Sir Thomas Lawrence (1769-1830) A very talented local painter who had his own
studio by the age of twelve. He succeeded Benjamin West as the President of the Royal
Academy in London and was knighted by George IV.
  Daniel Defoe (1661? - 1731) He met Alexander Selkirk who had been discovered
shipwrecked on an uninhabited island by a Bristol privateer. Defoe's fertile imagination
turned this single meeting into his timeless classic, 'Robinson Crusoe'.
  Cary Grant (1904-1986) He was born in Horfield, Bristol as Archibald Leach. He
appeared in such films as Bringing Up Baby (1938), The Philadelphia Story (1940), and
North by Northwest (1959). In 1970 he received the Academy Award for general

                      The City and
                    Council of Bristol
Bristol was incorporated into the newly formed County of Avon
there was a huge outcry and many citizens refused to use the
new county name. The County of Bristol has since been
reinstated, although a few "outsiders" still place our fair city in
the county of Avon.

Two motorways intersect a few miles from Bristol's centre. The
M4 from London to South Wales bridges the River Severn before
it widens to become the Bristol Channel. The North-South M5
skirts the city at Avonmouth. A feeder motorway connects the M4
directly into the heart of the city.

                     Lord Mayor of Bristol
The Lord Mayor devotes most of his/her time to the
  promotion of the city, key initiatives of the council and
  supporting a wide range of Bristol based organizations.
  In carrying out this role, The Lord Mayor will carry out
  approximately 800 engagements a year. These
  engagements cover the a wide spectrum of events from
  major Royal visits to small community group meetings
  and local charity events.
The Lord Mayor also chairs the meeting of the full council -
  when all councillors meet together.
The post of the Lord Mayor of Bristol is different to the
  Mayor of London and many European city mayors in
  that it is a ceremonial post which does not carry direct
  power. Unlike these other mayors, Lord Mayors are not
  directly elected by the people.
The Lord Mayor, as first citizen of Bristol is the person that    Lord Mayor
  typically welcomes important visitors and dignitaries to          of Bristol
  the city. However, royal visitors to the city are              Cllr Bill Martin
  organized and welcomed by the Queen's representative,
  The Lord Lieutenant.
                         Heritage of Bristol
Bristol is a truly beautiful, interesting and distinguished city. Beautiful parks and
    gardens lead on to interesting alleys and lanes, whilst distinguished Georgian
    houses climb the hills of Bristol culminating in Brunel's masterpiece, the Clifton
    Suspension Bridge.
Bristol is a modern city where the latest in contemporary arts can be found and the
    night-life is interesting and varied.
The city hosts an outstanding program of events throughout the year including the
    Harbor Regatta and the world famous International Balloon Fiesta. Some events
    are free and others finish with a spectacular firework display. Events are also
    held at the city's many museums and galleries.
Bristol has always encouraged the Arts. Visitors can see a play at the historic
    Theatre Royal, watch a West End musical at the Hippodrome, listen to the best
    in music at the Colston Hall or seek out one of the city's many alternative
Bristol is surrounded by some of the most beautiful countryside in Britain making
    the city a natural base for a touring holiday. There is a superb choice of
    accommodation available and the city is justifiably proud of its many restaurants
    and cafes.
Within a relatively small area, the visitor can marvel at the Avon Gorge, visit the
    S.S. Great Britain, stroll around the Maritime Heritage Centre or just sit and
    watch the world go by, near to where John Cabot set sails for the New World in
Bristol also boasts an enormous range of shops. From the historic St Nicholas
    market, the specialist shopping of Clifton, Bristol's West end and Christmas
    Steps to the bustle of busy Broadmead, Bristol can offer a vast choice.
                    Blue Plaques in Bristol
   What are Blue Plaques?

Blue plaques commemorate people or events in Bristol. They are erected on
   the building where the person lived or worked.

   What are the criteria for blue plaques?

The person has to be deceased and have lived or worked in Bristol. Plaques
   may also be put up to mark the location of important or interesting events.

   Who decides who gets a blue plaque?

A committee of councillors from all parties and representatives from the Civic
   Society and the Dept of Environment Transport and Leisure meet annually
   to discuss the nominations that have been received.
                                  Attractions in Bristol

                                                                                       Old Vic Theatre
   St.Vincent’s Cave                                                          
         http://www.about-                                                                    ages/theatre.jpg

                                                   Lead Works

         Bristol Cathedral                                                     Berkelely Castle
                http://ship-of-                                                                    el/chili-sly/travel/berkeley.gif

The Wills Memorial Tower                                                                                        Cabot Tower    Clifton Observatory

                                   Clifton Suspension Bridge
                 Hotels and Restaurants
                                               Harry Ramsden’s Bristol
Brigstow Hotel

Aztec Hotel                                    Llandoger Trow

Jurys Bristol Hotel                            Thornbury Castle

Ramada Grange Jarvis                           Byzantium

Thistle Bristol                                Ellipse Restaurant and Bar

Hilton Bristol                                 Chandlers

Ramada Plaza Bristol                           Servenhend
                      Thistle Bristol                                    Castle
                      104.jpg                                             hornb01.jpg


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