Volume I PREPAREDNESS PLAN

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					     Volume I
PREPAREDNESS PLAN




     Puget Sound Edition (PSE)
          December 2005
  Marine Terrorism Response Plan

         Volume I—Preparedness


                       Developed by the




With assistance from marine stakeholders in the Port Regions of
Seattle/Tacoma, Los Angeles/Long Beach, Houston, New Orleans,
 Miami/Jacksonville, Philadelphia/Camden, New York/New Jersey


                       Under grant from
Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                      Credits and Recognition
Volume I—Preparedness                                                    Last Saved: 1/26/2006

CREDITS, RECOGNITION, AND REFERENCES

                                Credits and Recognition

   The following individuals and agencies and organizations contributed their time and energy
   toward the development of this MTR Plan; some more, some less, but all were very helpful.

                                 The MTR Project Team

          Chief, A.D. Vickery, Assistant Chief, Operations, Seattle Fire Department—Project
          Leader
          Rod Jackson, Port of Seattle, Project Officer
          Teresa Foster Eckard, Port of Seattle, Project Officer,
          Toshiko Hanson, Port of Seattle, Project Administration
          Bob Bohlman, Marine Exchange of Puget Sound, Support
          Michele Bower, Marine Exchange of Puget Sound, Support
          Rob Olsen, Lieutenant, Seattle Fire Department, Equipment

                                        MTR Plans

          Captain Ed Page (USCG Retired), Admiralty Maritime, Project Manager, MTR Plans
          Captain John Veentjer (USCG Retired), Admiralty Maritime, MTR Plans
          Dick Fife, Admiralty Maritime, MTR Plans
          Commander, Mike Conway (USCG Retired), Admiralty Maritime, MTR Plans
          Commander, Dave Eley (USCG Retired), Cape International, MTR Plans
          Doug Dillon, Admiralty Maritime, MTR Plans

                                       MTR Training

          Chief Luke Carpenter, Assistant Chief, Bainbridge Island Fire Department, Training
          Michael Adams, Pacific Marine Technical Services, Training and Technology

                                      MTR Exercises

          Battalion Chief Earl Soderman, Seattle Fire Department, Exercise Coordination
          Battalion Chief Randy Hansen, Seattle Fire Department, Exercise Coordination
          Mike DeCapua, Public Safety Consultants, Exercise Coordination
          James Schoonover, EG&G, Exercise Support
          Gail Harris, EG&G, Exercise Support

                               Other MTR Team Members

          Captain Bob Jensen, Port of Seattle Police
          Captain Mike Sanford, Captain, Seattle Police Department




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National Senior Advisory Group                              Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
Last Saved: 1/26/2006                                                    Volume I—Preparedness

                                 National Senior Advisory Group

   The Senior Advisory Group (SAG) included marine industry, port, agency and regional first
   responders from the port regions of New York/New Jersey, Philadelphia/Camden,
   Jacksonville, Miami, New Orleans, Houston, Los Angeles/Long Beach and Seattle/Tacoma,
   and emergency managers from St. Clair County, Michigan. It included national-level marine
   industry representation by the International Council of Cruise Lines (ICCL), the Passenger
   Vessel Association (PVA), American Waterways Operators (AWO), and the American
   Salvage Association (ASA). The U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage (SUPSALV) was
   represented, as was the Seattle District, Army Corps of Engineers. The following list, in
   alphabetical order, includes those who participated in at least one of the three meetings of
   the SAG.
           Major Gregory Baish, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District
           Douglas Barry, Assistant Chief, Los Angeles Fire Department
           Senior Sergeant Jim Billberry, Chief Pilot, Miami Police Department (Marine)
           Amy Brandt, Manager Government Affairs, American Waterways Operators
           Richard Buckingham, Assistant Supervisor, U.S. Navy Supervisor of Salvage
           Lieutenant Commander Randy Clark, Thirteenth Coast Guard District
           Lieutenant Commander Drew Cromwell, USCG Marine Safety Office Los
           Angeles/Long Beach
           Chief James Dalton, Battalion Chief, Fire Department of New York
           Ed Davis, Security Officer, Port of Long Beach
           Lieutenant Commander Greg Depinet, USCG Marine Safety Office New Orleans
           Doug Dillon, Executive Director, Tri-State Maritime Safety Association, Delaware
           River
           Corporal Joseph Doan, St. Clair County (Michigan) Marine Division
           Lieutenant Commander Michael Dreier, USCG Marine Safety Office Puget Sound,
           Seattle
           Captain Danny Ellis (now USCG Retired), as Commander, USCG Sector Seattle
           Richard Fairbanks, President, American Salvage Association
           Lieutenant Bill Gardner, Washington State Patrol
           Beth Gedney, Director of Safety and Security, Passenger Vessel Association
           Captain Bob Green, Los Angeles Police Department
           Professor Hector Guerrero, School of Business, College of William and Mary
           Captain Lou Guzzo, Fire Department of New York Marine Company #6
           Gary Hickman, Assistant Director, Operations, Port of South Louisiana
           Rod Hilden, Chief Security Officer, Port of Seattle
           Marianne Hill, Assistant Director, St. Clair County (Michigan) Office of Emergency
           Management
           Mike Hillmann, Deputy Chief, Los Angeles Police Department Special Operations
           Bureau
           Sergeant Tom Horvath, New York Police Department Harbor Unit
           David Hyres, Port Security Specialist, USCG Marine Safety Office Puget Sound
           (Seattle)


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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                             National Senior Advisory Group
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          Lieutenant Commander Gary Jones, USCG Sector New York
          Lieutenant Commander Dan Kane, Thirteenth Coast Guard District
          Detective David Kao, New York Police Department Counter-Terrorism Division
          Special Agent Jim Keesling, WMD Coordinator, Federal Bureau of Investigation
          Captain Ned Kiley (USCG Retired), Company Security Officer, Washington State
          Ferries
          Inspector Jay Kopstein, New York Police Department Operation Division
          Captain Alvin Lee, Department of Homeland Security, National Disaster Medical
          System
          Captain Craig Lee, BP Shipping, representing Western States Petroleum Association
          Kevin Lee, Tri-State Maritime Safety Association, Delaware River
          Charlie Mandigo, Holland America Lines
          Captain Steve Metruck, Commander, USCG Sector Seattle
          Lieutenant Commander Shane Montoya, USCG Marine Safety Office Galveston
          Ashley Moore, USCG Headquarters, Operation Preparedness Division
          Captain Mike Moore (USCG Retired), Vice President Pacific Maritime Shipping
          Association
          Kevin Newman, Assistant Superintendent, Port of New Orleans Harbor Police
          Michael Piwowarski, Seaport Inspections Chief, Florida Department Law
          Enforcement
          Chief Paul Price Sr., Deputy Fire Chief, Camden (New Jersey) Fire Department
          Russ Read, Security System Manager, Port of Seattle
          Lou Roupoli, Chief, Port Fire Department, Los Angeles Fire Department
          Jeff Shaw, Port Superintendent, Polar Tankers, representing Western States
          Petroleum Association
          Mitch Smith, Operations Director, Port of South Louisiana
          Helmut Steele, Fleet Facility Security Officer, Washington State Ferries
          Cynthia Swain, Director of Security, Port of New Orleans
          Captain Nicholas Tagarelli, Port Authority Police Counter Terrorism Unit, New
          York/New Jersey
          Captain Ted Thompson (USCG Retired), Executive Vice President, International
          Council of Cruise Lines
          Special Agent Tony Torres, Federal Bureau of Investigation
          Captain Ralph Tracy, Port of Los Angeles
          John Ufford, Analysis and Plans Section, Washington Emergency Management
          Division
          Lieutenant Dan Whelan, Homeland Security Department, Seattle Police Department
          Charles White, Assistant Director, Jacksonville (Florida) Port Authority
          Chief Russell Whitmarsh, Police Chief, Port of Houston Authority
          Commander William Whitson, Thirteenth Coast Guard District
          Captain Jim Wilkins, U.S. Navy, Supervisor of Salvage and Diving
          Lieutenant Kevin Zeller, Washington State Patrol



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References                                                   Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
Last Saved: 1/26/2006                                                     Volume I—Preparedness

           Lieutenant Colonel Benjamen Zerface, Commander, 10th Civil Support Team,
           Washington National Guard
           Sallie Zydek, Security Assistant, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District

   In addition to the SAG meetings, there were several subject matter experts (first responders,
   marine industry, etc.) meetings held early in this project to present the proposed approach
   and seek input; those involved only in those meetings are too numerous to be listed here.
   Nonetheless, their input is much appreciated.

   Besides appreciation to those individuals listed above, the MTR project team thanks the
   following agencies and organizations for their support, advice and assistance throughout
   this project:

           Office of Domestic Preparedness
           Coast Guard Sector Seattle
           Federal Bureau of Investigation, Seattle Office
           Port of Seattle
           Seattle Fire Department
           Seattle Police Department
           Washington State Ferries
           Washington State Fire Academy
           Holland America Lines
           Global Security Services Solutions (GS3)
           Athena Human & Technology Integrated Security Solutions

                                         References

           National Incident Management System (NIMS)
           National Response Plan (NRP)
           Response to Terrorism Job Aid 2.0 (FEMA)
           Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002
           USCG All Hazards Field Operations Guide (FOG)
           Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP)
           Emergency Management Institute (EMI)
           Homeland Security Policy Directives 5 and 8
           Various agency Web sites




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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                         RECORD OF AMENDMENTS
Volume I—Preparedness                                           Last Saved: 1/26/2006




RECORD OF AMENDMENTS

Amendment        Date of         Name of Person Entering
                                                           Signature
Number           Amendment       Amendment




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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
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                                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

CREDITS, RECOGNITION, AND REFERENCES ........................................................................i
RECORD OF AMENDMENTS.....................................................................................................v
SECTION A—INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................A-1
         1.    Background ............................................................................................................................ A-1
         2.    Preparedness......................................................................................................................... A-2
         3.    The Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP) ...................................................................... A-3
         4.    Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Project........................................................................... A-3
         5.    Terrorism................................................................................................................................ A-3
         6.    All Hazards Application of the MTR Plan............................................................................... A-3
         7.    Regional Application .............................................................................................................. A-3
         8.    National Application ............................................................................................................... A-4
         9.    Concurrent Implementation with Other Plans ........................................................................ A-4
SECTION B—MTR PLAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS..........................................................B-1
         1. Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Project Team................................................................. B-1
         2. Senior Advisory Group (SAG)................................................................................................ B-2
         3. Marine Terrorism Response Plan .......................................................................................... B-2
SECTION C—ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ...................................................................C-1
         1.    Overview ................................................................................................................................ C-1
         2.    United States Coast Guard .................................................................................................... C-1
         3.    Federal Bureau of Investigation ............................................................................................. C-3
         4.    State Government.................................................................................................................. C-4
         5.    Local Government.................................................................................................................. C-6
         6.    Tribal Government ................................................................................................................. C-7
         7.    Private Sector ........................................................................................................................ C-7
         8.    Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs).............................................................................. C-8
         9.    Citizen Groups ....................................................................................................................... C-9
         10.   Other Federal Involvement .................................................................................................... C-9
SECTION D—RESPONSE ORGANIZATION..........................................................................D-1
         1.    Overview ................................................................................................................................ D-1
         2.    National Incident Management System (NIMS) .................................................................... D-2
         3.    National Response Plan (NRP) ............................................................................................. D-3
         4.    Command and Management ................................................................................................. D-4
         5.    Joint Operations Center (JOC) ............................................................................................ D-12
         6.    Joint Field Office (JFO) ........................................................................................................ D-13
         7.    Principal Federal Official (PFO) ........................................................................................... D-14
         8.    Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO)..................................................................................... D-16
         9.    ICS Structures for Marine Terrorist Response..................................................................... D-16
    Attachment D1................................................................................................................ D-21
SECTION E—COMMAND POSTS & OPERATIONS CENTERS ............................................E-1
         1.    Overview ................................................................................................................................ E-1
         2.    Incident Facilities ................................................................................................................... E-1
         3.    Emergency Operation Center (EOC)..................................................................................... E-2
         4.    Other Potential Incident Management Facilities .................................................................... E-2
         5.    Locating Incident Management Facilities............................................................................... E-3
         6.    Networked Command Posts .................................................................................................. E-4
    Attachment E1...................................................................................................................E-5


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SECTION F—RESPONSE ACTIONS ..................................................................................... F-1
         1.    Discussion.............................................................................................................................. F-1
         2.    Marine Terrorism Incident Response Phases........................................................................ F-1
         3.    Incident Assessment.............................................................................................................. F-2
         4.    Notifications ........................................................................................................................... F-2
         5.    Triage ..................................................................................................................................... F-3
         6.    Protection of Vessels and Ports............................................................................................. F-3
         7.    Recovery of Maritime Operations .......................................................................................... F-4
SECTION G—RESOURCES.................................................................................................. G-1
         1. Discussion..............................................................................................................................G-1
         2. Resources ..............................................................................................................................G-1
SECTION H—COMMUNICATIONS ........................................................................................H-1
         1.    Overview ................................................................................................................................ H-1
         2.    The Future of Integrated Communications ............................................................................ H-1
         3.    General Communications Systems ....................................................................................... H-2
         4.    Incident Communications Preparedness ............................................................................... H-4
         5.    Comprehensive Emergency Management Network (CEMNET)—45 MHz ........................... H-5
         6.    Tri-County Radio Interoperability System (TRIS) .................................................................. H-5
         7.    Interim SATCOM Incident Site Communications Set (ISISCS) ............................................. H-6
         8.    Private-Sector Communications ............................................................................................ H-7
         9.    Volunteer Radio Communications ......................................................................................... H-7
         10.   Federal Communications Support ......................................................................................... H-7
SECTION I—PUBLIC AFFAIRS ............................................................................................... I-1
         1.    Background ..............................................................................................................................I-1
         2.    Joint Information Center (JIC)..................................................................................................I-2
         3.    Information Officer (IO) ............................................................................................................I-3
         4.    Assistants to the Information Officer........................................................................................I-4
         5.    National JIC .............................................................................................................................I-6
         6.    DHS Public Affairs Director......................................................................................................I-6
         7.    Communications Preparedness...............................................................................................I-6
         8.    Speaker Preparation ................................................................................................................I-6
         9.    Conducting a News Conference ..............................................................................................I-6
         10.   Conduct an Editorial Board ......................................................................................................I-7
         11.   Conducting a Town Meeting ....................................................................................................I-7
         12.   Deactivation of JIC...................................................................................................................I-8
SECTION J—TRAINING ......................................................................................................... J-1
         1.    Overview .................................................................................................................................J-1
         2.    Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) First Responder Training ...............................................J-1
         3.    Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Plan Training..................................................................J-6
         4.    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training......................................................................J-6
         5.    Incident Command System (ICS) Training .............................................................................J-6
         6.    The Emergency Management Institute...................................................................................J-7
         7.    Other Applicable Training .......................................................................................................J-9
SECTION K—DRILLS AND EXERCISES ...............................................................................K-1
         1.    Overview ................................................................................................................................ K-1
         2.    Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) .......................................... K-1
         3.    Related Regulated Exercise Programs.................................................................................. K-2
         4.    Exercise Planning .................................................................................................................. K-4
         5.    Exercise Types ...................................................................................................................... K-4
         6.    Improvement Planning ........................................................................................................... K-9


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SECTION L—TECHNOLOGY................................................................................................. L-1
         1. Overview .................................................................................................................................L-1
         2. Technological Program ...........................................................................................................L-2
         3. Technological Tools ................................................................................................................L-2
SECTION M—READINESS MEASURES .............................................................................. M-1
         1. Discussion..............................................................................................................................M-1
         2. Readiness Measures .............................................................................................................M-2
         3. Evaluation ..............................................................................................................................M-4
SECTION N—PLAN DISSEMINATION AND SECURITY........................................................N-1
         1. Discussion.............................................................................................................................. N-1
         2. Dissemination ........................................................................................................................ N-1
         3. Record Keeping ..................................................................................................................... N-2
    ATTACHMENT N1 ........................................................................................................... N-3
    ATTACHMENT N2 ........................................................................................................... N-4
Section O: ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................... O-1
Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS ........................................................................................P-1




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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                    SECTION A—INTRODUCTION
Volume I—Preparedness                                                       Last Saved: 1/26/2006


SECTION A—INTRODUCTION

1. Background
   a. Plan Purpose
      This Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Plan was developed with funds provided by the
      Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) to provide innovative preparedness and
      response plans to aid responders minimize the impacts resulting from terrorist incidents.
      The tools provided by this four volume Plan (I–Preparedness, II–Response, III–Field
      Operations Guide and IV–Technology) have application to all marine transportation
      incidents, extending beyond acts of terrorism to natural disasters and major marine
      casualties and provide tools to aid Response, Recovery and Restoration efforts. The
      Plan is presented in a user-friendly compendium of other manuals and plans and uses
      check off lists to help ensure that knowledgeable responders consider and act on, as
      appropriate, the plethora of issues that arise from major marine transportation incidents.
   b. Threat
      In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorists attacks on targets in the U.S., our
      domestic threat environment has expanded beyond the historical spectrum of manmade
      and natural hazards—such as fires, floods, oil spills, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados,
      etc.—to intentional acts of terrorists intending to inflict significant loss of life, property,
      harm to the environment, and economic disruption. Around the world, the targets of
      terrorist attacks have included population centers, buildings, transportation systems, and
      national symbols. The arsenal has included primarily explosives; however, there is also
      the potential for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear weapons. Terrorists can
      also use the transportation system as a delivery mechanism or weapon, as was
      demonstrated on September 11, 2001.
   c. Marine Transportation System
      The United States has always been, and most likely will always be, a maritime nation.
      Our history reminds us how very important the sea has been to us as a nation. Our ports
      have evolved as important economic engines for our country. The safety and economic
      security of the United States depends on the secure use of the maritime transportation
      system. In today’s economy, the oceans are increasingly important, with more than 80
      percent of the world’s trade moving by water. As evidenced by past natural disasters, the
      disruption of the Marine Transportation System (MTS) within a region can impact the
      entire nation. This requires that the United States be better prepared to minimize
      damage and expedite recovery from a terrorist attack or other Incident of National
      Significance (IONS) that may occur in the maritime domain. The public and private
      sectors must work together to be ready to detect and rapidly identify terrorism; react
      without endangering first responders; treat the injured; contain and minimize damage;
      rapidly reconstitute operations; and mitigate long-term hazards through effective
      decontamination measures. The Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Plan has been
      developed to assist responders in meeting these objectives.
   d. Incident Management
      To prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters,
      and other emergencies, Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 (HSPD-5) requires
      the federal government to establish a single, comprehensive approach to domestic
      incident management. To that end, the National Incident Management System (NIMS)
      provides a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, and local governments to


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     work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from
     domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. To provide interoperability
     and compatibility among public response capabilities, the NIMS includes a core set of
     concepts, principles, terminology, and techniques covering the incident command
     system (ICS), multi-agency coordination, unified command, training, identification and
     management of resources, qualifications and certification, and the collection, tracking,
     and reporting of incident information and incident resources. The MTR Plan and
     associated tools are NIMS compliant. Section D of this Volume of the MTR Plan, and
     Section D of Volume II of the Plan, provide greater detail in the application of NIMS to
     incident management. The NIMS Manual is available at www.fema.gov/nims/index.shtm.
  e. National Strategy
     The National Strategy for Homeland Security elaborates a national vision to “strive to
     create a fully integrated national emergency response system that is adaptable enough
     to deal with any terrorist attack, no matter how unlikely or catastrophic, as well as all
     manner of natural disasters.” The National Response Plan (NRP) integrates federal
     government domestic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans into one
     all-discipline, all-hazards plan. The NRP, using the NIMS, provides the structure and
     mechanisms for national-level policy and operational direction for federal support to
     state, local, and tribal incident managers and for exercising direct federal authorities and
     responsibilities, as appropriate. All potential responders should be familiar with and
     trained to the appropriate level regarding the NRP. The NRP is available at
     www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/editorial/editorial_0566.xml.

2. Preparedness
  Individual federal, state, local, and tribal jurisdictions are responsible for implementing
  effective preparedness programs involving planning, training and exercises, personnel
  qualifications, equipment certification, and mutual-aid agreements. This responsibility
  includes coordinating preparedness activities with other appropriate agencies within a
  jurisdiction, as well as across jurisdictions and with private organizations.
  a. Planning
     Planning represents the operational core of preparedness. It provides a mechanism for
     setting priorities, integrating multiple entities and functions, establishing collaborative
     relationships, and ensuring that communications and other systems support the broad
     spectrum of incident-management activities.
  b. Core Concepts
     The core concepts and principles of preparedness include:
      (i)   Establishing and sustaining prescribed levels of capability necessary to address the
            full range of incident-management operations
      (ii) Ensuring mission integration and interoperability in response to emergent crises
           across functional and jurisdictional lines, as well as between public and private
           entities
      (iii) Providing a foundation across the incident management spectrum, from prevention
            to response and recovery




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   c. Measures and Capabilities
      This volume of the MTR Plan provides specific measures and capabilities that should be
      addressed by the various jurisdictions and agencies within a port community in their
      efforts to enhance operational preparedness for incident management.

3. The Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP)
   ODP is a component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Office of State and
   Local Government Coordination and Preparedness (SLGCP). SLGCP is the federal
   government's lead agency responsible for preparing the nation against terrorism by assisting
   states, local and tribal jurisdictions, and regional authorities as they prevent, deter, and
   respond to terrorist acts. SLGCP provides a broad array of assistance to America's first
   responders through funding, coordinated training, exercises, equipment acquisition, and
   technical assistance. ODP is responsible for enhancing the capacity of state, local, and tribal
   jurisdictions to respond to, and mitigate the consequences of, incidents of domestic
   terrorism.

4. Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Project
   The MTR project was initiated to provide U.S. port communities with tools needed to
   enhance their ability to minimize the loss of life and property and the disruption to trade
   caused by marine terrorist incidents. The Port of Seattle and the Puget Sound Marine
   Firefighting Commission recognized the pressing challenges of addressing post-9/11 threats
   facing U.S. ports and formed an MTR project team and a national Senior Advisory Group
   comprised of representatives from ports and maritime organizations around the U.S. to
   develop an improved response capability. ODP, through an Urban Areas Security Initiatives
   (UASI) grant, provided the MTR project with funding to carry out this initiative to develop and
   validate a multi-agency response system and national model plan to aid the safe and
   effective mobilization of local, state, and federal resources in response to an act of terrorism
   in the marine domain. The MTR project maintains a Web site at www.marineresponse.org.

5. Terrorism
   Terrorism is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations as "the unlawful use of force and
   violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
   population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives." The
   openness of our ports is the key to our prosperity, however, in the wake of the events of
   September 11, 2001, the maritime transportation system (MTS) is considered to be a likely
   next target of, or conduit for, further attacks on the United States. Commercial vessels and
   ports provide targets of opportunity for those desiring to harm the interests of the U.S.

6. All Hazards Application of the MTR Plan
   A terrorist attack or similarly disruptive IONS, such as a major oil pollution incident or
   hurricane, involving the maritime transportation system can cause severe ripple effects on
   other modes of transportation, as well as have adverse economic or national security
   impacts. As noted above, the tools provided by the MTR project have application for
   preparing for and responding to any such incident and mitigating the impacts.

7. Regional Application
   Although not complete at the end of the initial MTR project grant-funded period much of the
   detail provided in the project’s MTR Plan is focused on the Puget Sound region (e.g.,


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   communications details and response resources inventory data). This Plan, and the
   associated tools, will be further developed for this region through participation by the
   regional response community.

8. National Application
   Throughout the country, there are presently numerous complex emergency response plans
   that are in the process of being developed and disseminated to aid response to marine
   terrorism and other maritime incidents. In almost all cases, these plans are written
   independently and due to their depth and complexity are not likely suited for use by first
   responders in the crisis phase of an actual emergency response. ODP directed the use of
   “innovative approaches” in building and developing the MTR project “locally with the
   understanding that it will have national applicability as a model program to enhance the
   security and overall preparedness of emergency responders to prevent, respond to, and
   recover from acts of terrorism.” The innovative approaches and products developed from the
   MTR project make available practical and comprehensive plans, new technological tools,
   and training that should aid other port communities in their own planning and preparedness
   activities. This Plan provides templates for information and databases that may be filled in
   by the local response community to provide regional application.

9. Concurrent Implementation with Other Plans
   This MTR Plan is offered as the model for port communities to use or adapt, in whole or in
   part, for use in responding to marine terrorism incidents, but, as noted above, it also has “all
   hazards” application. For an incident that would likely be an IONS, or might otherwise entail
   significant federal involvement, the NRP is the core plan for managing the response. This
   MTR Plan is patterned after the NRP and aids in implementation of NRP components. Other
   supplemental agency and interagency plans provide details on authorities, response
   protocols, and technical guidance for responding to and managing specific contingency
   situations, such as those for an oil or hazardous materials spill. In many cases, federal
   agencies may manage local incidents under those plans using their own authorities with the
   need for coordination by the Secretary of Homeland Security.
   In the context of an IONS, the supplemental agency or interagency plans may be
   implemented concurrently with this MTR Plan and/or the NRP, but will likely be subordinate
   to the overarching core coordinating structures, processes, and protocols detailed in this
   MTR Plan and/or by the NRP. For example, an oil spill that results from a terrorist attack
   would likely be responded to under the local Area Contingency Plan (ACP) for the response
   to oil or hazardous materials spills; however, such response will be subordinate to the
   overarching management of the larger response that is guided by the NRP and MTR Plan.




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SECTION B—MTR PLAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

1. Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Project Team
   The MTR project was initiated to provide U.S. port communities with tools to enhance their
   ability to minimize the loss of life and property and the disruption to trade caused by marine
   terrorist incidents. The Port of Seattle and the Puget Sound Marine Firefighting Commission
   recognized the pressing challenges of addressing post-9/11 threats facing U.S. ports and
   formed the MTR project to develop an improved response capability.
   a. Funding
      The Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP), through an Urban Area Security Initiative
      (UASI) grant, provided the MTR project with funding to carry out this planning process.
      The final product is the development and validation of a multi-agency response system
      and national model plan to aid in the safe and effective mobilization of local, state, tribal,
      and federal resources in response to an act of terrorism in the maritime domain.
   b. Design
      The MTR project team initially met with senior Coast Guard officials to ensure that the
      project complemented Coast Guard response planning initiatives and future plans. Coast
      Guard Captains of the Port from several areas around the U.S., as well as the 13th
      Coast Guard District Commander and the Coast Guard Director of Security in
      Washington, D.C., were briefed on the planning process and program objectives. These
      briefings were followed by a series of meetings and workshops in the Pacific Northwest
      with the Area Maritime Security Committee, law enforcement and fire fighting
      representatives, and other responders, including state and federal agencies, and marine
      industry stakeholders, such as ports and vessel operators. These meetings and
      workshops led to the development of the scope, content, and format for a national model
      plan.
   c. Development
      The MTR project team used the valuable input and feedback provided by a Senior
      Advisory Group (SAG) comprised of various port, marine industry, and response experts
      from around the country to help provide some initial direction to the plan development
      process, re-engage in the development and review of the project as it proceeded, and
      validate the end product.
   d. Training
      The MTR project included the development of first-responder training which, after initial
      deployment in the Puget Sound regional marine community, has been exported to
      communities around the country. The “awareness” component of this training is available
      online. Other hands-on training and classroom training aimed at a higher level of
      preparedness has also been developed and offered in the Puget Sound region. This
      training can be made available to those from outside the area and, with some changes
      to address regional issues, is designed to be exportable to other maritime regions.
   e. Exercises
      For purposes of validating the MTR Plan, the MTR project also included an exercise
      component. Various exercises were held involving primarily the local Puget Sound
      community. A full-scale exercise was held in September 2005, building on a tabletop
      exercise and functional exercise held earlier in the year, which brought in the National
      Senior Advisory Group to observe and evaluate.

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2. Senior Advisory Group (SAG)
   As noted above, the MTR project team formed the SAG with representation from port
   communities, first responders, and commercial maritime interests from around the country.
   This included marine industry, port, agency, and regional first responders from the port
   regions of New York/New Jersey, Philadelphia/Camden, Jacksonville, Miami, New Orleans,
   Houston, Los Angeles/Long Beach, and Seattle/Tacoma. The SAG first met in Seattle in
   December of 2004 to further refine and validate the planning and training approaches
   developed by the MTR project team. The SAG met again in May of 2005 to critique the draft
   response aspects of Volume II of the Plan, which were about 90% complete at that time. At
   that point, emergency managers from St. Clair County, Michigan, were added to the SAG, at
   their request. The SAG was assembled again in September 2005 to observe the full-scale
   exercise in Seattle and once again review and comment on the MTR Plan products. See the
   section titled “Credits, Recognition and References” at the front of this volume for a listing of
   SAG members.

3. Marine Terrorism Response Plan
   The meetings and workshops discussed above sought input from over 1,000 people with
   extensive experience in disaster emergency management planning and response. The
   meetings revealed that there was consensus that a consolidated, succinct, and user-friendly
   Marine Terrorism Response Plan is needed. The components of the model MTR Plan
   developed through these meetings led to the development of two main planning categories
   of “Preparedness” and “Response” with the more detailed components depicted below.




                                  Figure B1: MTR Plan Components



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   Eventually, the MTR project team developed a MTR Plan consisting of the following four
   major volumes:
   a. Volume I—Preparedness
      This volume covers the preparedness process, including pre-identification of
      organization and command-post needs, response actions, training, drills and exercises,
      public affairs, use of technology, readiness measures, and plan security and
      dissemination.
   b. Volume II—Response
      This volume provides guidance and detailed checklists for responders primarily serving
      at the management levels above the frontline responders and addresses incident
      assessment, notifications, response organization, command posts and operations
      centers, resources (equipment, personnel, subject matter experts, tracking),
      communications, triage, impact mitigation, law enforcement, protection of vessels and
      ports, threat stabilization and restoration of maritime operations, and public affairs. This
      volume of the Plan provides detailed checklists designed to assist incident managers in
      the timely, orderly and complete execution of and administration for significant response
      activities.
   c. Volume III—Response to Terrorism Field Operations Guide
      This is primarily a checklist-formatted guide of considerations for first responders,
      particularly in the very early stages of an incident response. This guide builds marine
      response issues into the existing Response to Terrorism Job Aid developed by the
      Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
   d. Volume IV—Technology Manual
      This manual presents information on various technological tools that are available and
      should be utilized by first responders to improve the accurate, timely and comprehensive
      dissemination of information and overall enhance the effectiveness of response efforts.
      This volume also provides a User’s Guide for the Web-based MTR Network and
      resource tracking tools including the Automated Secure Resource Tracking System
      (ASRTS). The application of emerging information technologies was recognized as a
      “force multiplier” that can substantially aid response efforts. The development of an
      open-architecture Web-based MTR Network lists resources; presents charts, maps and
      photos of impacted areas; displays trajectories; posts ICS forms; and provides for near-
      real-time resource tracking. This significant technological component of the MTR project
      can provide timely, accurate, and valuable information to first responders to assist them
      in carrying out a response that mitigates the consequence of a marine terrorism incident
      or other maritime incident.




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SECTION C—ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

1. Overview
   In the vast majority of incidents, initial responsibility for managing domestic incidents
   generally falls on state and local authorities. It is local fire, law enforcement, public health
   and medical, and emergency management resources that provide the first line of emergency
   response and incident management. However, in some instances, a federal agency in the
   local area may act as a first responder and may provide direction or assistance consistent
   with its specific statutory authorities and responsibilities. Such is the case for incidents in the
   marine environment. This section provides organizational considerations that should be
   understood and incorporated into the local plan development.
   a. Coast Guard
      In a marine incident, whether of natural or manmade origin, the U.S. Coast Guard has
      the principle authority and responsibility and will very likely be among the first
      responders, if not the first responder. For incidents involving the transportation
      infrastructure along the water, the Coast Guard will also be among the first responders
      and, depending on the nature of the incident, may have lead responsibility.
   b. FBI
      The Federal Bureau of Investigation will also be involved almost from the start of the
      response for any incident that is known or suspected to have been caused by an act of
      terrorism. The FBI has the lead for criminal investigations of terrorist acts or terrorist
      threats and will coordinate the activities of other members of the law enforcement
      community to detect, prevent, preempt, and disrupt terrorist attacks against the U.S.
   c. DHS
      When an incident or potential incident is of such severity, magnitude, and/or complexity
      that it is declared an Incident of National Significance (IONS) according to the criteria
      established in the NRP, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with other
      federal departments and agencies, initiates actions to prevent, prepare for, respond to,
      and recover from the incident. These actions are taken in conjunction with state, local,
      tribal, nongovernmental, and private-sector entities as appropriate to the threat or
      incident. In the context of Stafford Act disasters or emergencies, DHS coordinates
      supplemental federal assistance when the consequences of the incident exceed state,
      local, or tribal capabilities.

2. United States Coast Guard
   The United States Coast Guard is a military, multi-mission, maritime service and one of the
   nation’s five Armed Services. Its mission is to protect the public, the environment, and U.S.
   economic interests in the nation’s ports and waterways, along the coast, on international
   waters, or in any maritime region as required to support national security.
   a. Maritime Security
      The Coast Guard is the nation’s primary maritime law enforcement service. It enforces or
      assists in the enforcement of federal laws, treaties, and other international agreements
      on the high seas and waters under U.S. jurisdiction. The Maritime Transportation
      Security Act (MTSA) established the requirement for a network of security measures and
      plans under the coordination of the Coast Guard Federal Maritime Security Coordinator
      (FMSC), which is a responsibility of the Captain of the Port (COTP). The FMSC chairs

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     the Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) and is responsible for developing an
     Area Maritime Security Plan (AMSP).
  b. Search and Rescue
     The Coast Guard is the lead agency for maritime search and rescue (SAR) in U.S.
     waters. The Coast Guard coordinates the SAR efforts of maritime and airborne Coast
     Guard units, as well as those of other federal, state, and local responders who render
     aid to minimize the loss of life, injury, and property damage or loss in the maritime
     environment. The Coast Guard is the Maritime SAR Coordinator.
  c. Ports and Waterways Safety
     The Coast Guard COTP is charged by the Ports and Waterways Safety Act (33 U.S.C.
     1221, et seq.) with the responsibility for navigation and vessel safety, safety of the
     waterfront facilities, and protection of the marine environment within the respective
     COTP zone (also termed Area of Responsibility (AOR)). This authority allows the COTP
     to:
      (i)   Direct the anchoring, mooring, or movement of a vessels
      (ii) Specify times of vessel entry, movement, or departure to, from or through ports,
           harbors, or other waters
      (iii) Restrict vessel operations in hazardous areas
      (iv) Direct the handling, loading, discharge, storage, and movement—including
           emergency removal, control, and disposition—of explosives or other dangerous
           cargo or substances, on any bridge or other structure on or in the navigable waters
           of the U.S. or any land structure immediately adjacent to those waters
  d. Marine Environmental Protection
     The Coast Guard coordinates and integrates planning, preparedness, and response
     operations for oil pollution incidents, hazardous chemical releases, natural disasters,
     marine accidents, terrorism, and other threats to public safety, the marine environment,
     or marine transportation and commerce.
      (i)   The COTP, under authority of the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil
            Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 1251, et seq.) and the Comprehensive Emergency
            Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), will coordinate and direct all
            public and private efforts engaged in the removal, or elimination of a threat of
            discharge, of oil or hazardous material into the navigable waters of the U.S.
      (ii) The above authorities require the establishment of a National Planning and
           Response System. As part of that system, in conjunction with the National
           Contingency Plan (NCP), Area Contingency Plans, developed under the direction
           of the COTP, address responses to worst-case discharges of oil or hazardous
           substances, and mitigation or prevention of a substantial threat of discharge from a
           vessel or waterfront facility. Each COTP co-chairs (with the EPA) an Area
           Committee responsible for working with the response community to plan for joint
           response efforts.
  e. Intervention on the High Seas
     The Intervention on the High Seas Act (33 U.S.C. 1471, et seq.) extends the Coast
     Guard's authority to take preemptive or corrective action upon the high seas (i.e.,
     beyond the three-mile territorial sea) as may be necessary to prevent or mitigate an



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        incident which may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences for
        the U.S. This authority rests with the Commandant of the Coast Guard.
   f.   Coast Guard Fire Fighting Policy
        Federal policy, established in the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (PL
        93-498), states that fire prevention and control is and should remain a state and local
        responsibility, although the federal government must help to reduce fire losses. As a
        result of this policy:
        (i)   The Coast Guard has traditionally provided fire fighting equipment and training to
              protect its vessels and property.
        (ii) Commanding Officers of Coast Guard units (Captains of the Port, Sectors, Cutters,
             etc.) are routinely called upon to provide assistance at fires on-board vessels and
             at waterfront facilities. However, local authorities are principally responsible for
             maintaining necessary fire fighting capabilities in U.S. ports and harbors.
        (iii) The involvement of Coast Guard forces in actual fire fighting shall be to a degree
              commensurate with its personnel training and equipment levels. The response
              actions taken shall pose no unwarranted risk to Coast Guard personnel or
              equipment. Coast Guard personnel do not actively engage in fire fighting, except as
              follows:
              •   The deployment of individuals whose primary duty is fire fighting
              •   Isolated units located where there are no municipal fire departments and the
                  Commanding Officer determines a fire fighting effort is necessary to carry out
                  the mission of that unit
              •   In order to save a life
              •   In the early stages of a fire that can be extinguished using a portable fire
                  extinguisher

3. Federal Bureau of Investigation
   The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the investigative arm of the U.S. Department of
   Justice. The FBI's investigative authority can be found in Title 28, Section 533 of the U.S.
   Code. Additionally, there are other statutes, such as the Congressional Assassination,
   Kidnapping, and Assault Act (Title 18, US Code, Section 351), which give the FBI
   responsibility to investigate specific crimes.
   a. Priorities
      In executing the following priorities, the FBI produces and uses intelligence to protect the
      nation from threats and to bring to justice those who violate the law. With respect to
      MTR, the FBI resources are used to:
        (i)   Protect the United States from terrorist attack
        (ii) Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage
        (iii) Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
        (iv) Combat transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises
        (v) Combat significant violent crime
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   b. National Level
      The FBI investigations serve "to protect and defend the United States against terrorist
      and foreign intelligence threats and to enforce the criminal laws of the United States."
      The FBI has the lead for criminal investigations of terrorist acts or terrorist threats and
      will coordinate the activities of other members of the law enforcement community to
      detect, prevent, preempt, and disrupt terrorist attacks against the U.S.
   c. Field Level
      At the field level, the FBI coordinates all criminal investigation and law enforcement-
      related activities from its Joint Operations Center (JOC). When a Joint Field Office (JFO)
      is established in the case of an IONS, the JOC becomes a component of the JFO. At the
      headquarters level, the FBI Strategic Information and Operations Center (SIOC)
      coordinates criminal investigation and law enforcement-related activities and works in
      coordination with the Homeland Security Operations Center (HSOC) and Inter-agency
      Incident Management Group (IIMG).
      The FBI has partnered with local front-line law enforcement agencies to establish
      regional Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF).

4. State Government
   The Washington State Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan (CEMP) establishes
   state policies and describes emergency management functions and responsibilities of state
   agencies and volunteer organizations. The state’s policies and concepts of operations apply
   to incidents in the maritime environment, just as they apply to incidents on land.
   a. Authorities
      The authorities of a state government relating to emergency management and incident
      response are based on federal and state statutes and regulations.
       (i)   Federal Code and Public Law:
             •   Code of Federal Regulations Title 44, Part 205 and 205.16
             •   Public Law 93-288, The Disaster Relief Act of 1974, as amended by Public Law
                 100-707, the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act
             •   Public Law 96-342, Improved Civil Defense 1980
             •   Public Law 99-499, Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of
                 1986, Title III Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA)
             •   Public Law 920 Federal Civil Defense Act 1950, as amended
             •   Public Law 105-19 Volunteer Protection Act of m1997
       (ii) Washington State Code: (RCW) Revised Code of Washington; (WAC) Washington
            Administrative Code:
             •   Chapter 38.08, RCW, Powers and Duties of Governor
             •   Chapter 38.12, RCW, Militia Officers
             •   Chapter 38.52, RCW, Emergency Management
             •   Chapter 38.52, RCW, Fire Mobilization
             •   Chapter 43.06, RCW, Governor’s Emergency Powers


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             •   Chapter 43.105, RCW, Washington State Information Services Board
             •   Title 118, WAC, Military Department, Emergency Management
   b. Concepts
      Concepts immediately applicable to a maritime incident include:
       (i)   Direction and Control—Operational direction and control of response and recovery
             activities within local jurisdictions is conducted by on-scene incident commanders
             who report to the local jurisdiction’s Emergency Operations Center (EOC).
       (ii) Resource Management—Requests for assistance by a county or a city that is
            independently recognized by the state as a separate emergency management
            jurisdiction are made directly to the state EOC after public, private, mutual aid, and
            inter-local agreement resources are exhausted. When requests are received from
            city or county governments, the state EOC establishes response and recovery
            support priorities. Priorities are determined by the extent, size, duration, and
            complexity of the emergency or disaster and the availability of resources. It is the
            state EOC’s responsibility to obtain and coordinate resources for state agencies
            and local jurisdictions responding to an emergency or disaster.
       (iii) In the event that the capabilities of state government are exceeded, federal disaster
             or emergency assistance may be requested by the state in accordance with the
             Stafford Act.
   c. Emergency Support Functions
      Roles and responsibilities of state agencies in incident and disaster response are
      defined within the scope of Emergency Support Functions (ESF). The Washington State
      CEMP provides complete description of each function and the individual agency
      responsibilities. ESFs implemented by the State of Washington include:
             •   ESF-1 Transportation
             •   ESF-2 Telecommunications/Information System and Warning
             •   ESF-3 Public Works and Engineering
             •   ESF-4 Firefighting
             •   ESF-5 Information Analysis and Planning
             •   ESF-6 Mass Care
             •   ESF-7 Resources Support
             •   ESF-8 Health and Medical Services
             •   ESF-9 Search and Rescue
             •   ESF-10 Hazardous Materials
             •   ESF-11 Food and Water
             •   ESF-12 Energy
             •   ESF-20 Military Support to Civil Authorities
             •   ESF-21 Recovery
             •   ESF-22 Law Enforcement


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            •   ESF-23 Damage Assessment
            •   ESF-24 Evacuation and Movement
            •   ESF-25 State Animal Response Plan
  d. State Emergency Operations Center
     The State Emergency Management Department (EMD) operates the State EOC for
     coordination of the state’s actions during and emergency or disaster. The primary State
     EOC is located at Camp Murray, Building 20, with a 24-hour-a-day warning and
     communications capability. The State EOC may be activated when a state agency,
     county, or city EOC is activated in response to an emergency. At the onset of an
     emergency or disaster, state agencies will communicate with and through the State EOC
     and assess response efforts.

5. Local Government
  All counties in Washington State are emergency management jurisdictions. They have
  emergency management organizations and plans according to RCW 38.52.070. Most
  incorporated cities are part of the county-wide emergency management organization and
  plan. However, some larger cities (Seattle, Tacoma, etc.) are codified as independent
  emergency management jurisdictions.
  a. Public Health and Safety
     As an emergency management jurisdiction, the local government holds responsibility for
     public health and safety and for coordination of response actions in direct support of
     first-responder agencies.
  b. Emergency Management
     Each emergency management jurisdiction maintains and operates a 24-hour-a-day
     Emergency Communications Center (911 unit). The center serves as a notification and
     reporting link for dispatch of fire, emergency medical, law enforcement, public health,
     search and rescue, and emergency management responders. The jurisdiction’s EOC is
     activated, as necessary, to provide direct support to the responding units and for
     continued coordination of disaster response and recovery. Inter-area service
     agreements and/or mutual aid agreements are activated through the local government
     emergency management or emergency services coordinating agency.
  c. Fire Departments
     Local fire departments are responsible for fire protection within their jurisdictions. In a
     number of cities, this responsibility includes marine terminals and facilities. Some of
     these terminals and facilities have entered into mutual aid agreements with the
     surrounding fire departments. Typical responsibilities of local fire departments include:
      (i)   Establish and staff Incident Command
      (ii) Request necessary personnel and equipment in accordance with existing mutual
           aid agreements and the Washington State Resource Mobilization Plan
      (iii) Make all requests for Coast Guard/federal personnel, equipment, and waterside
            security through the COTP
      (iv) Establish liaison with police department for landside traffic and crowd control,
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6. Tribal Government
   The Tribal Chief Executive Officer is responsible for the public safety and welfare of the
   people of that tribe. The Tribal Chief Executive Officer, as authorized by tribal government:
             Is responsible for coordinating tribal resources to address the full spectrum of actions
             to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from incidents involving all hazards,
             including terrorism, natural disasters, accidents, and other contingencies.
             Has extraordinary powers to suspend tribal laws and ordinances, such as to
             establish a curfew, direct evacuations, and order a quarantine.
             Provides leadership and plays a key role in communicating to the tribal nation, and in
             helping people, businesses, and organizations cope with the consequences of any
             type of domestic incident within the jurisdiction.
             Negotiates and enters into mutual aid agreements with other tribes/jurisdictions to
             facilitate resource-sharing.
             Can request state and federal assistance through the governor of the state when the
             tribe’s capabilities have been exceeded or exhausted.
             Can elect to deal directly with the federal government. (Although a state governor
             must request a presidential disaster declaration on behalf of a tribe under the
             Stafford Act, federal agencies can work directly with the tribe within existing
             authorities and resources.)

7. Private Sector
   Private-sector organizations may be affected by direct or indirect consequences of the
   incident, including privately owned critical infrastructure, key resources, and those main
   private-sector organizations that are significant to local, regional, and national economic
   recovery from the incident. Examples of privately owned infrastructure include
   transportation, telecommunications, private utilities, financial institutions, and hospitals.
   a. Incident Planning and Response
      Certain organizations are required by existing laws and regulations to bear the cost of
      planning and response to incidents, regardless of cause. Even in the case of an IONS,
      these private-sector organizations are expected to mobilize and employ the resources
      necessary and available in accordance with their Plans to address the consequences of
      incidents at their own facilities or incidents for which they are otherwise responsible.
       (i)    In the maritime domain, vessels and facilities have some emergency response
              equipment and personnel trained to combat certain incidents, since vessels operate
              far from other response resources.
       (ii) For vessels, the crew is likely to be the first to respond to an incident.
            Owners/operators of regulated vessels bear the responsibility under law for
            preparing for, preventing, and responding to certain incidents. Most commercial
            vessels are required by Coast Guard regulations and international treaties to have
            a Vessel Response Plan (VRP) and other plans that ensure that the vessel and
            crew are prepared to prevent and respond to terrorist incidents, oil spills and/or
            fires, or the threat of such incidents. The vessel is also required to have a Vessel
            Security Officer and a Company Security Officer trained and knowledgeable on
            actions to take in the event of terrorism incidents.
       (iii) Owners/operators of certain regulated facilities or hazardous operations also bear
             responsibility under the law for preparing for and preventing incidents from


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             occurring, and responding to incidents once they occur. For example, federal
             regulations require owners/operators of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-
             regulated nuclear facilities and activities to maintain emergency (incident)
             preparedness plans, procedures, and facilities and to perform assessments, prompt
             notifications, and training for a response to an incident. Certain waterfront facilities
             are also required by Coast Guard regulations to have a facility response plan (FRP)
             for preparing for, preventing, and responding to oil or hazardous material spills
             and/or fires, or the threat of such incidents. The facility is also required to have a
             Facility Security Officer trained and knowledgeable on actions to take in the event
             of terrorism incidents.
   b. Public/Private Partnerships
      Private-sector organizations may serve as active partners in local and state emergency
      preparedness and response organizations and activities. They may provide response
      resources (donated or compensated) during certain incidents—including specialized
      teams, equipment, and advanced technologies—through local public-private emergency
      plans, mutual aid agreements, or incident specific requests from government and
      private-sector volunteer initiatives.
       (i)   The DHS and other NRP primary and support agencies coordinate with the private
             sector to effectively share information, form courses of action, and incorporate
             available resources to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from an IONS.
             The Secretary of Homeland Security utilizes a private-sector advisory group with
             broad representation to provide advice on incident management and emergency
             response issues impacting their stakeholders. Any statutory requirements
             notwithstanding, the roles, responsibilities, and participation of the private sector
             during an IONS will vary, based on the nature of the organization and the type and
             impact of the incident.
       (ii) When practical, or when required under federal law, private-sector representatives
            should be included in planning and exercises. The government may, in some
            cases, direct private-sector response resources when they have contractual
            relationships, using government funds.

8. Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
   a. Collaboration
      NGOs collaborate with first responders, governments at all levels, and other agencies
      and organizations that provide relief services to sustain life, reduce physical and
      emotional distress, and promote recovery of disaster victims when assistance is not
      available from other sources. For example, the American Red Cross is an NGO that
      provides relief at the local level and also coordinates the Mass Care element of
      Emergency Support Function (ESF) #6. Community-Based Organizations (CBOs)
      receive government funding to provide essential public health services.
   b. Volunteers
      The National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disaster (NVOAD) is a consortium of
      more than 30 recognized national organizations of volunteers active in disaster relief.
      Such entities provide significant capabilities to incident management and response
      efforts at all levels. For example, private, non-profit organizations working with natural
      resource trustee agencies often carry out the wildlife rescue and rehabilitation activities
      conducted during a pollution emergency.



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9. Citizen Groups
   Strong partnerships with citizen groups and organizations provide support for incident
   management prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation.
   a. National Citizen Corps
      The U.S. Citizen Corps brings these groups together and focuses efforts of individuals
      through education, training, and volunteer service to help make communities safer,
      stronger, and better prepared to address the threats of terrorism, crime, public health
      issues, and disasters of all kinds.
   b. Local Citizen Corps
      Local Citizen Corps Councils implement Citizen Corps programs, which include
      Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs), Medical Reserve Corps,
      Neighborhood Watch, Volunteers in Police Service, and the affiliate programs; provide
      opportunities for special skills and interests; develop targeted outreach for special-needs
      groups; and organize special projects and community events.
   c. Affiliate Programs
      Citizen Corps Affiliate Programs expand the resources and materials available to states
      and local communities through partnerships with programs and organizations that offer
      resources for public education, outreach, and training; represent volunteers interested in
      helping to make their communities safer; or offer volunteer service opportunities to
      support first responders, disaster relief activities, and community safety efforts.
   d. Further Information
      For further discussion on the involvement of citizens in an incident, see the Volunteer
      and Donations Management Support Annex of the NRP.

10. Other Federal Involvement
   The federal government recognizes the roles and responsibilities of state and local
   authorities in domestic incident management. Except where certain federal agencies have
   everyday responsibilities for incident management, such as the Coast Guard in the marine
   environment, initial responsibility for managing domestic incidents generally falls on state
   and local authorities. The federal government will assist state and local authorities when
   their resources are overwhelmed, or when federal interests are involved.
   a. DHS Secretary
      Pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, the Secretary of Homeland Security
      (DHS) is responsible for coordinating federal operations within the U.S. to prepare for,
      respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.
      The Secretary shall coordinate the federal government's resources utilized in response
      to or recovery from terrorist attacks, major disasters, or other emergencies if and when
      any one of the following four conditions applies:
       (i)   A federal department or agency acting under its own authority has requested the
             assistance of the Secretary
       (ii) The resources of state and local authorities are overwhelmed and the appropriate
            state and local authorities have requested federal assistance
       (iii) More than one federal department or agency has become substantially involved in
             responding to the incident



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      (iv) The Secretary has been directed to assume responsibility for managing the
           domestic incident by the President
  b. Other Federal Agency Involvement
     Although not specifically noted below, other federal departments and agencies may have
     authorities, resources, capabilities, or expertise required to support terrorism-related
     response, law enforcement, and investigation operations. Agencies may be requested to
     participate in federal planning and response operations and may be requested to
     designate liaison officers and provide other support as required. The following additional
     federal agencies are likely to be involved in a response to a marine terrorism incident,
     particularly once an IONS declaration is made. Each support agency maintains its
     authority and is responsible, when appropriate and according to resource availability, for
     providing appropriate personnel, equipment, facilities, technical assistance, and other
     support as required.
      (i)   Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
            FEMA will provide technical assistance in community and state planning; recovery
            and mitigation grant and insurance programs; outreach and public education;
            building science expertise; and natural hazard vulnerability/risk assessment
            expertise. FEMA leads the effort to prepare the nation for all potential disasters and
            to manage the federal response and recovery efforts following any IONS, whether
            natural or manmade.
      (ii) Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
            CBP is a component of the Border and Transportation Security (BTS) Directorate in
            DHS.
            •   Customs and Border Protection (CBP) maintains Border Patrol Search,
                Trauma, and Rescue (BORSTAR) teams, which are highly specialized units
                capable of responding to emergency search and rescue situations anywhere in
                the United States. CBP maintains air and marine assets to support search and
                rescue transportation operations.
            •   Where hazardous materials are transported by persons, cargo, mail, or
                conveyances arriving from outside the United States, CBP provides extensive
                analytical and targeting capabilities through its National Targeting Center; full
                examination capabilities by trained CBP Officers equipped with radiation
                detection and non-intrusive inspection technology; and nationwide rapid
                technical response capabilities through its Laboratory and Scientific Services
                Division.
            •   Where the incident source has been identified as originating outside the United
                States, whether the result of terrorism or a natural outbreak, CBP will be
                involved in identifying and isolating persons, cargo, mail, or other conveyances
                entering the U.S. that may be contaminated. HHS provides information and
                training, as appropriate, to CBP personnel on identifying the biological hazard
                and employing first-responder isolation protocols.
      (iii) Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
            ICE is a component of BTS within DHS that is partly responsible for securing the
            nation's air, land, and sea borders. ICE, the largest investigative arm of the
            Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is responsible for identifying and shutting


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            down vulnerabilities in the nation’s border, economic, transportation, and
            infrastructure security.
            ICE strives to prevent acts of terrorism by targeting the people, money, and
            materials that support terrorist and criminal activities.
            ICE is dedicated to detecting vulnerabilities and preventing violations that threaten
            national security. Established to combat the criminal and national security threats
            emergent in a post 9/11 environment, ICE combines a new investigative approach
            with new resources to provide unparalleled investigation, interdiction, and security
            services to the public and our law enforcement partners in the federal and local
            sectors.
            Among other roles and responsibilities, ICE includes:
            •   The Office of Detention and Removal (DRO), which promotes public safety
                and national security by ensuring the departure from the United States of all
                removable aliens through the fair and effective enforcement of the nation’s
                immigration laws.
            •   The Office of Intelligence, which collects, analyzes and shares information on
                critical homeland security vulnerabilities that could be exploited by terrorist and
                criminal organizations. The Office of Intelligence focuses on data and
                information related to the movement of people, money and materials into, within
                and out of the U.S. in support of enforcement operations.
            •   The Office of Investigations, which focuses on a broad array of national
                security, financial and smuggling violations, including illegal arms exports,
                human trafficking, narcotics smuggling, and immigration fraud. Using their
                unique legal authorities, ICE special agents also conduct investigations aimed
                at protecting critical infrastructure industries that are vulnerable to sabotage,
                attack, or exploitation.
       (iv) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
            The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is one of the 13 major
            operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS),
            which is the principal agency in the federal government for protecting the health
            and safety of all Americans and for providing essential human services, especially
            for those people who are least able to help themselves. The CDC, acting under
            everyday authorities and responsibilities for certain incident management, is likely
            to be involved in incidents involving serious health issues.
            •   Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
                The CDC’s Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) has statutory
                responsibility to make and enforce regulations necessary to prevent the
                introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases from foreign
                countries into the U.S. The legal foundation for these activities is found in Titles
                8 and 42 of the U.S. Code and relevant supporting regulations. Some of the
                tasks undertaken relevant to MTR are:
                    Oversee the medical examination of aliens in accordance with the
                    Immigration and Nationality Act.
                    Monitor the quality of medical examinations and documentation of aliens.



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                  Notify state and local health departments of the arrival of refugees in their
                  jurisdiction.
                  Oversee the screening of arriving international travelers for symptoms of
                  illness that could be of public health significance.
                  Undertake special projects in response to immigration emergencies and/or
                  threats posed by emerging infections.
                  Assure timely distribution of investigational drugs and immunobiologics to
                  patients in order to minimize morbidity and mortality.
                  Perform inspections of maritime vessels and cargos for infectious disease
                  threats.
              Quarantine Stations are located in the international airports in New York,
              Chicago, Miami, Atlanta, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu.
              Each Quarantine Station has responsibility for all ports, seaports, and
              international airports in an assigned region. Since quarantine personnel are not
              located at every port of entry, the Quarantine Stations train Immigration,
              Customs, and Agriculture Inspectors to watch for ill persons and imported items
              having public health significance.
          •   Vessel Sanitation Program
              CDC’s Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) protects passenger and crew health
              by minimizing the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI) aboard cruise ships. VSP
              accomplishes this mission through sanitation inspections, disease surveillance
              and investigations, onsite inspections of new ship construction and renovation,
              and reviewing construction plans for new ships. VSP also trains crewmembers
              in proper public health techniques, including food handling and preparation,
              drinkable water system management, and pool and spa operation and
              maintenance. VSP provides assistance to cruise ships when the number of ill
              passengers or crewmembers has reached 2% or more of the total number of
              passengers or crewmembers or when an unusual GI pattern or characteristic is
              found. Cruise ships are required to log and report the number of passengers
              and crewmembers who have reported GI illness symptoms.
      (v) Department of Defense
          In an IONS, particularly one of extended duration, the following DoD resources are
          likely to be involved:
          •   The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is heavily involved in building,
              sustaining and protecting critical infrastructure facilities for military global
              missions, nation’s water resources and growing security objectives.

              In both its Civil Works mission and its Military Construction program, the Corps
              is responsible for billions of dollars of the nation's infrastructure. As part of its
              Water Resources mission, the Corps maintains direct control of 609 dams,
              maintains and/or operates 257 navigation locks, and operates 75 hydroelectric
              facilities that generate 24% of the nation’s hydropower and three percent of its
              total electricity.

              In the wake of recent world events, Corps engineering expertise and
              emergency management abilities have become inextricably linked with the


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                nation's homeland security. In recognition of this fact, the Corps has created an
                Office of Homeland Security, incorporating the emergency management
                program and other programs designed to ensure the security of the nation's
                infrastructure.

                Through its security planning, force protection, research and development
                disaster preparedness efforts and response to emergencies and disasters, the
                USACE is able to help save hundreds of lives and millions of dollars in property
                damage every year from natural and manmade disasters. The Corps
                capabilities can lessen the impact of disasters on people, communities, the
                economy, and the environment.
            •   The Navy Supervisor of Salvage and Diving (SUPSALV) is responsible for
                all aspects of ocean engineering, including salvage, in-water ship repair,
                contracting, towing, diving safety, and equipment maintenance and
                procurement. SUPSALV provides technical, operational, and emergency
                support to the Navy, DoD, and other federal agencies in the ocean engineering
                disciplines of marine salvage, pollution abatement, diving, and diving system
                certification. SUPSALV helps to prevent, respond to, and minimize the effects
                of catastrophes and other national emergencies.
       (vi) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
            Because of its inherent role in protecting human health and the environment from
            possible harmful effects of certain chemical, biological, and nuclear materials, the
            EPA is actively involved in counter-terrorism planning and response efforts. The
            EPA supports the federal counter-terrorism program by:
            •   Helping state and local responders to plan for emergencies. Since 1986,
                EPCRA has required every community to develop an emergency plan that
                prepares for accidental releases of extremely hazardous substances, and
                should one occur, makes provisions for rapid responses to protect the
                community. These existing plans are being updated to incorporate planning and
                response to deliberate chemical releases that are the hallmark of terrorist
                incidents.
            •   Training first responders. In addition to the EPA’s existing training program for
                first responders, the EPA is one of six federal agencies participating in a
                program to train personnel who are likely to be first on the scene of a terrorist
                incident.
            •   Providing resources in the event of a terrorism incident. The EPA has
                specialized facilities and uniquely qualified personnel to help local and state
                personnel prepare for and respond to emergencies, such as those that might
                result from a terrorist incident. EPA also assists its federal partners and state
                and local governments through a variety of resources, including On-Scene
                Coordinators (OSCs); the Environmental Response Team; other emergency
                response personnel; the National Enforcement Investigations Center; and
                various radiological response capabilities.
       (vii) The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA)
            NOAA’s office of Response and Restoration has expertise in weather, chemical
            releases and impact, and oil pollution can assist first responders in assessing,
            projecting and mitigating the impacts of maritime incidents. NOAA representatives

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          can provide critical information for allocation of response assets, restore adverse
          effects on natural resources, aid planning and response decision-making, and
          document damages. Specifically, NOAA can:
          •   Provide on-site 24/7 meteorological support to incident commanders and first
              responders involved in natural and man made hazardous events to ensure the
              safety of personnel and the affected public, and mitigation of threats to nearby
              infrastructure.
          •   Provide accurate, timely, and relevant scientific data, information, products,
              services and advice to organizations charged with responding to and mitigating
              the consequences of natural and human-induced disasters.




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SECTION D—RESPONSE ORGANIZATION

1. Overview
   a. Homeland Security Presidential Directive–5
      Homeland Security Presidential Directive–5 (HSPD–5) required the federal government
      to establish a single, consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, local, and tribal
      governments to effectively and efficiently work together to prepare for, prevent, respond
      to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. To this
      end, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) has been established. NIMS
      provides a template by which prevention, preparation, and response activities are to be
      coordinated not only between government organizations, but also with private-sector and
      nongovernmental organizations.
       HSPD-5 requires all federal departments and agencies to adopt NIMS and to use it in
       their preparedness and response programs and activities. It also requires the adoption of
       NIMS by other entities as a condition for federal preparedness assistance (grants,
       contracts, and other activities).
   b. NIMS Standard
      The NIMS Incident Command System (ICS) is the recognized standard with which
      incident management systems must demonstrate compatibility. It is also the measure
      that regulatory agency plan reviewers, drill evaluators, and spill responders will use to
      gauge the adequacy of response actions. While this system allows considerable
      operational flexibility, it also includes a collaborative planning process that delineates
      key management position responsibilities, common uses of forms, essential Incident
      Action Plan (IAP) elements, and response personnel and equipment resource tracking
      methods.
   c. Contingency Planning
      To fully achieve the interoperability mandated by HSPD-5, contingency planning must
      become truly interagency and interoperative within a port region. Successful multi-
      agency/organization preparation for and response to significant incidents will depend on
      a port region’s ability to combine resources and integrate the command and control
      structures of all responder agencies/organizations. A well-coordinated response will
      accelerate incident stabilization, increase life saving, and expedite mitigation and
      recovery efforts.
   d. National Response Plan
      HSPD-5 also requires the development of a National Response Plan (NRP) to integrate
      federal government domestic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery plans
      into a single plan to cover all disciplines and all hazards. The NRP, using the
      comprehensive framework provided by the NIMS, provides the structure and
      mechanisms for national-level policy and operational direction for federal support to
      state, local, and tribal incident management. The NRP was published in December 2004
      and superseded its predecessor, the Federal Response Plan.
   e. Incident Management
      Most incidents are managed locally, and most are handled within a single jurisdiction
      and need not go further. Other incidents may begin with a single response discipline in a
      single jurisdiction and could rapidly expand to multi-discipline, multi-jurisdictional


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        incidents requiring significant additional resources and operational support. Whether
        incidents are large or small, routine or complex, involving one jurisdiction or many
        jurisdictions, ICS provides a flexible core mechanism for coordinating incident
        management.
   f.   Acts of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and/or Nuclear Terrorism
        Acts of chemical, biological, radiological, and/or nuclear terrorism represent particular
        challenges for the traditional ICS structure, in that they are not likely to be site-specific,
        are more likely to be geographically dispersed, or will evolve over longer periods of time.
        As such, they require extraordinary coordination between federal, state, local, tribal,
        private-sector, and non-governmental organizations.
   g. Organizational Flexibility
      There is no one "best" way to organize an incident response. The organization should
      develop to include the functions required. The characteristics of the incident and the
      management needs of the Incident Commander (IC) will determine which organizational
      elements should be established. The incident organization may change over time to
      reflect the various phases of the incident.
   h. Cooperation
      Members of the port response community should, to the maximum extent possible,
      identify in advance how they will respond together, determine how they each fit into the
      ICS management organization, and agree on the command and control structure to be
      used.
   i.   Organization
        In the paragraphs that follow, the organizational elements of the NIMS and the NRP are
        highlighted; however, this discussion cannot substitute for a more thorough review of
        these documents or the completion of available training (see Section J of this volume).
        The focus of this section is on the organizational element of response, specifically ICS.

2. National Incident Management System (NIMS)
   a. Incident Management
      On a daily basis, most incidents are handled by a single jurisdiction at the local level;
      however, there are important instances in which successful incident management
      operations depend on the involvement of multiple jurisdictions, functional agencies, and
      emergency responders. These instances require effective and efficient coordination
      across a broad spectrum of organizations and activities. The NIMS integrates the best
      processes and methods into a unified national framework for incident management. This
      framework provides the basis for interoperability and compatibility that enables a diverse
      set of public and private organizations to integrate their incident management operations
      effectively.
   b. Core Concepts
      To provide interoperability and compatibility among federal, state, local, and tribal
      capabilities, the NIMS includes a core set of concepts, principles, terminology and
      technologies covering:
        (i)   Incident Command System (ICS)
        (ii) Multi-agency coordination systems
        (iii) Unified Command (UC)


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       (iv) Training, including qualifications and certification of personnel
       (v) Identification and management of resources
       (vi) Collection, tracking, and reporting of incident information and incident resources
   c. Interoperability and Compatibility
      The NIMS provides a framework for interoperability and compatibility by balancing
      flexibility and standardization.
       (i)   NIMS provides a flexible framework that facilitates government and private entities
             at all levels working together to manage domestic incidents. This flexibility applies
             to all phases of incident management, regardless of cause, size, location, or
             complexity.
       (ii) The NIMS provides a set of standardized organizational structures—such as
            incident command system (ICS), multi-agency coordination systems, and public
            information systems—as well as requirements for processes, procedures, and
            systems designed to improve interoperability.
   d. NIMS Components
      The NIMS is comprised of several components that work together as a system. This
      section will focus on the first of these components. The other components are addressed
      elsewhere in this volume. NIMS components include:
       (i)   Command and management
       (ii) Preparedness
       (iii) Resource management
       (iv) Communications and information management
       (v) Supporting technologies
       (vi) Ongoing management and maintenance

3. National Response Plan (NRP)
   The NRP establishes a comprehensive, national, all-hazards approach to enhance the
   ability of the United States to manage domestic incidents. It is predicated on the NIMS
   template for interoperability and compatibility across the broad spectrum of the response
   community. The NRP provides the structure and mechanisms for national-level policy and
   operational coordination for domestic incident management without altering or impeding the
   ability of federal, state, local, or tribal departments and agencies to carry out their specific
   authorities.
   a. Command and Coordination
      Reflecting the NIMS construct, the NRP includes the following command and
      coordination structures:
       (i)   Incident command posts on-scene using the Incident Command System
             (ICS)/Unified Command (UC)
       (ii) Area Command (if needed)
       (iii) State, local, tribal, and private-sector emergency operations centers (EOCs)
       (iv) Joint Field Office (JFO), which is responsible for coordinating federal assistance
            and supporting incident management activities locally

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      (v) Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC), which is a standing facility
          operated by FEMA that is activated to coordinate regional response efforts,
          establish federal priorities, and implement local federal program support. The
          RRCC operates until a JFO is established
      (vi) The Homeland Security Operations Center (HSOC) is the primary national-level
           multi-agency situational awareness and operational coordination center. The HSOC
           is a standing 24/7 interagency organization fusing law enforcement, national
           intelligence, emergency response, and private-sector reporting
      (vii) Interagency Incident Management Group (IIMG), which serves as the national
            headquarters-level multi-agency coordination entity for domestic incident
            management in the case of an IONS
      (viii) National Response Coordination Center (NRCC) is a multi-agency center that
             provides overall federal response coordination for IONS and emergency
             management program implementation. FEMA maintains the NRCC as a functional
             component of the HSOC in support of incident management operations.
  b. “Big Picture” View
     The NRP organizational structure addresses both site-specific incident-management
     activities and the broader regional or national issues related to the incident, such as:
      (i)    Impacts on the rest of the country
      (ii) Immediate regional or national actions required to avert or prepare for potential
           subsequent events
      (iii) Management of multiple threats or incidents, particularly those that are nonsite-
            specific, geographically dispersed, or evolve over a long period of time
  c. Principal Federal Official (PFO)
     In the case of an IONS, the PFO is the federal official designated by the Secretary of
     Homeland Security to act as his/her representative locally to oversee, coordinate, and
     execute the Secretary’s incident management responsibilities under HSPD-5. The PFO
     ensures that incident management efforts are maximized through effective and efficient
     coordination. The PFO does not direct or replace the incident command structure
     established at the incident, nor does the PFO have directive authority over federal and
     state officials in the exercise of their authorities. PFOs may be designated on a pre-
     incident basis according to available threat information, or in response to an incident in
     progress. See also paragraph 7 below.

4. Command and Management
  The NIMS standard incident management structures are based on three key organizational
  systems:
            The Incident Command System (ICS), which defines the operating characteristics,
            management components, and structure of incident management organizations
            throughout the life cycle of an incident
            Multiagency Coordination Systems, which define the operating characteristics,
            management components, and organizational structure of supporting entities
            Public Information Systems, which include the processes, procedures, and systems
            for communicating timely and accurate information to the public during emergency
            situations. See Section I of this Volume for further discussion


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   a. Incident Command System (ICS)
      The ICS is designed to enable effective and efficient domestic incident management by
      integrating facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications to operate
      within a common organizational structure. ICS is widely applicable and can be used to
      organize field-level operations for a wide spectrum of emergency incidents, near-term
      and long-term, from small to complex, whether natural or manmade. It is used by all
      levels of government, as well as by the private sector and non-governmental
      organizations, and is applicable across all disciplines. ICS is normally structured to
      facilitate the activities in five major functional areas: command, operations, planning,
      logistics, and finance and administration. Again, for greater detail, refer to the NIMS
      document at www.fema.gov/nims/.

                                                  Incident
                                                 Command



                  Operations          Planning               Logistics        Finance/
                   Section            Section                 Section       Administration
                                                                               Section



             Figure D1—Incident Command System: Command, Command Staff, and General Staff

       (i)   Maintaining an adequate Span of Control throughout the ICS organization is very
             important. Supervisors must be able to adequately monitor the activities of their
             subordinates, as well as communicate with and manage all resources under their
             supervision. An effective Span of Control may vary from three to seven
             subordinates per manager, and a ratio of one to five is recommended. If the
             number of reporting elements falls outside of those ranges, expansion or
             consolidation of the organization may be necessary.
       (ii) Command is comprised of the Incident Commander (IC) and the Command Staff.
            These are positions with key responsibilities not specifically addressed with the
            General Staff elements. The command function itself may be conducted in two
            general ways:
             •   Single Command IC when an incident occurs within a single jurisdiction and
                 there is no jurisdictional or functional agency overlap. Even where there may be
                 overlap, a single IC could be designated if all parties agree. The IC is the
                 person in charge at the incident, and must be fully qualified to manage the
                 incident. As incidents grow in size or become more complex, a more highly
                 qualified IC may be assigned by the responsible jurisdiction or agency. The IC
                 may have one or more deputies from the same agency or from other agencies
                 or jurisdictions.
             •   Unified Command (UC) is important in multi-jurisdictional or multi-agency
                 domestic incident management. It enables agencies with different legal,
                 geographic, and functional responsibilities to coordinate, plan, and interact
                 effectively in a response. UC overcomes much of the inefficiency and
                 duplication of effort that can occur when a diverse response community
                 operates without a common system or organizational framework. The
                 designated agency incident commanders that comprise a UC work together to
                 determine incident response objectives, strategies, plans, and priorities.


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              Whenever possible, decisions with regard to the response will be made by
              consensus and documented through a single Incident Action Plan (IAP).
              However, when a consensus cannot be reached, the agency IC with the
              primary responsibility under the circumstances will have the ultimate decision-
              making authority. In most incidents of a maritime nature, the Coast Guard will
              have the primary responsibility.

                                              Incident
                                             Command
                                                 or
                                               Unified
                                             Command



                                Safet y                      Liaison


                                                              Public
                                                           Information




                            Figure D2—Command and Command Staff

          •   The IC or UC will set the incident objectives and priorities which will generally
              always include: life safety, including that of the responders; incident
              stabilization, property conservation, environmental issues, and criminal
              investigation.
      (iii) Command Staff consists of the IC/UC and various special staff positions. The three
            typical special staff positions are:
          •   The Public Information Officer (PIO) is responsible for interfacing with the
              public and media and/or with other agencies with incident-related information
              requirements. Whether the command structure is single or unified, there should
              be only one PIO designated. Assistants may be assigned from other involved
              agencies or organizations.
          •   The Safety Officer (SO) is responsible for monitoring all operational safety
              matters during response operations, including the health and safety of
              emergency response personnel. The SO is responsible to the IC/UC. Although
              the SO may exercise emergency authority to stop or prevent unsafe acts when
              immediate action is required, the SO should attempt to correct unsafe acts or
              conditions through the regular line of authority. The SO maintains awareness of
              active and developing situations, ensures that the preparation and
              implementation of the incident response Safety Plan, briefs personnel, and
              includes safety messages in each Incident Action Plan. In a UC, a single SO
              should be designated; however, assistants from other involved agencies may
              be required. Agencies, organizations, and jurisdictions that contribute to joint
              safety management efforts do not lose their individual identities or
              responsibilities for their own programs, policies, and personnel.
          •   The Liaison Officer (LNO) is the point of contact for representatives of other
              governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations, and/or private entities
              providing assistance to, or otherwise interested in, response operations.
              Keeping the public and other interested parties, particularly elected officials,


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                well informed regarding the status of the incident response is a primary incident
                management objective. In either a single-command or UC structure, agency
                representatives should coordinate through the LNO.
            •   Other command staff positions may be appropriate, depending on the nature
                and location of the incident. Such additional positions could include a Legal
                Counsel and a Medical Advisor. The latter would be particularly valuable in a
                chemical or biological terrorism event.
       (iv) The Operations Section is responsible for all activities associated with the
            reduction of the immediate hazard, saving lives and property, establishing
            situational control, and restoration of normal operations. The ICS offers flexibility in
            determining the right structural approach for the specific circumstances of the
            incident at hand. Figure D3 shows the basic structure elements for an Operations
            Section.

                                             Operations
                                              Section



                                              Branches



                                          Divisions/Groups



                                             Resources


                          Figure D3—Major elements of the Operations Section

            •   The Operations Section Chief is responsible to the IC/UC for the direct
                management of all incident-related operational activities. The Operations
                Section establishes the tactical objectives for each operational period. There
                should be only one designated Operations Section Chief for each operational
                period. That person is normally (but not always) from the jurisdiction or agency
                that has the greatest involvement, in terms of either resources assigned or area
                of concern. The Operations Section Chief may have deputies from the same
                agency, or from other agencies or jurisdictions. Using deputies from other
                agencies often helps in the coordination of actions. Until Operations is
                established as a separate Section, the IC will have direct control of tactical
                resources.
            •   Branches may be used in several ways, and may be functional or geographic
                in nature. Branches are generally established when the number of divisions or
                groups exceeds the recommended span of control of one supervisor to three to
                seven subordinates.
            •   Divisions and Groups are established when the number of resources exceeds
                the manageable span of control of the IC and the Operations Section Chief.
                Divisions are established to divide an incident into physical or geographical
                areas of operation. Groups are used to divide the incident into functional areas
                of operation.



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          •   Resources refer to the combination of personnel and equipment required to
              enable incident management operations. Resources may be organized in three
              different ways.
              (1) Single resources are individual personnel and equipment items and the
                  operators associated with them.
              (2) Task forces are any combination of resources assembled in support of a
                  specific mission or operational need. All have common communications
                  and a designated leader.
              (3) Strike forces are a set number of resources of the same kind and type that
                  have an established minimum number of personnel.
      (v) The Planning Section collects, evaluates, and disseminates incident situation
          information and intelligence to the IC or UC and incident management personnel. It
          prepares status reports, displays situation information, maintains records of status
          of resources assigned to the incident, and develops and documents the Incident
          Action Plan (IAP). As shown in Figure D4 below, the Planning Section is comprised
          of four primary units, as well as a number of technical specialists to assist in
          evaluating the situation, developing planning options, and forecasting requirements




                          Planning Section


                                                Resource Unit


                                                Situation Unit


                                             Demobilization Unit


                                             Documentation Unit


                                             Technical Specialists


          for additional resources.
                          Figure D4—Basic Planning Section Organization

          •   The Planning Section Chief oversees all incident-related data collection and
              analysis regarding incident operations and assigned resources. The Planning
              Chief supervises the development of alternatives for tactical operations,
              periodic planning meetings, and the preparation of the IAP for each operational
              period. In a multi-agency or multi-organization response, there should be one
              Planning Chief, who normally would come from the jurisdiction with primary
              incident responsibility. There may also be one or more deputies designated
              from other participating jurisdictions, particularly those represented in the UC.
          •   The Resources Unit is responsible for ensuring that all assigned personnel
              and other resources have checked in at the incident and for tracking their status



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                throughout the response. See Section G of this Volume for more information
                regarding resources.
            •   The Situation Unit collects, processes, and organizes ongoing information
                regarding the incident situation. It prepares periodic situation summaries and
                develops projections and forecasts of future events related to the incident. It
                also prepares maps and gathers and disseminates information and intelligence
                for use in the IAP. Technical specialists may be assigned, as needed.
            •   The Documentation Unit maintains accurate and complete incident files,
                including a complete record of the major steps taken to resolve the incident.
            •   The Demobilization Unit develops an Incident Demobilization Plan that
                includes specific instructions for all personnel and resources that will require
                demobilization. This unit should begin work early in the response, so as to be
                ready to release resources at the earliest possibility.
            •   Technical Specialists may be needed to assist with incident management
                depending on the nature of the incident. They may serve anywhere in the
                organization, including on the Command Staff. They may report directly to the
                ICs or to the Section Chief of the unit within that section to which they are
                assigned. If such specialists are needed for only a short time, they should be
                assigned to the Situation Unit. If they are needed for an extended period, it may
                be appropriate to establish a separate Technical Unit in the Planning Section.
       (vi) The Logistics Section meets all support needs for the incident, including ordering
            resources through appropriate procurement authorities from off-incident locations. It
            provides facilities, transportation, supplies, equipment maintenance and fueling,
            food, service, communications, and medical services for incident personnel.

                                             Logistics Section


                     Service Branch                                 Support Branch

                      Communications Unit                            Supply Unit


                           Medical Unit                             Facilities Unit


                            Food Unit                            Ground Support Unit
                                                                    Medical Unit

                            Figure D5—Basic Logistics Section Organization

            •   This section is led by the Logistics Section Chief, who may also have one or
                more deputies. When the incident is very large and requires a number of
                facilities and large numbers of equipment, the Logistics Section may be divided
                into a Service Branch and a Support Branch.
            •   The Supply Unit orders, receives, stores, and processes all incident-related
                resources, personnel, and supplies.
            •   The Facilities Unit sets up, maintains, and demobilizes all facilities used in
                support of the incident operations. It also provide facility maintenance and


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              security services. This unit sets up the ICP, incident bases and camps, as well
              as any other forms of shelter for use in and around the incident area.
          •   The Ground Support Unit maintains and repairs primary tactical equipment,
              vehicles, and mobile ground support equipment. It tracks and records all usage
              of this equipment, supplies fuel as needed, provides transportation, and
              develops and implements the incident traffic plan.
          •   The Communications Unit develops the Incident Communications Plan for the
              most effective use of the communications equipment and facilities assigned to
              the incident, installs and tests communications equipment, supervises and
              operates the incident communications center, distributes and recovers
              communications equipment assigned to incident personnel, and maintains and
              repairs communications equipment on site. The need for effective
              communication is especially important in the context of a multi-agency incident,
              in which it is critical for determining required radio nets, establishing
              interagency frequency assignments, and ensuring the interoperability and the
              optimal use of all assigned communication capabilities. See Section H of this
              Volume for more information regarding communications.
          •   The Food Unit determines food and water requirements. It plans menus,
              orders food, and provides cooking facilities; cooks, serves, and maintains food
              service areas; and manages food security and safety concerns. Efficient food
              service is very important, especially in the case of an extended incident
              response.
          •   The Medical Unit is responsible for developing the Incident Medical Plan and
              the effective and efficient provision of medical services to incident response
              personnel.
      (vii) A Finance and Administration Section is established when the agency(s)
            involved in incident management activities require finance and other administrative
            support services. The basic organization structure of this section is shown in Figure
            D6 below.

                                                 Finance/
                                               Administration
                                                 Section

                             Compensation/                       Procurement
                              Claims Unit                            Unit


                                 Cost Unit                         Time Unit


                Figure D6—Basic Finance/Administration Section organizational structure

      (viii) Information and Intelligence Function
          The analysis and sharing of information and intelligence are important elements of
          ICS. In this context, intelligence includes not only national security or other types of
          classified information, but also other operational information, such as risk
          assessments, medical intelligence, weather information, geospatial data, structural
          designs, toxic contaminant levels, and utilities and public works data, that may
          come from a variety of sources. The function may be included within ICS as part of


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             the Command Staff, as a Unit within the Planning Section, as a Branch within the
             Operations Section, or as a Separate General Staff Section. The latter option may
             be most appropriate for a marine terrorism incident heavily influenced by
             intelligence factors and where there is a need to manage and/or analyze a large
             volume of classified or highly sensitive intelligence or information.
   b. Area Command
      Area Command (AC)/Unified Area Command (UAC) is an organization established to:
      (1) oversee the management of multiple incidents that are each being handled by an ICS
      organization, likely in separate incident command posts (ICP); or (2) oversee the
      management of large or multiple incidents to which several Incident Management Teams
      have been assigned.
       (i)   The AC does not have operational responsibilities. However, the AC has the
             responsibility to set overall strategy and priorities, allocate critical resources
             according to priorities, ensure that incidents are properly managed, and ensure that
             objectives are met and strategies followed.
       (ii) The AC becomes UAC when incidents are multi-jurisdictional. This allows each
            jurisdiction to have representation in the command structure.
       (iii) The AC may be established at an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) facility, but
             should not be confused with the functions performed by an EOC. The AC oversees
             incident management, while an EOC coordinates support functions and resources
             support. The AC may be located elsewhere, but should not be collocated at an ICP,
             where it might confuse the command and management activities with that particular
             incident.
       (iv) The AC must ensure effective, efficient communications and coordination
            processes and protocols with subordinate ICPs and other involved incident
            management organizations.



                                 Area
                            Command
                           Unified, if appropriate




                                                                                     Finance/
                                                     Planning         Logistics    Administration



                          Incident                               Incident             Incident
                         Command                                Command              Command

                   Figure D7—Basic Area Command organization, unified as appropriate

   c. Multi-Agency Coordination Systems
      A multi-agency coordination system is a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel,
      procedures, and communications integrated into a common system with responsibility
      for coordinating and supporting domestic incident-management activities.




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       (i)   When incidents cross disciplinary or jurisdictional boundaries, or involve complex
             incident-management scenarios, a multi-agency coordination entity (such as an
             emergency management agency) may be used to facilitate incident management
             and policy coordination. The situation and needs of the jurisdictions involved will
             dictate how these multi-agency coordination entities are structured and conduct
             their business.
       (ii) Regardless of form or structure, multi-agency coordination entities are typically
            responsible for:
             •   Ensuring that each agency involved in incident-management activities is
                 providing appropriate situational awareness and resource status information
             •   Establishing priorities between Incident and/or Area Commands in concert with
                 the IC or UC(s) involved
             •   Acquiring and allocating resources required by incident-management personnel
                 in concert with the priorities established by the IC or UC
             •   Anticipating and identifying future resource requirements
             •   Coordinating and resolving policy issues arising from the incident(s)
             •   Providing strategic coordination, as required
   d. Incident Action Plan
      Every incident must have oral or written action plans. The purpose of these plans is to
      provide all incident supervisory personnel with direction for future actions. An IAP is
      prepared for each operational period.
       (i)   Operational periods can be of various lengths, but should be no longer than twenty-
             four hours. Twelve-hour operational periods are common on many large incidents.
             The length of an operational period will be based on the needs of the incident, and
             these can change over the course of the incident.
       (ii) Essential elements in any written or oral Incident Action Plan are:
             •   Statement of Objectives—This should be appropriate to the overall incident.
             •   Organization—This describes which parts of the ICS organization will be in
                 place for each operational period.
             •   Assignments to Accomplish the Objectives—These are normally prepared
                 for each division or group and include the strategy, tactics, and resources to be
                 used.
             •   Supporting Materials—Examples can include a map of the incident,
                 communications plan, medical plan, traffic plan, etc.
       (iii) The IAP must be made known to all incident supervisory personnel. This can be
             done through briefings, by distributing a written plan prior to the start of the
             operational period, or by both methods.

5. Joint Operations Center (JOC)
   The FBI’s JOC is the field-level interagency command and control center for managing
   multi-agency preparation for, and the law enforcement and investigative response to, a
   credible terrorist threat or incident. Similar to the Area Command concept within the ICS, the


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   JOC also may be established to coordinate and organize multiple agencies and jurisdictions
   during critical incidents or special events.
   a. Modular and Scalable
      Following the basic principles established in the NIMS, the JOC is modular and scalable
      and may be tailored to meet the specific operational requirements needed to manage
      the threat, incident, or special event. A JOC may be established and staffed in a pre-
      incident, pre-emptive role in support of a significant special event.
   b. Strategic Management Tool
      The JOC is a strategic management tool that effectively coordinates law enforcement
      investigative, intelligence, and operational activities at multiple sites from a single
      location. The JOC may be the only management structure related to a threat, critical
      incident, or special event, or it may integrate into other management structures in
      accordance with the NRP.
   c. Public Safety
      Law enforcement public safety functions, such as proactive patrol and traffic control,
      historically are managed through the Operations Section of the ICS. Criminal
      investigation and the collection, analysis, and dissemination of intelligence are sensitive
      law enforcement operations that require a secure environment and well-defined
      organizational management structure, for which the JOC is designed.
   d. Component of JFO
      When a JFO is established, the JOC becomes a component of the JFO.

6. Joint Field Office (JFO)
   The JFO is a temporary federal facility established near the incident to provide a central
   point for federal, state, local, and tribal executives with responsibility for incident oversight,
   direction, and/or assistance to effectively coordinate protection, prevention, preparedness,
   response, and recovery actions.
   a. Scalable Structure
      The JFO utilizes the scalable organizational structure of the NIMS ICS in the context of
      both pre-incident and post-incident management activities. The organization adapts to
      the magnitude and complexity of the situation at hand and incorporates the NIMS
      principles regarding span of control and organizational structure: management,
      operations, planning, logistics, and finance/administration.
   b. Intelligence and Information
      The JFO may also incorporate a sixth element focused on intelligence and information.
      This element may be included as a position in the Coordination Staff, a unit within the
      Planning Section, a branch within the Operations Section, or as a separate General Staff
      Section. The placement of the intelligence function is determined by the JFO
      Coordination Group based on the role intelligence plays in the incident and/or the
      volume of classified or highly sensitive information.
   c. Supports On-Scene Operations
      Although the JFO uses an ICS structure, the JFO does not manage on-scene
      operations. Instead, the JFO focuses on providing support to on-scene efforts and
      conducting broader support operations that may extend beyond the incident site.



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   d. Incorporating Representatives from Other Entities
      To facilitate interaction, communication, and coordination, federal, state, local, and tribal
      jurisdictions, as well as private-sector and non-governmental organizations, as
      appropriate, will provide either staffing for the JFO or a liaison to the JFO. The JFO
      should accommodate all entities (or their designated representatives) essential to
      incident management, information sharing, and the delivery of disaster assistance and
      other support.
   e. Other Federal Operations Centers
      Other federal operations centers should collocate at the JFO whenever possible. In the
      event that collocation is not practical, federal agencies are connected virtually to the JFO
      and assign liaisons to the JFO to facilitate the coordination of federal incident
      management and assistance efforts.
   f.   Law Enforcement
        Law enforcement activities are managed through the JOC, which becomes an
        operational branch of the JFO during terrorist-related Incidents of National Significance
        when required.
   g. Multiple JFOs
      Threat situations or incidents that impact multiple states or localities may require
      separate JFOs. In these situations, one of the JFOs may be identified (typically in the
      most heavily impacted area) to provide strategic leadership and coordination for the
      overall incident management effort.
   h. Area Command
      If an Area Command has been established, the JFO may be collocated with the Area
      Command. If neither a JFO nor Area Command is warranted, but a PFO is designated,
      the PFO and PFO staff may be collocated with the ICP.

7. Principal Federal Official (PFO)
   If there is an IONS, the PFO is the federal official designated by the Secretary of Homeland
   Security to act as his/her representative locally to oversee, coordinate, and execute the
   Secretary’s incident management responsibilities. The PFO ensures that incident
   management efforts are maximized through effective and efficient coordination. The PFO
   does not direct or replace the incident command structure established at the incident, nor
   does the PFO have directive authority over federal and state officials in the exercise of their
   authorities. PFOs may be designated on a pre-incident basis according to available threat
   information, or in response to an incident in progress.
   a. The PFO’s responsibilities include:
       (i) Serving as a primary, although not exclusive, point of contact for the federal
           interface with state, local, and tribal senior elected/appointed officials, the media,
           and the private sector
        (ii) Providing real-time incident information to the Secretary of Homeland Security
             through the HSOC and the IIMG, as required
        (iii) Coordinating response resource needs between multiple incidents as necessary, or
              as directed by the Secretary of Homeland Security
        (iv) Coordinating the overall federal strategy locally to ensure consistency of federal
             interagency communications to the public


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       (v) Ensuring that adequate connectivity is maintained between the JFO and the HSOC;
           local, county, state, and regional EOCs; nongovernmental EOCs; and relevant
           elements of the private sector
       (vi) Participating in ongoing steady-state preparedness efforts (as appropriate for PFOs
            designated in a “pre-incident” mode, when a threat can be ascribed to a particular
            geographic area)
   b. Initial PFO
      For an actual incident, the Secretary may designate a local federal official as an initial
      PFO until the primary PFO is in place. The initial PFO is accountable for the same
      responsibilities as the PFO. In certain scenarios, a PFO may be pre-designated by the
      Secretary of Homeland Security to facilitate federal domestic incident planning and
      coordination at the local level, outside the context of a specific threat or incident.
   c. Transfer of Duties
      The PFO may transfer duties to the Federal Coordinating Officer or other designated
      federal official as appropriate after an event transitions to long-term recovery and/or
      cleanup operations.

                                            Coordination Structures

         Multi-agency Coordination Entity:                                                  Interagency
                                                          JFO
         •   Strategic coordination                                                            Incident
                                                       Coordination
         •   Prioritization between incidents                                               Management
                                                         Group
             and associated resource allocation                                                Group
         •   Focal point for issue resolution



                  Local              State                                Regional             Homeland
                Emergency          Emergency           Joint               Response             Security
                 Operations        Operations          Field             Coordination          Operations
                  Center            Center             Office               Office               Center

                              EOCs/Multi-agency Coordination Centers:
                              •   Support and coordination
                              •   Identifying resource shortages and issues
                              •   Gathering and providing information
                              •   Implementing multi-agency coordination entity decisions



                             Command Structures

                                                                 Incident Command
                                            Area                 • Directing on-scene
                                         Command                    emergency management




                     Incident             Incident               Incident
                     Command             Command                Command
                       Post                 Post                   Post


                                      Figure D8—NRP Coordination Structure




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8. Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO)
   The FCO manages and coordinates federal resource support activities related to Stafford
   Act disasters and emergencies. The FCO assists the Unified Command and/or the Area
   Command and works closely with the PFO, Senior Federal Law Enforcement Officials
   (SFLEO), and other Senior Federal Officials (SFOs). In Stafford Act situations where a PFO
   has not been assigned, the FCO provides overall coordination for the federal components of
   the JFO and works in partnership with the State Coordinating Officer (SCO) to determine
   and satisfy state and local assistance requirements.
   The roles and responsibilities of the FCO include the following:
          Conducting an initial appraisal of the types of assistance most urgently needed
          Coordinating the timely delivery of federal assistance to affected state, local, and
          tribal governments and disaster victims
          Supporting the PFO, when one is designated
          When delegated from the DHS/EPR/FEMA Regional Director, serving as Disaster
          Recovery Manager (DRM) to administer the financial aspects of assistance
          authorized under the Stafford Act
          Working in partnership with the SCO (appointed by the Governor to oversee
          operations for the state) and the Governor’s Authorized Representative (GAR)
          (empowered by the Governor to execute all necessary documents for federal
          assistance on behalf of the state)
          Taking other such action consistent with the authority delegated to him/her as
          deemed necessary to assist local citizens and public officials in promptly obtaining
          the assistance to which they are entitled

9. ICS Structures for Marine Terrorist Response
   Using the information and figures above as building blocks and further detailing the incident
   command structure, the following examples are provided for a possible incident
   management organization. No two incidents will be alike, nor will the response organizations
   established for those incidents. Consequently, the following are just examples to which
   modifications will be appropriate based on the nature and complexity of the incident(s).
   Remember, ICS is flexible and scalable to fit the incident response needs.
   For the purposes of the example in Figures D9 and D10, assume that the incident is an
   explosion and fire aboard a vessel under way in the harbor. The Coast Guard has
   jurisdiction and responsibility, as well as some capability. The local fire authority also has
   jurisdiction and responsibility, as well as fire and emergency medical capability. The
   explosion is believed to be of suspicious origin. There are deaths and injuries. Eventually,
   the vessel is brought to a pier to facilitate the firefighting efforts.
   a. Vessel Crew
      Assuming that the master and some of the crew on the vessel survive the explosion,
      they will be the first of the first responders. They will be responding to the fire and
      addressing the injured with onboard capability.
   b. Unified Command
      If the vessel is underway, the Coast Guard and local jurisdiction marine units will be the
      next to respond. Eventually, a UC will be established involving the Coast Guard, the
      local fire authority, and local law enforcement. The FBI will also join the UC, due to the
      suspicious origin of the explosion. The UC may also include a representative for the


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       vessel, most likely the ship’s master in the beginning, as well as representation from the
       local port authority.
   c. Operations Section
      The UC initially designates a Coast Guard individual as the Operations Section Chief, as
      the primary objectives will be lifesaving and possibly damage control and salvage
      interests. The Section Chief also has a Deputy Section Chief, who would likely be from
      the local fire authority. At some point, particularly when the vessel is moored and
      firefighting to stabilize the incident is the lead objective, it may be appropriate to
      designate a local fire authority representative as the Operation Section Chief. See Figure
      D10.
       (i)   The Operation Section is divided into Branches in this example. The Branch Chiefs
             will be individuals with the expertise and qualification for the functions of those
             Branches.
       (ii) Each Branch will be sized according to the nature and magnitude of the incident
            and subdivided appropriately, keeping in mind the span-of-control concerns and the
            flexibility and scalability features of the ICS organization.

                                                City/County/Regional
                                                    Fire Authority
                                                     Coast Guard
                                                          FBI
                                                      Vessel Rep


                                                                  Joint Information
                                Liaison                                Center


                                Safety                                  Legal
                                                                                         See Figure
                  Landside                Waterside                                      D11
                   Safety                  Safety



     Operations Section              Planning                     Logistics               Finance and Admin
            Chief                    Section                       Section                     Section
           (USCG)



                                          Resource Unit                     Water Supply Group
        See Figure
        D10
                                                Accountability Team              REHAB Group




                                           Situation Unit                       Communications
                                                                                   Group


                          Figure D9—Potential ICS structure for a marine terrorism incident




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                                                            Operations Section
                                                           Section Chief: USCG
                                                            Local Fire Authority                                             See Figure D13
                                                                     FBI
                                                         Local Port?        Vessel


                                                                                                          Staging Area


      Shoreside          Waterside               Law Enforcement                 Medical                 Mitigation/            Air Operations
     Fire Branch          Branch                     Branch                      Branch               Recovery Branch               Branch
      Local Fire           USCG                       Local LE                Local Fire/EMS               USCG                     USCG

           Fire                 Fire                   Traffic Control                Triage               Environmental
        Suppression          Suppression                   Group                      Group               Protection Group
          Group                Group

                                                          Security                   Transport                 Salvage
            Division A       Search and                    Group                       Group                    Group
                            Rescue Group
            Division B
                                                       Investigation                 Treatment
                                                          Group                        Group
                             EMS Group
            Division C

                                                        Tactical LE                   Morgue
        Search and            Security/                   Group                       Group
       Rescue Group       Tactical LE Group

                                                           Marine
                                                           Units
         Evacuation
           Group
                                                            Intel
                         See Figure                        Group
           Hazmat
           Group         D12
                                                           USCG
                                                        Patrol Boats




                         Figure D10—Potential ICS Structure for Operations Section for a marine terrorism incident




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                                                     Planning Section
                                                   Section Chief: Local Fire
                                                    USCG                FBI
                                                   Local LE       Local Port



                                                                                   Situation Unit
                                                                                 Unit Leader      – US CG
                        Technical Specialist                                      Local Fire Local LE
                            Evacuation                                                 Local Port
                       Local Port       Vsl Rep


                                                                                   Resource Unit
                                                                                 Unit Leader      – USCG
                     Technical Specialist                                         Local Fire Local LE
                     NOAA Scientific Support                                           Local Port
                       Coordinator (SSC)



                                                                                 Documentation Unit
                     Technical Specialist                                          Unit Leader    –
                                                                                                  USCG
                            Medical



                                                                                 Demobilization Unit
                     Technical Specialist                                        Unit Leader      –
                                                                                                 Local Fire
                          Salvage                                              USCG                 Local LE
                USCG (MSC) - Vsl Naval Architect
                           Salvage

                                                                                   Intelligence Unit
                                                                                               –
                                                                                 Unit Leader Local LE
                     Technical Specialist                                        USCG FIST         FBI
                       Transportation                                                       J
                                                                                           TTF




                                                                                 Environmental Unit
                     Technical Specialist                                         Unit Leader      –
                                                                                                  USCG
                        Others as needed                                         State OSC           RP




             Figure D11—Potential ICS Structure for Planning Section in a marine terrorism incident

   d. Planning Section
      This incident is likely to involve an extended response. There will be multiple operational
      periods for which the Planning Section will need to plan and prepare an Incident Action
      Plan (IAP). The UC could initially designate a Coast Guard individual as Section Chief,
      but more than likely will designate a local fire authority representative if the extended
      response, once the vessel is at the pier, will be addressing the fire to further stabilize the
      incident.
       (i)   The Planning Section is subdivided into a number of units, depending on the nature
             of the incident and keeping in mind the span-of-control concerns and the flexibility
             and scalability features of the ICS organization.
       (ii) A number of subject matter experts or technical specialists are needed to address
            some of the specific issues of the incident.




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                                                HAZMAT
                                                Branch


                      Sampling Group                                  Entry Group



                                                         Entry Team           Backup/Rescue
                                                                                  Team

                          Site Access                         Site Assessment
                               Group                                Group


                      Decontamination                          Criminal Investigation
                          Group                                    Assist Group


                Personnel Decon                                                Documentation
                                                                                    Team
                   Site Decon
                                                                             Evidence Collection
                                                                                   Team
                  Victim Decon                   Disposal Group



                   Figure D12—Potential HAZMAT Branch for marine terrorism incident

  e. Hazardous Materials Branch
     The HAZMAT concerns could be quite large in a terrorism incident, potentially involving
     chemicals, or biological or radiological contaminants. Thus, HAZMAT may become a
     branch, if needed.
  f.   Staging Area
       The staging in a multi-agency/organization response could get complicated. Every effort
       should be made to coordinate the staging of equipment.

                                                    Staging
                                                    Officer



                                 Staging Area                          Reception Area


              Security Staging
                                                                                        Credentialing


                Fire Staging                                                              Briefings


                EMS Staging



                   Figure D13—Potential Staging Structure for marine terrorism incident




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Attachment D1

                       Common Responsibilities of Responders

   There are certain common responsibilities or instructions associated with an incident
   assignment that everyone assigned to an incident should follow. Following these simple
   guidelines can help ensure that an individual’s actions will result in a more effective
   response operation.
          Receive incident assignment from parent organization. This should include, at a
          minimum, a reporting location and time, likely length of assignment, brief description
          of assignment, route information, and a designated communications link, if
          necessary. Different agencies may have additional requirements.
          Bring any specialized supplies or equipment required for your job. Be sure you have
          adequate personal supplies to last you for the expected stay.
          Upon arrival, follow the check-in procedure for the incident. Check-in locations may
          be found at the Incident Command Post (at the Resources Unit), Staging Areas
          Base, or Camps, Helibases, or with Division or Group Supervisors (for direct
          assignments).
          Radio communications on an incident should use clear text; that is, no radio codes.
          Refer to incident facilities by the incident name; for example, Rossmoor Command
          Post, or 42nd Street Staging Area. Refer to personnel by ICS title, for example,
          Division C, not numeric code or name.
          Obtain a briefing from your immediate supervisor. Be sure you understand your
          assignment.
          Acquire necessary work materials, locate, and set up your workstation.
          Organize and brief any subordinates assigned to you.
          Brief your relief at the end of each operational period and, as necessary, at the time
          you are demobilized from the incident.
          Complete the required forms and reports and give them to your supervisor or to the
          Documentation Unit before you leave.
          Demobilize according to plan.




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SECTION E—COMMAND POSTS & OPERATIONS CENTERS

1. Overview
   This section explains the various command posts and centers that normally “stand up” to
   support a response to a Transportation Security Incident (TSI) or other maritime emergency.
   For asymmetrical incidents, several and possibly numerous command post and operations
   centers will likely be established to maintain a manageable span of control and to facilitate
   tactical response coordination close to the incidents. Communications and connectivity
   between the various command posts and operations centers is an important component of
   an effective and coordinated emergency response. The aspects of connectivity are also
   addressed in Sections H, Communications, and Section L, Technology, of this Volume. Pre-
   planning for establishing and standing up Command Posts should be addressed in advance
   of incidents.
   The tactical-level, on-scene incident command and management activities of directing and
   coordinating responses to a TSI or other maritime emergency are generally located at an
   Incident Command Post (ICP). The ICP is the field location at which the primary tactical-
   level, on-scene incident command functions are performed. The ICP may be collocated with
   the incident base or other incident facilities. When feasible, an ICP is usually located at or in
   the immediate vicinity of the incident site. The location is selected by the agency that has
   primary jurisdictional authority for managing the incident at this level. Generally, there is one
   ICP established for each incident. Depending on the number and location of incidents, there
   may be multiple ICPs managed by an Area Command. Additionally, a number of Emergency
   Operations Centers will likely be activated for any significant event to support their
   respective response agencies and organizations.

2. Incident Facilities
   Various response coordination and support facilities will normally be established, depending
   on the nature and complexity of the maritime incident or event, whether manmade or
   natural. Designated incident facilities, such as an ICP, an incident base, or a staging area,
   may be established, based on the requirements of the incident. The Incident Commander
   (IC) or Unified Command (UC) determines when and where these facilities are established.
   Responders should be familiar with and understand the names and functions of the
   following primary ICS facilities. Not all these facilities will necessarily be
   established/activated unless needed.
   a. Incident Command Post (ICP)
      The Incident Command Post (ICP) is the location from which the Incident Commander
      oversees all incident operations. Every incident or event must have some form of an ICP
      and generally there is only one ICP for each incident or event. Government and private
      entities should be collocated at the ICP to make planning and communications easier.
      The communications center is usually established at the ICP.
   b. Staging Areas
      Staging Areas are locations to which personnel and equipment resources are directed
      when awaiting incident tasking. Most large incidents will have a Staging Area, and some
      incidents may have several. A Staging Area will be managed by a Staging Area
      Manager, who reports to the Operations Section Chief, or to the Incident Commander if
      an Operations Section has not yet been established.




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   c. Incident Base
      An Incident Base is the location at which primary service and support activities are
      performed. Not all incidents will have a Base. There should be only one Base for each
      incident.
   d. Incident Camp
      An Incident Camp is the location where resources may be kept to support incident
      operations. Camps differ from Staging Areas in that essential support operations are
      done at Camps, and resources at Camps are not always immediately available for use.
      Not all incidents will have Camps.
   e. Helibase
      A Helibase is the location in and around an incident area at which helicopters may be
      parked, maintained, fueled, and equipped for incident operations. Very large incidents
      may require more than one Helibase.
   f.   Helispot
        A Helispot is a temporary location where helicopters can land to load and off-load
        personnel, equipment, and supplies. Large incidents may have several Helispots.

3. Emergency Operation Center (EOC)
   An EOC is the physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to
   support incident management activities normally takes place. An EOC is typically organized
   by major functional discipline (fire, law enforcement, medical services); by jurisdiction (city,
   county, region); or, more likely, by a combination thereof. An EOC may be a temporary
   facility or may be located in a more central or permanently established facility, perhaps at a
   higher level of organization within a jurisdiction. Incident management personnel should be
   aware of the various EOCs with which they may have occasion to work. They should know
   the local EOCs by jurisdiction or functional discipline, as well as the county EOCs and state
   EOC, and establish planning and preparedness relationships.

4. Other Potential Incident Management Facilities
   a. Area Command (AC)
      The AC may be established at an EOC facility or at some location, other than at an ICP,
      as may be required to support and oversee the activities of multiple ICPs.
   b. Interim Operating Facility (IOF)
      The IOF is a temporary field facility used by a DHS Emergency Preparedness and
      Response/Federal Emergency Management Agency (DHS/EPR/FEMA) led Emergency
      Response Team (ERT) in the early stages of an incident when the team cannot operate
      at the state EOC due to space limitations or other reasons, and the JFO is not yet
      established. An IOF is generally located at or near the state EOC, or near the incident
      site. The IOF remains in operation until the JFO is established. Functions accomplished
      at the IOF include interaction with state representatives and key Emergency Support
      Function (ESF) agencies, collection and assessment of information, and initiation of
      assistance programs.
   c. Joint Field Office (JFO)
      In the case of an Incident of National Significance (IONS), a JFO will be established from
      which federal assistance and support to the local incident management activities will be
      coordinated. The Principal Federal Official (PFO) will engage from the JFO.


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   d. Joint Operations Center (JOC)
      The FBI will coordinate all criminal investigation and law enforcement related activities at
      the field level from a JOC.
   e. Regional Response Coordination Center (RRCC)
      The RRCC is a standing facility operated by FEMA that is activated to coordinate
      regional response efforts, establish federal priorities, and implement local federal
      program support, as needed until a JFO is established.

5. Locating Incident Management Facilities
   In most incidents, including those with terrorism origins, the first responders will likely
   establish the initial ICP from a mobile command post vehicle or at facilities near the incident.
   The initial ICP must be located with care so as to be away from any potential danger of
   secondary events. As an incident grows in size or becomes more complex, a higher-level IC
   may be assigned by the responsible jurisdiction or agency. Eventually, under the direction of
   the IC or UC, command and general staff members will most likely locate nearby facilities in
   which to establish an ICP. Qualifying facilities should be pre-identified and equipment
   available so that an ICP can be establishment in a timely manner.
   The following factors should be considered when pre-identifying and/or establishing
   management facilities, including an AC or JFO (more likely to be collocated with an
   established EOC), as needed:
   a. Size
      Sufficient size to accommodate the potential command and general staff, as well as to
      accommodate displays and visitors.
   b. Location
      Located at or as near the incident as is safe and practicable so as to be best positioned
      to direct onsite response actions.
       (i)   Consider incident hazards; for example, locate upwind, locate in cold zone
       (ii) Locate away from areas where secondary devices may be placed; e.g., mailboxes,
            trashcans, etc.
       (iii) Particularly where explosives may be involved, avoid buildings with large amounts
             of glass
       (iv) Locate in such a way as to utilize distant structural and/or natural barriers to assist
            with protection
       (v) Consider backup or relocation plans
       (vi) Ensure that responders are all informed of the ICP/UCP locations
   c. Security
      Provide for security and access controls.
   d. Communications
      Ensure communications needs are met—phone, radios, computers, fax, Internet lines, or
      can accommodate setup of these communications capabilities in a timely manner.
   e. Eating and Resting Areas
      Ensure that eating and resting areas are available (a nearby Camp may suffice).


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  f.   Location of Area Command
       As needed, establish AC (Area Command) in close proximity to the incidents under the
       AC’s authority to facilitate interaction between the AC and ICs/UCs. The following factors
       should be considered in locating the AC:
       (i)   Avoid locating the AC with any individual ICP. Locating the AC with the ICP might
             confuse command and management activities associated with the incident.
       (ii) The AC location is normally selected by the agency that has primary jurisdictional
            authority for managing the incident at this level. In the maritime environment, this is
            typically the Coast Guard.
       (iii) Establish effective, efficient communications and coordination processes and
             protocols with subordinate ICPs and with other involved incident management
             organizations.
       (iv) Locate in a facility large enough to accommodate the entire AC staff, taking into
            consideration the availability of meeting/briefing rooms for visitors and the media.
       (v) May be collocated at an emergency operations center (EOC), whether local, state,
           or agency specific.

6. Networked Command Posts
  The use of Internet-based virtual Operations Centers can allow agencies and first
  responders to participate in the coordination of a response from their existing offices and
  operations centers without having to move their resources, manuals, and computers to a
  central Command Post. Where possible, the use of Web technology should be taken
  advantage of to reduce response delays incurred in standing up a large command post and
  waiting for responders to arrive. Response organizations will likely evolve into a hybrid
  command post comprised of a physical command post space and virtual command post that
  connects other response entities whose physical presence at the command center is not
  imperative and can be counterproductive. Where available, the MTR Network, accessed via
  the Internet, should be activated to support the response operation.




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Attachment E1

                          Outfitting an Incident Command Post

   Since ICS is scalable and flexible depending on the nature and size of the incident(s), it is
   difficult to predetermine the quantities of equipment for outfitting a command post. The
   following is just a guide to the types of equipment that should be procured and staged in
   advance of an incident. Some of this equipment should be packaged in ready-to-go kits.
   o   Furniture
           Desks
           Tables
           Chairs
           File cabinets
   o   Office equipment
           Copier(s)
           Poster maker
           Computers
           Computer projector
           Overhead projector
           Scanner(s)
           Printers (B&W and Color)
           Fax machine
           Cameras
           Video/DVD players
   o   Communications equipment
           Portable radios
           Fixed phone lines
           Telephones
           Cell phones
           Charging units
           Television and AM/FM radios (monitor news, playback video from field)
           High speed Internet connections (wireless network preferred)
   o   Physical display equipment/supplies
           Portable dry erase board
           Electronic copier dry erase board
           Dry erase markers
           Easels and extra paper
           Nautical charts (impacted area)
           Local area maps (impacted area)
           Tape and/or push pins
   o   Office supplies
           Copy paper


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         Lined paper writing tablets
         Note pads
         Pens/pencils
         Staplers/staples
         Hole punches (3 hole & 2 hole)
         Paper clips
  o   Appliances
         Refrigerator
         Microwave
         Coffee maker
  o   Miscellaneous
         Phone books/directories
         ICS position identification vests
         Identification badge materials
         Reference manuals
         Barricade tape
         Electrical extension cords
         Surge suppressor cords
         ICS Forms




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SECTION F—RESPONSE ACTIONS
Reference:
   a. National Response Plan
   b. 33 CFR SUBCHAPTER H—MARITIME SECURITY
   c. Maritime Infrastructure Recovery Plan (4/8/2005 DRAFT)

1. Discussion
   Acts of maritime focused terrorism will likely be at multiple locations throughout a port area,
   impacting large numbers of people, transportation systems (e.g., bridges and waterways
   used by shipping), and economic resources (e.g., marine terminals, railroad facilities,
   highways and bridges). Responding to asymmetrical incidents will significantly challenge
   response agencies and require adjusting response priorities.
   This section addresses the suite of marine terrorism response issues that responders should
   consider and plan for in advance.

2. Marine Terrorism Incident Response Phases
   A disaster incident begins with an event that damages or endangers life, property,
   environment, and/or the economy. An event caused by a terrorist attack, will require
   significant law enforcement participation to stabilize and/or secure the situation so
   responders may mitigate the impacts. The response by agencies with authorities and
   jurisdiction to a marine terrorism incident will likely play out in the following phases, which
   are also discussed in greater detail in the paragraphs to follow.
   a. Observation and Notification
      Someone will observe and report an event to a government agency by calling “911”, or
      the U.S. Coast Guard. In a large port area, there will likely be numerous reports of
      events in several different locations. The information may be sparse when first reported
      because of limited abilities to observe complex actions in a short period of time. Those
      receiving the initial reports need to obtain as complete information as possible.
   b. Incident Assessment
      Professional judgment must be made by those staffing 24/7 communications and
      response centers in assessing reports received and determining appropriate activation
      of emergency management plans.
   c. Notification of Responding Agencies
      Once the nature of the incident is determined to be a marine terrorism incident, the
      appropriate agencies and marine industry representatives must be notified and provided
      accurate information and appropriate requests for assistance must be made.
   d. Incident Triage
      As multiple marine terrorism incidents evolve, the incident commanders will likely require
      more resources than are available, leading to the need to establish priorities or “triage”
      the assignment of resources to those incidents where the greatest mitigation of impacts
      can be accomplished.




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   e. Protection of Ports and Vessels
      By nature of a marine terrorist attack, the port facilities and transportation systems and
      vessels operating in the port, are primary targets for initial and subsequent attacks.
      Actions to protect these assets from additional attacks will be a primary objective of the
      response.
   f.   Recovery of Maritime Operations
        Terrorist attacks on port facilities, transportation systems, and vessels will significantly
        affect the way of life for U.S. citizens and businesses. Actions to mitigate damages,
        initiate marine salvage operations and quickly restore the Marine Transportation System
        will need to be addressed.

3. Incident Assessment
   The timely assessment of incidents is a critical first step that must be undertaken to ensure
   that prompt and accurate notifications are made. Section B of Volume II of the MTR Plan
   provides guidance on the incident assessment process and presents incident assessment
   checklists that should be reviewed in advance to ensure that they are complete, accurate
   and regionally relevant. These checklists should be modified as needed to address local
   issue and distributed to operations centers where initial reports are normally received and
   processed.

4. Notifications
   a. Pre-Planning
      The timely and accurate notification of the incident(s) and resource needs to the
      appropriate parties is a key step in minimizing the consequences of Transportation
      Security Incidents (TSI). Section C of Volume II of the MTR Plan provides a basic
      overview of the notification process and presents notification checklists, a tiered
      notification system and addresses technological tools for aiding immediate notifications
      through a variety of forums. All of these should be reviewed and amended as needed to
      reflect regional specifics. Pre-planning for notification of incidents should entail the
      following actions in advance:
        (i)    Development of a regional Point of Contact data base for parties that should be
               notified of TSIs
        (ii) Prioritization and establishment of notification Tier levels recognizing not all parties
             can be notified at the same time
        (iii) Procurement and implementation of technological tools to automate and assist the
              notification process. These include but are not limited to automated call outs and
              dissemination of initial and updated information via e-mail and the Internet.
   b. Notification Process
      Several agencies located in ports are likely to be the first notified of a marine terrorism
      incident. Some likely examples, in no specific order, are:
              Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Coast Guard
              Municipal, county, and state police
              Local fire department
              Port Director or Harbormaster
              Department of Defense (especially U.S. Navy and Army Corps of Engineers)


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             Department of Justice/Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
             Marine Exchange
             Government vessel operators (i.e., ferry system)
             Local and state disaster agencies.
   c. Tier Notifications
      The key principle of tiered notifications is informing the right people at the right time with
      correct information. Volume II, Section C of the MTR Plan provides guidance on tier
      notifications that should be reviewed and amended as needed to address regional
      issues. Generally, the following order of notifications should be made as the incident and
      its response evolves over time.
       (i)    Tier 1—Immediate notification to the Homeland Security Operations Center
              (HSOC) at (202) 282-8101 or through the National Response Center (NRC) at
              (800-424-8802 or 202-267-2675) and the regional office of the agency with primary
              jurisdictional authority responsible for establishing the incident command system
              (ICS) to coordinate the TSI response consistent with the local response plan.

              Request the NRC to make international agency notifications if incident involves, or
              potentially involves, Canada or Mexico.
       (ii) Tier 2—Subsequent notification of agencies with jurisdiction and resources and key
            government officials (i.e., governor, mayor, county executive, U.S. Cabinet
            departments’ senior officials).
       (iii) Tier 3—Notification of others required to stand up and maintain ICS positions.
       (iv) Tier 4—Informing the potentially affected public of immediate public health and
            safety issues through urgent broadcasts and notifications.
       (v) Tier 5—Informing the general public of the event status through the Unified
           Command’s Joint Information Center (JIC).

5. Triage
   The probability that a TSI will overwhelm available resources and require the Incident
   Commander or Area Commander to prioritize the allocation of personnel and equipment will
   require “Incident Triage” decisions to be made. Volume II, Section I of the MTR Plan
   provides guidance on prioritization of incidents and resource needs as well as Triage Tables
   that can aid decision makers in determining where resources should be allocated. This
   section should be reviewed in advance and modified as needed to address local concerns
   before adopting.

6. Protection of Vessels and Ports
   An area of response that should be undertaken concurrently with other initial response
   actions is the Protection of Vessels and Ports to mitigate the potential for additional damage.
   This will be largely done by the maritime community when the Coast Guard sets MARSEC
   III conditions. The Coast Guard and other law enforcement agencies will also allocate
   resources, where available, to escort vessels and provide additional security to “high value”
   maritime targets.
   The MTR Response Plan, Volume II, Section J provides guidance on protection measures
   as well as checklists that should be reviewed and amended as appropriate to address local
   concerns.

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7. Recovery of Maritime Operations
   a. Recovery Components
      Recovery guidance is provided in Volume II, Section K of the MTR Plan which should be
      reviewed and amended as needed to address regional issues. The Recovery
      procedures should include provisions for:
       (i)   Coordinating recovery actions with key agencies and marine stakeholders,
             including salvors, as appropriate
       (ii) Assessing damage and threats to waterways and port facilities
       (iii) Stabilizing and or removing threats through salvage operations
       (iv) Increasing maritime security measures as appropriate to help deter and prevent
            additional TSIs. (Elevated MARSEC Level)
       (v) Surveying channels and waterways
       (vi) Removing debris and hazards to navigation
       (vii) Restoring essential Aids to Navigation (ATON)
       (viii) Reopening anchorages on a limited basis for vessels requiring service prior to
              inbound transit
       (ix) Resuming commercial shipping and other port operations, with operational
            restrictions as needed
       (x) Allowing for refueling, lightering, and bunkering operations
   b. Recovery Considerations
      The following are key actions and factors that must be considered during development of
      maritime operations recovery plans.
       (i)   Consider partial closures of large ports
       (ii) Prioritize cargo and vessel movements (importance for in-coming and out-going)
       (iii) Identify vessels currently in port for outbound transit
       (iv) Identify vessels awaiting inbound transit (assign priorities based on vessels
            carrying cargo critical to national priorities)
       (v) Identify vessels requesting to depart port
       (vi) Identify vessels needing to depart to make space for inbound vessels
       (vii) Ensure that adequate numbers of pilots are available or provide alternative,
             equivalent measures of safety
       (viii) Ensure that adequate numbers of USCG security teams are available
       (ix) Ensure that adequate numbers of escort vessels are available
       (x) Verify that all vessels coming into port are at the appropriate MARSEC Level
       (xi) Prioritize and stage vessels of high interest
       (xii) Prioritize and stage vessels requiring inspection
       (xiii) Evaluate which vessels awaiting inbound transit could divert cargo to another port
       (xiv) Verify the integrity of oil and liquid bulk facility pipelines


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       (xv) Verify the integrity of container facility cranes
       (xvi) Verify that facilities are at the appropriate MARSEC Level
       (xvii) Ensure that rail and road transportation are reopened to accept transport of cargo
             to/from facilities




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SECTION G—RESOURCES

1. Discussion
   The availability of adequate response resources, timely deployment of resources to
   locations where they are most effective, and tracking, supporting and repositioning
   resources as needed are all critical to the success of an emergency response. “Resources”
   in this section of the Plan refer to personnel, special teams, and equipment that are needed
   to mitigate the loss of life, property, disruption to trade and environmental impacts resulting
   from a Transportation Security Incident (TSI) or other maritime emergency.
   With respect to resources, pre-planning for emergency responses should address the
   following:
   a. Needs Assessment
      An evaluation of potential maritime incidents and the personnel, teams and equipment
      needed to carry out an effective response.
   b. Resource Inventory
      Existing resources available in the region should be identified, inventoried and updated
      periodically.
   c. Gap Analysis
      Comparison of resources needed and resources available leading to the development of
      a list of “gapped” resources that should be obtained.
   d. Procurement
      Acquiring required “gapped” resources and positioning the resources in strategic and
      supported locations with an agency or private custodian.
   e. Staging, Maintenance and Exercising
      The assurance that required resources can be deployed quickly and are operational
      requires the proper staging, maintenance and periodic deployment in drills or exercises.
   f.   Databases
        Development and updating of a comprehensive resource database that is maintained
        both in Volume II of this Plan and in the MTR Network database.
   g. Tracking
      Ability to efficiently mobilize and track the location of resources through the use of the
      MTR Network and advanced communications technologies.

2. Resources
   Resources in this Plan range from personnel and special teams to equipment. Resource
   categories are listed below:
   a. Special Teams
      There are national and regional Special Teams with specific expertise that may be called
      upon to aid a response. A comprehensive listing of regional and national Special Teams
      and resources should be maintained in Volume II of the Plan and in the MTR Network
      database. Typically, Special Teams are comprised of personnel and equipment.
      Examples of special teams are listed below.


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      (i)   Law enforcement and interdiction teams
      (ii) CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive) Response
           Teams
      (iii) Fire fighting
      (iv) Salvage
      (v) Medical (Mass Casualty Teams)
      (vi) Search and Rescue
  b. Subject Matter Experts
     Individuals from industry and government that have technical expertise of value to a
     response should be identified in advance and means of contacting them maintained in
     Volume II of the Plan and the MTR Network database. Examples of specialty areas of
     subject matter experts are:
      (i)   CBRNE assessment
      (ii) Hazard trajectories
      (iii) Vessels’ systems and construction
      (iv) Salvage
      (v) Facility and vessel managers, as well as Vessel Security Officers (VSO) and
          Company Security Officers (CSO)
      (vi) Maritime Exchanges
  c. Equipment
     The readiness measures in this Plan provide additional information on pre-response
     planning and measures that should be undertaken to ensure that adequate equipment is
     available and effectively deployed. A summary of the capabilities, location, deployment,
     and support of current equipment should be maintained in Volume II of the Plan and in
     the MTR Network database to aid first responders. Examples of equipment resources
     are listed below.
      (i)   Vessels (rescue, firefighting, law enforcement, salvage)
      (ii) Aircraft (surveillance and law enforcement)
      (iii) Specialized response equipment trailers
      (iv) Mobile Command Posts
      (v) Communications equipment
      (vi) Sensor devices (chemical, and Remote Operating Vehicles)
      (vii) Computer and network systems to support Command Posts
      (viii) Technological tools, as listed in Section L, Technology, of this Volume: Internet
             access system, automated tracking devices, communications systems
  d. Resource Typing
     An important component of the resource mobilization system is having a comprehensive,
     current database that lists the various resources available. A component of such a
     database is the ability to “type” resources to aid first responders in quickly understanding
     whether or not the listed resource will adequately address the needs of a response. An

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       example of “typing” resources is listing fireboats in a database. A listing of a fireboat is
       too generic for a first responder to understand if the resource is adequate for the task it
       will be assigned to. The size of the vessel, the fire-fighting foam capacity and capability,
       and the gallons per minute (gpm) flow from the fire monitors is information that further
       discriminates between various fireboats and their capabilities to help determine whether
       they should be dispatched to a response site.
   e. Ordering and Dispatching of Resources
      The ordering of resources should be done in a way that coordinates with the logistics,
      planning, operations, and finance sections of the ICS organization established to
      manage the response. A sample MTR Resource Order Sheet is provided in Volume II of
      the Plan to aid in the process of ordering resources for a response. The Order Sheet will
      help ensure that all resources, including support needs and reporting location, are
      addressed. This should be reviewed and modified as appropriate to address regional
      specifics. Additionally, the ordering form should be maintained and available in the MTR
      Network to allow easy access and tracking of resources that are ordered.
       Once a resource is ordered, there should be a process (including the use of technology)
       to track the actual location of the ordered resource and ensure that it arrives at the
       designated location and is effectively deployed.




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SECTION H—COMMUNICATIONS

1. Overview
   The ability to communicate before, during, and after terrorist incidents is central to the
   incident response community’s ability to prepare for and respond to such incidents.
   Insufficient communication capabilities can result in lives lost—those of the public, and those
   of the responders. Pre-established and effective communications procedures are essential
   to the execution of a safe and successful incident response, particularly one that is multi-
   agency, multi-jurisdictional, and/or multi-disciplinary. The larger the incident, the more
   agencies and organizations will likely be involved in the response. Planning, training, and
   exercising of integrated and interoperable communications will significantly reduce many of
   the difficulties that may arise during marine response operations.
   a. Communications Plan
      An established interagency communications network may be the single most important
      factor in establishing a well-organized and effective incident response. An effective
      communication plan must cover all means of communication, addressing availability and
      compatibility.
   b. Minimizing Communications Obstacles
      Currently, connecting interagency radio frequencies will likely require an exchange of
      radio equipment. Communication obstacles inherent in a multi-agency task will be
      minimized by strict radio discipline and adhering to the chain of command built into the
      Incident Command System (ICS).
   c. Telephone and Electronic Communications
      Landline and cellular phones as well as the Internet (i.e., landline and wireless e-mail)
      can help facilitate communications between agencies.
   d. Standardized Procedures
      Standardized communications procedures, emphasizing brevity and clarity, will help
      responders make optimum use of available communications resources. Voice
      communication procedures should be included in all emergency response training plans.

2. The Future of Integrated Communications
   The national vision for public safety communications sets forth some broad objectives in
   terms of the future of a national, integrated communications capability. Achieving this vision
   requires the creation of a national system built through improved integration of existing
   systems. This integrated system, when achieved, would have the following operational
   characteristics:
   a. Interoperability
      Interoperable communications among different public safety organizations from across
      the country. Interoperability is defined as “the ability of public safety personnel to
      communicate by radio with staff from other agencies on demand and in real time.”
   b. Security
      Secure communications among individuals using the system. The ideal level of security
      would prevent unauthorized individuals from accessing and using the system.




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  c. Bandwidth
     Sufficient communications spectra allocated to public safety communications to
     accommodate the quantity of information transmitted through the system during
     response activities, which also facilitates interoperability among different systems.
  d. Increased Accessibility
     The ability to transmit to areas that today’s systems often cannot reach, such as the
     upper levels of high-rise buildings or the remote areas of a U.S. waterway.
  e. Common Terminology
     Common terminology for those who utilize the system. Even if the system achieved the
     previous four operational parameters, the users of the system need a common language
     and common terminology to ensure accurate communications.
  f.   Adaptability
       The ability to incorporate new technologies and new standards as they develop and
       mature.

3. General Communications Systems
  The following briefly describes some of the many different communications systems that
  may be employed during incident response. Planners and managers should recognize the
  capabilities and limitations of such equipment prior to an incident. They must undertake
  measures to assess their equipment needs, obtain that equipment, train appropriate
  personnel, and provide support and maintenance for these systems, before, during, and
  after an incident.
  a. Voice Transmission Over Telephone Circuits
     Emergency planners must recognize that remote areas may not be prepared to fill the
     telephone requirements of a given incident. Lightly populated areas, such as might be
     found along some waterways and coastal areas, may have limited phone service or no
     service at all, or the reserve capacity of the system may be so small that temporary
     planning must address these problems. Solutions to such potential telephone
     bottlenecks might include hardware for microwave or satellite links in the inventories of
     response cooperatives. Procedures should be in place to arrange for additional
     equipment that may be required for incident management communications; e.g.,
     outfitting the command post or temporary emergency operations centers. An inventory of
     landline telephone numbers for public safety agencies should be maintained in Volume
     II, Section G of this MTR Plan.
  b. Cellular Telephone Systems
     Cellular phones can free the user from dependence on commercial power or vehicle
     batteries. Cellular phones can fill many of the communication gaps, giving incident
     response managers immediate access to the telephone system. However, cell phone
     communications systems can and most likely will quickly become saturated with traffic
     during an emergency. Cell phones are so commonplace that nearly every responder will
     have one, either job related or personal. However, additional equipment may be needed
     and source or ordering information should be readily available. Known cell phone
     numbers for public safety agency responders should be included in Volume II, Section G
     of this MTR Plan.




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   c. Satellite Telephone Systems
      Use of satellite telephones, particularly in the response community, is increasing as
      service capabilities improve and costs decrease. Due to the limitations of cellular
      telephones, particularly during emergencies, the satellite telephone is becoming the
      preferred form of backup emergency communications for response agencies. Having
      this capability within the response equipment inventory is critical. However, it is also
      important to have source of supply information readily available to obtain additional
      equipment as needed in an emergency.
   d. Marine VHF Radio
      All marine operations must include provisions for marine VHF radio communications
      between all responding vessels in the area and the incident communications center. The
      Incident Communications Plan will also list the frequencies available and in use for
      incident management on or off the water.
       (i)   Vessels included in the context of the MTR Plan (container ships, tankers, bulk
             cargo, cruise ships, ferries, tour boats) are required by the U.S. Code of Federal
             Regulations to carry VHF-FM marine band radio equipment. An inventory of VHF-
             FM marine band system frequencies is included in Volume II, Section G of this
             MTR Plan.
       (ii) Vessels operating in the marine waters of Puget Sound must comply with the rules
            and regulations of the Puget Sound Vessel Traffic Service System (VTS). VTS
            rules require a vessel to maintain a monitoring watch on the either Channel 5A or
            Channel 14, depending on its location. It is not uncommon for some vessels to not
            respond to a call-up on Channel 16. VTS rules exempt some vessels (for example,
            Washington State Ferries) from the requirement to maintain a monitoring watch on
            Channel 16.
       (iii) Initial incident reporting by a vessel to the U. S. Coast Guard can be made through
             VTS on Channel 5A or Channel 14. Reports of emergency situations received by
             VTS are immediately passed to Operations Centers at Group Port Angeles and/or
             Sector Seattle. These USCG Operations Centers also maintain a 24/7 monitoring
             watch on Channel 16.
       (iv) The waters of the Puget Sound lie within the jurisdictions of ten counties of the
            State of Washington. Emergency Operations Centers (EOC) in each of these
            counties are equipped with the VHF-FM marine band radio system. These radio
            links are available only when a specific EOC is activated in response to a maritime
            incident. The EOCs do not maintain a 24/7 monitoring watch on the marine band
            system. Emergency Communications Centers (911 Units) supporting the county
            jurisdictions do not monitor the marine band radio system.
   e. 800 MHz Radio System
      800 MHz radio systems are in use by some, but not all, first responder agencies in the
      ten county jurisdictions surrounding Puget Sound. The Port of Seattle, Washington State
      Patrol, and Washington State Department of Transportation/Washington State Ferries
      use their own 800 MHz radio systems. Each independent 800 MHz system uses
      automatic coded audio frequency signals (Private Line—PL codes) to open the target
      receiver’s squelch.




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   f.   Paging System
        The familiar “beeper” is essentially a one-way radio communication system for persons
        within the range of the paging service. This service can generally cover whatever range
        the user desires and pays for access to. Text messaging service is available and can be
        two-way. Pagers are often used by those with response contingency responsibilities as a
        backup to their other contact methods; i.e., landline phones and cell phones. Most
        responders will have pager capabilities because of their standby-responder role.
   g. Facsimiles
      Facsimile systems permit text and graphical information (maps, diagrams, signatures,
      etc.) to be transmitted over landline lines, by radio, or by wireless means, such as
      cellular. This capability will already be available in any standing emergency operations
      center. Portable capability will be needed for any temporary operation centers such as
      the various incident command posts located remote of other centers.
   h. Internet Communications
      The Internet has wide applicability for incident response. In addition to the preparatory
      communications activities that are conducted prior to an event, the Internet may be used
      for making widespread and timely alert broadcasts to responders and the public. See
      Section L of this Volume of the Plan for further application of this and other emerging
      technology.

4. Incident Communications Preparedness
   The early establishment of the Communications Unit and the development of an incident
   communications plan are imperative to effective communications between all responding
   agencies and organizations in an incident. This is crucial to a coordinated and effective
   incident response. Planners and managers addressing anticipated communications
   requirements should consider which personnel, training, and equipment would likely be
   needed for incident communication activities. With suitable preparation, the initial
   Communications Unit responders will be able to facilitate rapid installation of an emergency
   communications system. The following preparedness measures should be addressed.
   a. Staff
      Identify those who are likely to staff the Communications Unit. Ensure that they are
      familiar with the capabilities and limitations of various communications methods. In
      preparation for a multi-agency and multi-organization response, communications
      personnel should become familiar with each other and train together, where appropriate
      and possible.
   b. Communication Frequencies
      Identify to what extent responders have the capability to communicate on common
      frequencies. Make whatever arrangements are necessary before an incident to
      maximize inter-agency communications. Exchange radios or have arrangements in
      place to do so at the time of an incident.
   c. Contact Information
      Identify and maintain current contact, supply, delivery, and service information for the
      following services providers that would likely be needed in an emergency:
        (i)   Landline service
        (ii) Cellular service


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        (iii) Satellite phone service
        (iv) Pager service
        (v) Radio communications equipment and service
        (vi) High speed Internet (cable, DSL and wireless)
   d. Secure Communications
      Radio communications, unless encrypted for secure transmission, are subject to
      electronic surveillance and monitoring by private citizens and the public media. Thus,
      incident response communications capabilities must include a means for secure
      communication. However, the use of secure communications systems should be limited
      only to that information that is too sensitive for public release or where public release
      might otherwise adversely impact mission objectives. Restricting too much information
      may also be detrimental to response activities. Equipment for this purpose might include
      STU III—Secure Telephone Unit, scrambled cellular portable telephone, and data
      encrypted security VHF-FM radios, equipment that should be readily available in the
      early stages of a response.
   e. Standardized Procedures
      Ensure that standardized radio procedures and call signs have been established.
   f.   Testing
        Ensure that the effectiveness and limitations of communications are tested during
        exercises.
   g. Power
      Given the long duration that can be expected in a marine terrorism incident, or any other
      significant marine incident, and the number of personnel likely to be dependent on radio
      communications, ensure that spare batteries and recharging units are available.

5. Comprehensive Emergency Management Network (CEMNET)—45 MHz
   The Comprehensive Emergency Management Network is a statewide, lo-band VHF radio
   system used to link Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs). It functions as a back-up link
   between the State EOC at Camp Murray and city/county EOCs throughout the state.
   Operational control of the network is maintained by the State Emergency Management
   Division. The network also supports the daily operation of the State Department of Ecology.
   CEMNET uses base stations and repeaters controlled through the Washington State Patrol
   microwave system. It provides communications between base stations and mobile units and
   communications between mobile units. The following frequencies are used. Specific EOC
   channel assignments are listed in Volume II, Attachment G2 of this MTR Plan.
           Lo Band Channel F1 transmits on 45.200 MHz
           Lo Band Channel F2 transmits on 45.360 MHz
           Lo Band Channel F3 transmits on 45.480 MHz

6. Tri-County Radio Interoperability System (TRIS)
   TRIS is an electronic patching capability used to link voice communications from separate
   radio systems. Patching is accomplished by communications center dispatchers on request
   from an Incident Commander. Users are able to transmit on their individual frequency or talk
   group through the link patch and be heard on the receiving system’s individual frequency or



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   talk group. Coordination of patching is accomplished between Communications Centers
   through use of an intercom line.
   a. Systems currently linked
      This interoperability system includes only Public Safety Agencies in Snohomish, King
      and Pierce counties. Independent jurisdictional radio systems currently linked through
      the TRIS system include:
             King County Public Safety 800 MHZ system
             Snohomish County Public Safety 800 MHz system
             City of Tacoma Public Safety 800 MHz system
             Port of Seattle Police Department 800 MHz system
             Washington State Patrol VHF Radio Net (Bellevue, Marysville, Tacoma
             Communications Centers only)
             Washington State Department of Transportation Statewide 800 MHz system
             (excluding Washington State Ferries talk groups)
             Federal Integrated Wireless Network (IWN)
   b. Patching
      TRIS allows for patching between:
       (i)    The Mutual Aid Radio System (MARS)
       (ii) The Washington Statewide Police Mutual Aid Network (LERN)
       (iii) The Washington Statewide Fire Mutual Aid Network (REDNET)
       (iv) The Comprehensive Emergency Management Network (CEMNET) which is
            described above
       (v) Federal Integrated Wireless Network (IWN)

              This network is a new statewide VHF (P25) trunked radio system that serves a
              select group of federal law enforcement agencies. Current users of the network
              include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, (FBI); Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
              (ATF); U.S. Marshal Service; Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE); Drug
              Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Treasury—Inspector General Tactical
              Enforcement Group.
       (vi) 800 MHz systems described above

7. Interim SATCOM Incident Site Communications Set (ISISCS)
   ISISCS is a communications element of the Washington Army National Guard Reaction
   Force. Staffed by 14 personnel, the team and hardware are air or ground transportable and
   provide a remote site Incident Command Post with telephone, single channel radio, video
   teleconferencing, and data transmission, including Internet capability via satellite
   communications uplink. The set includes onsite communications via land mobile radios and
   a Local Area Network with eight laptop computers. The set provides interoperability between
   civilian and military systems, including the capability to cross-connect HF/VHF/UHF radios
   with telephone networks. Onsite setup time is one hour. Activation and deployment of the
   ISISCS Team is coordinated through the state Emergency Management Division Duty
   Officer.



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8. Private-Sector Communications
   The private sector responders who are likely to be called upon in a significant marine
   incident (e.g., oil spill recovery organizations (OSROs), salvage experts, and other marine
   rescue units) will have radio, landline, and cell phone contact information, which should be
   included in Volume II, Section G of this MTR Plan.

9. Volunteer Radio Communications
   The Amateur Radio Emergency Services (ARES) consists of trained radio communications
   enthusiasts. These volunteers can provide communications hardware capable of operating
   from numerous locations throughout the Pacific Northwest. ARES is accessed through the
   state Emergency Management Division of through a County Emergency Management
   Office. ARES operates on the following frequencies:
    Frequency           Group                       Function
    146.520 MHz         ARES Communications         General hailing and emergency notification
    145.630 MHz         ARES Packet Operations      Packet operations—remote area communications

10. Federal Communications Support
   The following discussion applies primarily to an Incident of National Significance (IONS) for
   which a declaration has been made and the National Response Plan (NRP) activated.
   However, some of these capabilities may be available prior to an IONS declaration.
   a. Federal Communications
      Reference (a) provides for federal communications support to federal, state, local, tribal,
      and private-sector response efforts during a response to a Transportation Security
      Incident (TSI) that has evolved into an IONS. DHS determines whether to activate
      ESF#2; however, even in incidents where ESF#2 is not activated, DHS may elect to use
      the existing resources of DHS/Emergency Preparedness and Response/Federal
      Emergency Management Agency (EPR/FEMA) to provide communications support at
      the Joint Field Office (JFO). Certain federal communications assets are available under
      ESF#2 when commercial services are not available or are inadequate.
   b. DHS/IAIP/NCS Programs
      Where appropriate, communications services may be provided through various DHS
      Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection/National Communications System
      (DHS/IAIP/NCS) National-Level Programs, including:
       (i)   Shared Resources (SHARES) High-Frequency Radio Program
       (ii) Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) Program
       (iii) Government Emergency Telecommunications Service (GETS)
       (iv) Wireless Priority Service (WPS)—WPS is a White House-directed NS/EP NCS
            program for priority cellular network access. The WPS was approved by the FCC
            for NS/EP requirements on a call-by-call priority basis. The NCS executes the
            program on behalf of the Executive Office of the President. Only individuals in
            NS/EP key leadership positions are authorized to use WPS.
   c. Federal Emergency Communications Coordinator
      When ESF#2 is activated, a Federal Emergency Communications Coordinator (FECC) is
      designated. The FECC is the single point of contact in the incident area to coordinate the
      federal telecommunications requirements and industry’s response. The FECC


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       coordinates with the state telecommunications officer to ensure that federal and state
       requirements do not conflict.
  d. FEMA Mobile Support
     In response to regional requests for support, FEMA can provide mobile
     telecommunications, operational support, life support, and power generation assets for
     the onsite management of disaster and all-hazard activities. Both the Mobile Emergency
     Response Support (MERS) and the Mobile Air Transportable Telecommunications
     System (MATTS) consist of a variety of motor vehicles with communications, such as
     multi-radio vehicles, mobile KU-band vehicles for satellite communications, vehicles with
     line-of-sight microwave equipment, and vehicles with high-frequency equipment. The
     MERS detachments are located at Maynard, MA; Thomasville, GA; Denton, TX; Denver,
     CO; and Bothell, WA. The MATTS is located at Berryville, VA. For more detail see:
     www.fema.gov/rrr/mers12.shtm.
  e. Forest Service and DOI Support
     Under ESF#2, the Forest Service and DOI will provide telecommunications support
     services through assets located at the National Interagency Fire Center. Support
     services include:
       (i)   Radio communications systems for support of firefighters, law enforcement officers,
             and incident response operations
       (ii) Engineers, technical personnel, and liaison staff to assist the FECC and to maintain
            the National Interagency Radio Support systems
       (iii) National Interagency Radio Support systems for use by damage reconnaissance
             teams to report information from the incident area to the JFO, and such other
             applications as determined by the radio communications coordinator
       (iv) A communications officer to accompany radio systems for the purpose of user
            training and operator maintenance indoctrination
       (v) Additional radio systems required for the establishment of a JFO radio net

  f.   Transportable Communications Center (TCC)
       The TCC is a self-contained, rapidly deployable CG manned and maintained
       communications center, which is located in Pt. Reyes, CA, in a twelve-hour (B-12) recall
       status. It can be towed or airlifted to its destination. The TCC comes with a team of
       three, but requires local manning support. It can be powered directly by tie to a power
       source or by accompanying generator. It is a Coast Guard Pacific Area asset and must
       be requested via the CG chain of command. It is available to meet Coast Guard mission
       requirements independent of ESF#2.




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SECTION I—PUBLIC AFFAIRS

   References:
   a. National Response Plan, Public Affairs Support Annex
   b. Joint Information Center Model, The National Response Center (January 2001)

1. Background
   It is critical to the success of a response to a marine terrorism incident that Public Affairs
   support communicates timely, accurate, consistent, and effective information to the public.
   The responding agencies—federal, state, local, and tribal—must operate and speak with a
   unified voice and consistent messages that are coordinated with the authorities involved in
   the incident response.
   a. Public Communications
      There is likely to be confusion surrounding the first few hours of an incident and its
      response, and the demand for sharing information with the public—especially through
      the media—will be intense. Accurate and well-developed public messages, delivered in
      a timely and coordinated manner, will ensure that the public understands the situation
      and follows safety instructions. The public will have confidence in the response by
      knowing that authorities are executing an effective and coordinated response.
   b. Shared Responsibility
      During an incident, federal, state, local, and tribal authorities share responsibility for
      communicating incident information to the public. Public information is a critical
      component of incident management and must be fully integrated with all other
      operational actions to ensure that the following objectives are met:
       (i)   Delivery of incident preparedness, health, response, and recovery instructions to
             those directly affected by the incident
       (ii) Dissemination of incident information to the general public
   c. Incidents of National Significance
      For Incidents of National Significance (IONS), the U.S. Department of Homeland
      Security (DHS) Office of Public Affairs coordinates and delivers information and
      instructions to the public related to:
       (i)   Federal assistance to the incident-affected area
       (ii) Federal departmental/agency response
       (iii) National preparations
       (iv) Protective measures
       (v) Impact on non-affected areas
       (vi) Federal law enforcement activities
   d. Joint Information System
      The Incident Command (IC)/Unified Command (UC) must ensure that accurate
      information is shared in a timely manner with the media and other key players external to
      the UC. The UC, under the National Incident Management System (NIMS), will


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       administer public affairs under the Joint Information System (JIS) and establish a Joint
       Information Center (JIC) in the Incident Command System (ICS) structure to conduct
       crisis communications during maritime terrorism emergency responses. This section of
       Volume I of the MTR Plan describes how to manage public affairs effectively in such an
       incident. See Section L of Volume II of this Plan for detailed checklists.

2. Joint Information Center (JIC)
   The JIC is a centralized “communications hub” where multiple organizations will collaborate
   to provide timely, useful, and accurate information to the public and other stakeholders. The
   JIC provides a structure that works within the framework of the ICS/UCS. However, because
   it is functionally based, the model can be used during any situation in which there is a need
   for centralized communications support involving multiple organizations.
   a. One Voice
      Through the JIC, the different responding agencies can work in a cohesive manner,
      enabling them to speak with one voice. By maintaining a centralized communication
      facility, resources can be better managed and duplication of effort is minimized. The JIC
      also can track and maintain records and information more accurately.
   b. Objectives
      The objectives of a JIC are to fulfill all responsibilities of the Information Officer (IO)
      designated by and serving on the command staff of the IC/UC, which include:
       (i)   Developing, recommending, and executing information plans and strategies on
             behalf of the IC/UC
       (ii) Gaining and maintaining public trust and confidence
       (iii) Being the first—and best—source of information
       (iv) Gathering information about the crisis
       (v) Ensuring the timely and coordinated release of accurate information to the public by
           providing a single release point of information
       (vi) Capturing images of the crisis in video and photos that can be used by the
            response organization, as well as the media
       (vii) Monitoring and measuring public perception of the incident.
       (viii) Informing the IC/UC of public reaction, attitude, and needs
       (ix) Ensuring that the various response agencies’ information personnel work together
            to minimize conflict
       (x) Advising the IC/UC concerning public affairs issues that could impact the response
       (xi) Facilitating control of rumors
   c. Information Officer Duties
      Under the ICS/UCS, an IO is designated as one of the key command staff to represent
      and advise the IC/UC on all public information matters relating to the incident response.
      Depending on the public information needs of the response, the IO may perform all
      public information-related functions, or these functions may be divided among other staff
      assigned for a large-scale event as is likely in the case of a marine terrorism incident.
      The organization chart below depicts the leadership positions of the JIC, with additional
      staff to be assigned, based on the need and availability.


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                                              Information
                                                 Officer


                                             Assistant IO /
                                             JIC Manager



                      Assistant IO for                             Assistant IO for
                      Internal Affairs                             External Affairs

                          Data Gathering                               Dissemination
                            Assistant                                    Assistant


                          Product Asst                                         Scheduling Asst


                                                                         Preparation
                              Photo/Video Asst                            Assistant


                                                                                 Community
                          Support Asst                                            Outreach


                                                                               Protocol Support




                              Figure I1: Example of a JIC for a major event

       This model describes how to establish a public affairs approach for an incident response
       using a structured JIC with appropriate staff assigned to conduct crisis communications
       during emergency responses. This model is generic and should be adapted, as
       appropriate, to the incident and/or to the port and the agencies involved.

3. Information Officer (IO)
   An IO is assigned by the IC/UC to lead the public affairs function. The IO will represent and
   advise the IC on all public information matters relating to the incident. He/she will establish,
   maintain, and deactivate the JIC. The IO will work with the Liaison Officer of the Command
   Staff to coordinate all anticipated news conferences and media events and the Liaison
   Officer will inform the IO about VIP concerns and visits. The IO should possess public
   affairs, crisis response, JIC, and/or management experience. Personnel should be assigned
   to this position based on skills and abilities, not rank or employer.
   Major responsibilities of the IO are:
          Support the communications needs of the IC/UC
          Oversee JIC operations
          Gather incident data
          Inform the public and community
          Complete analysis of public perceptions


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             Assist in the implementation of communication requirements
             Coordinate exchange of information with the Incident Command Post
             Coordinate intra-organizational activities (e.g., information exchange between
             responding agencies)
             Coordinate with the Command Staff Liaison Officer

4. Assistants to the Information Officer
   A large public affairs team for a major incident will require several staff assistants to the IO.
   Each assistant should possess public affairs, crisis response, JIC, and/or management
   experience, as well as have demonstrated skills in interacting with the public and the media.
   Personnel should be assigned to this position based on training, experience, skills, and
   ability, not rank or employer.
   a. Assistant IO/JIC Manager
      The Assistant IO/JIC Manager supervises the daily operations of the JIC, executes plans
      and policies as directed by the IO, and provides direction to the Internal and External
      Branches to ensure that all functions are well organized. The Assistant IO/JIC Manager
      supervises the Assistant IOs for Internal and External Affairs to ensure that all functions
      are well organized and operating effectively. Major responsibilities of the Assistant
      IO/JIC Manager include:
       (i)    Assume all responsibilities of the IO, as needed
       (ii) Supervise all operational and administrative activities, including staffing and inter-
            office communications
       (iii) Ensure proper setup of the JIC
       (iv) Help oversee all operations of the JIC
       (v) Establish internal communications procedures
       (vi) Set staff work hours and daily operating schedule
       (vii) Ensure that all costs are accounted for
       (viii) Ensure that all JIC functions are well organized and operating effectively
       (ix) Edit and obtain approval from the IO for news releases and other for-release
            documents. In the absence of the IO, release information in accordance with UC
            policies and procedures
   b. Assistant IO for Internal Affairs
      Assistant IO for Internal Affairs conducts information gathering activities and product
      development activities in support of the JIC communications efforts.
       (i)    The Assistant IO for Internal Affairs supervises the Internal Branch of the JIC
              composed of:
              •   JIC Situation Status Unit
              •   Product Unit
              •   Photo/Video Assistant
              •   Support Unit
       (ii) The major responsibilities of the Assistant IO for Internal Affairs are to:


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             •   Gather, manage, and analyze information from all parts of the JIC and Incident
                 Command Post
             •   Display information for use in JIC
             •   Provide support for JIC gatherings (e.g., news conferences or town meetings)
             •   Develop communication and outreach products based on information from the
                 communications unit (e.g., talking points, briefings, flyers, fact sheets, news
                 releases, and public service announcements)
             •   Coordinate security needs with the Security Manager of the Facilities Unit in the
                 Logistics Section.
             •   Establish and implement systems to manage the flow of information
             •   Support the development and modification of communications and outreach
                 strategy
             •   Support the development of materials needed to support VIP visits to the
                 disaster site or Incident Command Post
             •   Assume the responsibilities of the Assistant IO/JIC, as needed
   c. Assistant IO for External Affairs
      Assistant IO for External Affairs interacts with stakeholders, monitors stakeholder
      information needs, and distributes information in a timely and effective manner.
       (i)   The Assistant IO for External Affairs supervises the External Branch of the JIC,
             which includes:
             •   Dissemination Assistant
             •   Scheduling Assistant
             •   Preparation Assistant.
             •   Assistant IO for Community Outreach
             •   Protocol Support Assistant
       (ii) The major responsibilities of the Assistant IO for External Affairs are:
             •   Schedule participants in JIC activities
             •   Prepare speakers prior to interviews
             •   Conduct news conferences and town meetings
             •   Analyze print and electronic news clips
             •   Provide escorts to the media
             •   In coordination with the Liaison Officer, provide escorts, as needed
             •   Develop and implement community outreach programs
             •   Ensure that the non-English-speaking populations in both the affected and non-
                 affected areas receive the same incident information and public instructions
             •   Provide protocol support to the Liaison Officer
             •   Provide reception and phone screening support


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            •   Monitor and maintain audience and stakeholder relations
            •   Support agency and team coordination
            •   Identify misinformation or rumors that may affect the response
   d. Subordinate Position Descriptions
      Detailed position descriptions for subordinate positions to those described above can be
      found in reference (b), as can checklists for those performing key tasks associated with
      these positions.

5. National JIC
   A National Joint Information Center (NJIC) may be established in a marine terrorism IONS at
   the headquarters level of the federal agencies. An NJIC may be used when the incident is
   expected to be of long duration (i.e., weeks, or months) and when the incident affects large
   areas of the country.

6. DHS Public Affairs Director
   If a Principal Federal Official (PFO) is assigned to the incident, the PFO will be supported by
   a dedicated DHS Public Affairs Director who functions as the press secretary, coordinates
   media activities for the PFO, provides strategic communications guidance to the JIC, and
   serves as a designated federal spokesperson when directed by the PFO.

7. Communications Preparedness
   Preparedness for incident communications activities includes those measures taken before
   an incident to prepare for or mitigate the effects. Preparedness as it relates to incident
   communications with the public includes:
          Evacuation, warning, or precautionary information to ensure public safety and health
          Public education and supporting documentation
          Federal, state, local, and tribal incident communications
          Media education, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD) information
          Exercises and training with risk communications
          Identifying subject matter experts for availability during an incident
          Preparation and readiness to develop and deploy public service announcements;
          and health advisory information
          Testing and coordination of emergency broadcast and alerting systems

8. Speaker Preparation
   The IO must ensure that agency personnel who will be doing press conferences, town
   meetings, and interviews with the media are prepared to speak with purpose and confidence
   and are fully informed of current and accurate information.

9. Conducting a News Conference
   The senior officials leading a response operation should consider holding news conferences
   as a way to inform the media and the public about important information in a timely way. The
   news conference is an effective forum for the IC/UC to communicate with the media at a
   time arranged to meet media deadlines and allows the IC/UC to present a unified
   explanation of the incident and the multi-agency response. Reporters understand that

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   opportunities to meet with key senior officials in a major incident response are special, and
   will wait for news conferences with senior officials to get information directly from the
   leaders. It will give the media the opportunity to raise their concerns, and concerns they hear
   from the public, in the form of questions to the senior officials.
   a. Spokesperson
      Senior officials of all agencies represented in the UC should be present at the news
      conference and be prepared to talk about those aspects of the incident and the response
      where they have primary jurisdiction. In the case of an IONS, the designated Principal
      Federal Official (PFO) will likely lead the news conference.
   b. Scheduling
      Usually, a news conference is carefully scheduled and arranged to ensure that public
      affairs activities do not interfere with IC/UC response operations and to provide an
      opportunity to the IC/UC to make sure they have accurate information and have had an
      opportunity to prepare to meet with the media. In arranging and preparing for a news
      conference, the IO should consider the following:
       (i)    Select the appropriate time for the press conference. This should be approximately
              two hours before the majority of news deadlines, or as soon as possible after a
              major development
       (ii) Select and schedule an appropriate location and set up space (audiovisual, chairs,
            public address system, etc.)
       (iii) Notifications to the media regarding the place and time for the news conference
       (iv) Briefing packets for distribution to the media
       (v) Identification of the spokespeople and their preparation with as much time as
           possible before the news conference starts
       (vi) Appointment of a news conference moderator—usually the Information Officer
       (vii) Assisting reporters with any additional needs immediately following the news
             conference

10. Conduct an Editorial Board
   An Editorial Board is a meeting between the IC/UC and an editor of a media organization.
   Reporters may or may not be present. Usually, an Editorial Board is not conducted until
   several days into an incident. The Editorial Board serves the following functions.
             Gives the IC/UC a chance to explain in broad terms the policies and positions of the
             command
             Provides the editor with a chance to ask questions about the command’s policies and
             positions as they pertain to the response
             Is normally held in the offices of the editor and typically does not result in a story. It is
             intended for use as background for future stories

11. Conducting a Town Meeting
   Town meetings are an effective communications method with local citizens affected by an
   incident. The news media should also be invited to town meetings. The IO should meet with
   the IC/UC to discuss holding a town meeting at an appropriate time in the response.
   Usually, the IO will see an opportunity for a town meeting to meet the information needs of


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   citizens in the community when other means of communicating are not meeting those
   needs. When setting up a town meeting, consider the following:
   a. The appropriate town meeting format (e.g., open house, panel discussion, audio/visual
      presentation)
   b. Identification of key officials to participate in the town meeting
   c. Checking with key community officials and the public on their interest in a town meeting
   d. The appropriate time and location for the town meeting
   e. Appointment of a town meeting moderator (usually the IO) who will:
      (i) Assist in preparing handouts
       (ii) Coordinate graphics needs
       (iii) Stay on hand at the meeting location for any exhibitor needs or to help answer
             questions

12. Deactivation of JIC
   The IC/UC determines when to deactivate the JIC. This decision usually will be made when
   the recovery and mitigation operations are underway or complete. The IO must evaluate the
   level of JIC activity throughout the response operation and advise the IC/UC on deactivation
   as the operation declines. In general, when deactivating the JIC, consider the need to:
          Make notifications to the media
          Complete an after-action report
          Return equipment and supplies
          Inventory and replenish “go-kits”




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SECTION J—TRAINING

1. Overview
   It is the responsibility of federal, state, local, and tribal governments to ensure that all
   response personnel and organizations—including the law enforcement, military, emergency
   response, health care, public works, and environmental communities—are properly
   equipped, trained, and exercised to respond to all terrorist threats and attacks in the United
   States.
   a. Training Program Development
      Part of every effective contingency plan is the development and implementation of a
      training program. Incident management organizations and personnel at all levels of
      government, and within private-sector and nongovernmental organizations, must be
      appropriately trained to improve the overall incident management capability.
   b. Agency/Discipline Specific Training
      For the purposes of this Plan, it is assumed that public safety and private sector
      response personnel will be trained in discipline specific and agency specific subject
      matter.
   c. Incident Management Training
      Training involving standard courses on incident command and management, incident
      management structure, operational coordination processes and systems help ensure
      that personnel at all jurisdictional levels and across all disciplines can function effectively
      in a well coordinated manner.
   d. Interagency Training
      The broad spectrum of response agencies and organizations in a port community should
      consider training together where appropriate to better ensure familiarity across
      jurisdictions and disciplines and the timely execution of coordinated incident
      management.

2. Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) First Responder Training
   As part of the MTR project, the Puget Sound Marine Firefighting Commission (PSMFC) was
   tasked with developing training programs for first responders to incidents in the marine
   environment. This training has been designed to enhance the capabilities and safety of land-
   based responders who are likely to respond to marine fire and life safety incidents, including
   acts of terrorism.
   a. Web-Based Training
      In recognition of available technology and the need for efficient, easily accessible and
      flexible training that could meet the demands of a diverse response community with a
      dynamic schedule, the MTR project produced a Web-based training and records
      management program. This program delivers the required training in a setting that is
      most conducive to student participation. This online training is comprised of the following
      modules:
       (i)   The Marine Environment for First Responders: Awareness
             This course constitutes one portion of the awareness-training block and is to
             provide an introduction to the marine environment for first responders (fire, law


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           enforcement, public). This training is for personnel whose primary response role is
           not to marine emergencies.
           While applicable to many different marine events, this self-study course is
           specifically designed to familiarize participants with the marine environment in order
           to protect themselves when responding to a terrorist event.
           Following the completion of this course, the awareness level first responder will
           possess a basic understanding of the following concepts:
           •   What is terrorism?
           •   The Marine Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA)
           •   Terminology of the marine environment (definitions)
           •   The marine environment and related hazards
           •   Marine terminals/facilities
           •   Ship’s documents
           •   Vessel familiarization, flag state and shipboard personnel
           •   Vessel types
           •   Response to an incident in the marine environment
       (ii) Marine Terrorism Response (Firefighter): Awareness
            This course constitutes one portion of the Awareness training block and is to
            provide information specific to firefighters. This training is for fire service personnel
            whose primary response role is not to marine emergencies.
           While applicable to many different marine events, this course is specifically
           designed to familiarize firefighters with hazards encountered in the marine
           environment when responding to a terrorist event.
           Following the completion of this course, the awareness level firefighter will possess
           a basic understanding of the following concepts:
           •   Terrorist rationale, methods and potential maritime targets
           •   Hazards in the marine environment and how to protect against them
           •   Recognition of hazardous materials incidents
           •   Protocols used to detect the potential presence of WMD agents or materials
           •   Self-protection measures for WMD events and hazardous materials events
           •   Procedures for protecting a potential crime scene
           •   Scene security and control
           •   Communications equipment used to contact dispatcher or higher authorities.
           •   Procedures used to report information collected at the scene
           •   Procedures used to request additional assistance or emergency response
               personnel
           •   How to use the US Department of Transportation’s (DOT) North American
               Emergency Response

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            •   Guidebook to assess an incident
            •   How the National Incident Management System (NIMS) is used to efficiently
                manage domestic incidents
       (iii) Marine Terrorism Response (Firefighter): Performance—Defensive
             This course constitutes the Web-based training portion of the performance-level
             (defensive) training block and is to provide fire personnel with standard operating
             guidelines for responding to the scene of a hazardous materials event or a potential
             terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) event in the marine
             environment.
            First responders at the performance level (defensive) are those persons who
            respond to events as part of the initial response to the incident for the purpose of
            protecting nearby persons, the environment, or property from the effects of the
            event. This defensive training is for fire personnel whose primary response role is
            not responding to marine emergencies and is to provide strategies to the first
            responder to enable them to mitigate the event from a safe distance. These fire
            fighters will conduct on-scene operations within the warm zone and/or the hot zone
            (if properly trained and equipped) that has been set up on the scene of a potential
            WMD or hazardous materials event to control and close out the incident. It is
            expected that fire fighters trained for performance level (defensive) will work in the
            warm zone and cold zone and support those fire fighters performance level
            (offensive) working in the hot zone.
            This self-study course is designed to provide an introduction to the concepts for the
            performance level first responder at the scene of a terrorist incident within the
            marine environment. This course is to be supplemented with a sixteen-hour live fire
            course conducted at the Washington State Fire Academy, North Bend, Washington
            (or equivalent).
            Following the completion of the online portion of this course, the performance level
            defensive fire service first responder will possess an understanding of the following
            concepts:
            •   The marine environment
            •   Vessel familiarization
            •   Vessel stability
            •   Organizational resources and special resource considerations
            •   Hazardous materials, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
            •   Incident response planning
            •   Site safety, personal protection measures and rescue and evacuation
                procedures
            •   Marine firefighting strategy and tactics
            •   National Incident Management System (NIMS) and National Response Plan
                (NRP)
            •   Role of the U.S. Coast Guard
            •   Post-incident activities


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           •   Legal issues
       (iv) Marine Terrorism Response (Firefighter): Performance—Offensive
           This course constitutes the Web-based training portion of the performance-level
           (offensive) training block and is to provide fire personnel with standard operating
           guidelines for responding to the scene of a hazardous materials event or a potential
           terrorist/criminal use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) event in the marine
           environment. First responders at the performance level (offensive) are those
           persons who respond to events as part of the initial response to the incident for the
           purpose of protecting nearby persons, the environment, or property from the effects
           of the event.
           This offensive training is for fire personnel whose primary response role is not
           solely responding to marine emergencies and is to provide strategies to the first
           responder to enable them to mitigate the event safely. These fire fighters will
           conduct on-scene operations within the warm zone and/or the hot zone (if properly
           trained and equipped) that has been set up on the scene of a potential WMD or
           hazardous materials event to control and close out the incident. It is expected that
           fire fighters trained for performance level (offensive) will work in the hot zone, warm
           zone and cold zone as required and when properly trained and equipped.
           This self-study course is designed to provide an introduction to the concepts for the
           performance level first responder at the scene of a terrorist incident within the
           marine environment. This course, in combination with the MTR (Firefighter)
           performance level (defensive) course, is to be supplemented with a sixteen-hour
           live fire course conducted at the Washington State Fire Academy, North Bend,
           Washington (or equivalent).
           Following the completion of the online portion of this course, the performance level
           offensive fire service first responder will understand the following concepts:
           •   Incident strategies and tactics
           •   Self-protection measures, including PPE selection
           •   Procedures for operating sampling equipment
           •   Decontamination procedures
           •   Vessel stability
           •   Organizational resources and special resource considerations
           •   Hazardous materials including weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
           •   Incident response planning
           •   Site safety, personal protection measures, and rescue and evacuation
               procedures
           •   Marine firefighting strategy and tactics
           •   National Incident Management System (NIMS) and National Response Plan
               (NRP)
           •   Role of the U.S. Coast Guard
           •   Post-incident activities


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            •   Legal issues
       (v) Marine Terrorism Response (Firefighter): Live Fire Training
            The performance-level defensive and offensive Web-based training programs
            addressed above are reinforced with a 16-hour WMD/live fire training program.
            The live fire training is conducted at the Washington State Fire Training Academy.
            It brings together elements of the Web-based training and provides students with
            the opportunity for reality-based training.
            Students are presented with a variety of incidents aboard a training prop where the
            difficulties of combating a marine event are presented with stark reality. During
            increasingly complicated scenarios, the students are tasked with implementing
            response procedures that deal with the effects of IEDs, secondary devices,
            chemical releases and firefighter and civilian casualties aboard vessels.
            As part of the scenarios, the students must also develop command structures
            according to NIMS and identify resources needed to mitigate the incident at hand.
       (vi) Command/Technician Training
            The MTR project provided for a two-day Command/Technician training class. This
            class is designed for those officers who can expect to be the initial Incident
            Commanders at a marine fire and life safety event.
            This class gave potential Incident Commanders an opportunity to board a vessel
            and view the hazards and difficulties involved with responding to and mitigating a
            possible WMD event.
            The agenda for this class included:
            •   Ship tour
            •   PSMFC equipment training/demonstrations
            •   Dewatering, stability, fixed extinguishing system lecture/demonstrations
            •   USCG—Its role and response to a marine incident
            •   MTR—a national model response plan overview
            •   ICS review from the Operations Chief’s perspective
            •   Marine terrorism scenarios
   b. Web-Based Training Goals
      The MTR project on-line training is designed to meet:
          ODP Emergency Responder Guidelines
          NFPA 1405 Guide for Land-Based Firefighters Who Respond to Marine Vessel Fires
          NFPA 1005 Standard for Professional Qualifications for Marine Fire Fighting for
          Land-Based Fire Fighters (Proposed)
          Washington State Standard for Marine Firefighting for Land-Based Firefighters
   c. Available Web-Based Modules
      The first portions of this collaborative effort, focused largely on the fire fighting
      community, are now available to responders online at: www.marineresponse.org.
      Following registration, students will be able to access the first training modules and


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      study the chapters, take quizzes, and take the final exam at their own pace. No
      downloading of additional software is required. As additional modules are posted,
      students will be able to register for them.

3. Marine Terrorism Response (MTR) Plan Training
   Agencies and organizations that comprise the port response community should all
   participate in a training process to ensure familiarity with the contents of this Plan or their
   respective adaptation of this MTR Plan. Such training will expedite a coordinated response
   and mitigate consequences of the incident.
   a. Preparedness Training
      Preparedness training will help potential responders to better understand:
       (i)   Their agency’s overall level of commitment to the incident response operations
       (ii) How they will be notified, and when to respond to such notification
       (iii) Their respective roles and responsibilities in the response
       (iv) Their position in the Incident Command System (ICS) response organization
       (v) How their agency coordinates and communicates with other agencies and
           organizations involved in the response
   b. Training Availability
      The intent of PSMFC is to provide this training on a request basis, subject to available
      funding to cover costs.

4. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Training
   Life safety is a major objective in any response. This includes the safety of the responders.
   Responders who are not themselves properly protected are a danger not only to
   themselves, but also to their fellow responders, and to victims of the incident to which they
   are responding. Thus, all responders likely to face entry into the contaminated zone of an
   incident must be properly trained and equipped for their own protection and to ensure their
   effectiveness as a responder.
   a. Agency Training
      Local public safety agencies will have most, if not all, of their response personal trained
      in and equipped with PPE. Some will have specialized training for hazardous material
      response and should be used accordingly.
   b. Specialized Teams
      Specialized teams listed in Volume II, Section F (Resources) of this Plan are
      appropriately trained for the hazards they are likely to encounter. These teams should be
      used when the incident hazards exceed the training and qualification of the local
      responders.

5. Incident Command System (ICS) Training
   Based on their potential role in an incident response, agency personnel should be trained to
   the appropriate level regarding the NIMS, from the basic orientation course to the more
   advanced ICS position specific courses. In January 2005, the General Accounting Office
   (GAO) reported to Congress that, among other areas of concern, many responders involved
   in exercises lacked knowledge and training in ICS. (See GAO-05-170 regarding “Homeland


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   Security—Process of Reporting Lessons Learned from Seaport Exercises Needs Further
   Attention.”)
   The GAO also noted that many of the participants in a number of the exercises that were
   reviewed were unclear about who had the proper authority to raise security levels, board
   vessels, or detain passengers. Thus, much remains to be done in training responders
   regarding the NIMS and the ICS that it mandates, as well as regarding the roles and
   responsibilities of the various responder agencies and organizations.
   a. ICS Training
      Training in the ICS is available from numerous sources, both public and private. At one
      end, some training is available to the masses online and at the other end some of the
      higher-level training is ICS position-specific and reserved for select individuals likely to
      fill those positions. Much of the ICS training in between is currently classroom training to
      which certain personnel may be sent, or that can be imported and provided to larger
      numbers of personnel locally. As one source for some of this training, see paragraph 6
      below regarding the Emergency Management Institute.
   b. Advanced ICS Training
      Advanced training in the ICS usually involves personnel from various jurisdictions and
      across disciplines. This helps responders to better understand the roles and
      responsibilities of other agencies and organizations with whom they may work and how
      they will likely fit into an incident-specific ICS structure. It is generally helpful for
      members of the port response community to train together, whenever possible, for this
      reason.
   c. Online ICS Training
      As a matter of introduction to the NIMS and to the NRP, the following online courses are
      available. Generally, all personnel of public safety and private-sector response agencies
      and organizations should have this level of training and certification. Non-government
      organizations that are likely to be involved in response actions should also receive this
      training as part of their preparedness activities.
       (i)   IS-700: National Incident Management System (NIMS), an Introduction
             The NIMS provides a consistent nationwide template to enable all government,
             private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to respond in concert during
             domestic incidents. This course explains the purpose, principles, key components,
             and benefits of the NIMS. It also contains "Planning Activity" screens that give you
             an opportunity to practice some planning tasks.
       (ii) IS-800: National Response Plan (NRP), an Introduction
             The NRP specifies how resources of the federal government will work in concert
             with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as the private sector, to respond to
             Incidents of National Significance (IONS). This course is designed primarily for
             Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other federal department/agency
             personnel responsible for implementing the NRP. However, state, local, and
             private-sector emergency management professionals will also find great benefit in
             taking this distance-learning course.

6. The Emergency Management Institute
   The Emergency Management Institute (EMI) serves as the national focal point for the
   development and delivery of emergency management training. This training enhances the


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   capabilities of the federal, state, and local government, volunteer organizations, and the
   private sector to minimize the impact of disasters on the American public. The EMI curricula,
   including the Independent Study Program (ISP) courses, are structured to meet the needs of
   this diverse audience with an emphasis on how the various elements work together in
   emergencies to save lives and protect property. The EMI Independent Study Program
   course brochure can be downloaded from the following site:
   http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/downloads/ISBrochure%20011805.doc.
   a. The Independent Study Program (ISP)
      The ISP is a distance-learning program offered free of charge to the American public. It
      serves as both an alternate means to deliver valuable training to the professional and
      volunteer emergency management community, and an opportunity to improve public
      awareness and promote disaster preparedness nationally. Each year, the ISP staff
      issues more than 200,000 individual course completion certificates. The ISP program
      course brochure covers:
       (i)   Program Eligibility—Open to all residents with a valid U.S. deliverable postal
             address, including APO and FPO addresses.
       (ii) How to Get Started—Go to www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/.
       (iii) Course Delivery—There are two options: choose either to “Download Course
             Materials” or enroll in an “Interactive Web-based Course.”
       (iv) College Credit—Through the regional accreditation agencies, it is possible to earn
            transferable academic credit for completion of Independent Study courses.
       (v) Continuing Education Units (CEUs)—The ISP courses are evaluated and awarded
           CEUs in accordance with the standards established by the International
           Association of Continuing Education and Training (IACET). The number of CEUs
           for each course is listed on the Web site.
       (vi) Active & Reserve Members of the Military—Active duty members of some branches
            of the military may be eligible to apply the completion of ISP courses toward
            promotion and retention programs. Members of the reserve components, who are
            required to accumulate retirement and retention points, are, in most cases, able to
            obtain credit for their work through the ISP.
       (vii) Course description—may be viewed at www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/.
   b. Available ISP Courses
      At the present time, most of the ISP course materials are available for download free of
      charge at www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/. Among the many ISP courses available
      are the following:
       (i)   IS-100: Introduction to Incident Command System, I-100, for Federal Disaster
             Workers.
             This course is designed to give an introduction to the principles, common
             terminology, and position-specific responsibilities when responding to an event
             using the Incident Command System (ICS).
       (ii) IS-195: Basic Incident Command System
             The course has been developed as self-instruction, but can also be delivered by an
             instructor in a classroom.
       (iii) IS-200: Incident Command System, Basic, I-200, for Federal Disaster Workers

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            This course complements the I-100 course for the federal disaster response
            workforce and takes the student’s education to the ICS 200 level. IS-200 describes
            the elements of ICS in more detail.
       (iv) IS-700: National Incident Management System (NIMS); an Introduction
            This course explains the purpose, principles, key components, and benefits of the
            NIMS. It also contains "Planning Activity" screens giving the student an opportunity
            to practice some planning tasks.
       (v) IS-800: National Response Plan (NRP); an Introduction
            The IS-800 course is designed primarily for Department of Homeland Security
            (DHS) and other federal department/agency personnel responsible for
            implementing the NRP. State, tribal, local, and private sector emergency
            management professionals will also receive great benefit from taking this distance-
            learning course.

7. Other Applicable Training
   There are many additional sources, both public and private, for obtaining disaster-
   preparedness training and incident-management training applicable to marine terrorism
   response. The following are two sources that deserve a more detailed look by those seeking
   preparedness training. Any such training that is addressed to terrorism in general also has
   application to terrorism in the maritime world, subject to familiarity with that maritime world
   as provided by the MTR First Responder training discussed above.
   a. Washington State Homeland Security Institute.
      HSI is focused on developing and providing a State of Washington statewide emergency
      responders training, certification, and credentialing. HSI, funded by a Department of
      Homeland Security grant via the Emergency Management Division and under the
      auspices of the State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, facilitates and
      coordinates shared training across all of the emergency response disciplines (e.g., law
      enforcement, fire services, emergency communications, public health, healthcare,
      emergency medical services, public works, hospitals, HAZMAT, CERT teams, public
      utilities, emergency management, and elected officials). HSI is building Washington
      State first responder training that is systematic, sustainable, scalable, and cost effective.
      Visit www.hsi.wa.gov.
   b. The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)
      The University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) is developing video games to simulate
      biological, chemical, radiological, and natural disasters in major metropolitan areas to
      prepare public health workers and emergency responders for real-life emergencies. The
      first scenario in this video game project simulates a bio-terrorism response focused on
      training thousands of people to dispense mass amounts of drugs and vaccines in the
      wake of an anthrax attack. It is the first in a series of simulations to address bio-
      terrorism, pandemic flu, smallpox, and other disasters that emergency personnel must
      prepare for. For more information about UIC's Center for the Advancement of Distance
      Education, visit www.uic.edu/sph/cade/.




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SECTION K—DRILLS AND EXERCISES

1. Overview
   Besides regular training, incident management personnel throughout the port response
   community must participate in drills and exercises as part of the preparedness process.
   Exercises that bring together responders from various agencies and organizations and
   across disciplines are invaluable learning opportunities.
   Drills are more likely to be specific to an agency, organization, or functional discipline, as are
   some exercises. However, the port response community needs to hold regular multi-agency,
   multi-jurisdictional, and multi-disciplinary exercises whenever appropriate and possible.
   Such exercises should also include private-sector and non-governmental organizations.
   Only in this way will the port response community improve integration and interoperability.
   Using a sports analogy (“practice as you would play”), the port response community needs
   to exercise as they would respond to the maximum extent possible.
   There are already numerous effective approaches to planning, training, and exercises that
   were developed in preparation for natural and manmade disasters; however, today’s threats
   now include, more than ever, the potential for acts of terrorism. Homeland security
   professionals at all levels of government and in all types of communities must prepare to
   prevent and respond to the new threats to public safety from terrorism involving the use of
   chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE) weapons, or cyber or
   agricultural hostility.
   State and local governments have direct responsibility for the training and exercising of their
   homeland security professionals. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security/Office for
   Domestic Preparedness (DHS/ODP) and other federal agencies administer national-level
   programs that support training and exercise activities for agencies at all levels of
   government and their private-sector and international partners. Responsibilities for these
   tasks are complementary and require that all relevant parties collaborate to successfully
   administer exercises.
   In a January 2005 GAO Report (“Homeland Security—Process of Reporting Lessons
   Learned from Seaport Exercises Needs Further Attention”; GAO-05-170), the GAO reported
   that a majority of the exercises raised concerns about the adequacy or coordination of
   resources, including inadequate facilities or equipment, differing response procedures or
   levels of acceptable risk exposure, and the need for additional training in joint agency
   response. It is always better to identify these shortfalls in exercises so that improvements
   can be made before an actual incident response.

2. Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP)
   HSEEP is both doctrine and policy for designing, developing, conducting, and evaluating
   exercises. HSEEP is a threat- and performance-based exercise program that includes a
   cycle, mix, and range of exercise activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction.
   a. Intent
      The intent of HSEEP is to provide a common process, consistent terminology, and a
      program that is practical and flexible enough for all exercise planners, whatever their
      sponsoring agency or organization may be.




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   b. Consistency
      HSEEP is disseminated on behalf of DHS. In an attempt to standardize the language
      and concepts that have been adopted and used by various agencies and organizations
      in the exercise planning process, all efforts should be made to ensure consistent use of
      the terminology and processes described in HSEEP.
   c. Existing Programs
      HSEEP does not replace existing exercise programs, particularly those that are
      regulated (e.g., Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP),
      Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program, and the U.S. Coast Guard’s
      National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (NPREP).
   d. Reference Manuals
      HSEEP includes a series of four reference manuals to help states and local jurisdictions
      establish exercise programs and design, develop, conduct, and evaluate exercises to
      improve overall preparedness:
       (i)   Volume I: Overview and Doctrine (Revised) provides requirements and guidance
             for the establishment and maintenance of an exercise and evaluation program.
       (ii) Volume II: Exercise Evaluation and Improvement offers proven methodology for
            evaluating homeland security exercises and implementing an improvement
            program.
       (iii) Volume III: Exercise Program Management and Exercise Planning Process
             helps planners establish an exercise program and outlines a standardized design,
             development, conduct, and evaluation process adaptable to any type of exercise.
       (iv) Volume IV: Sample Exercise Documents and Formats provides sample exercise
            materials referenced in HSEEP Volumes I–III. These materials (e.g., planning
            documents, presentations, etc.) are only available through the ODP Secure Portal.
            To gain access to the ODP Secure Portal, please call 1-800-368-6498.
   e. More Information
      Much of the information in paragraphs 4, 5 and 6 below regarding exercises is excerpted
      from the HSEEP Volume III. A great deal more information is available in the referenced
      document.

3. Related Regulated Exercise Programs
   The following regulated exercise programs will also be multi-jurisdictional, multi-agency, and
   multi-discipline and will likely bring together many of the same agencies and organizations
   that will be involved in a response to a marine terrorism incident, particularly one involving
   chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear agents. HSEEP does not replace these
   exercise programs:
   a. Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)
      CSEPP is a unique partnership between the Federal Emergency Management Agency
      (FEMA) and the U.S. Army. This partnership recognizes FEMA's long-standing
      experience in preparing for and dealing with all types of emergencies and the U.S.
      Army's role as custodian of the U.S. chemical stockpile.
       (i)   Since 1988, FEMA and the U.S. Army have assisted communities surrounding the
             eight chemical stockpile sites to enhance their abilities to respond to the unlikely
             event of a chemical agent emergency. The success of CSEPP initiatives depends


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             on the productive working partnerships enjoyed by federal, state, and local
             jurisdictions involved in the program.
       (ii) CSEPP communities have been recognized nationally for their abilities to respond
            to emergencies of all kinds. In the fifteen years since its inception, CSEPP has
            become a leader in providing community education and emergency preparedness
            resources. Many of the lessons learned in CSEPP are used in industry, and
            CSEPP enjoys partnerships with other public safety organizations to ensure that
            the knowledge gained has the greatest benefit for the most people.
       (iii) CSEPP has provided funding and technical assistance in areas that would also
             serve the responders and communities in response to an act of terrorism involving
             chemicals, biological, radiological or nuclear agents:
             •   Improve public warning capabilities
             •   Build and upgrade state-of-the-art emergency operations centers
             •   Train emergency managers and first responders
             •   Hold functional exercises that improve readiness
             •   Increase public knowledge and understanding of protective actions
             •   Over-pressurize schools to ensure the safety of children
             •   Study emergency response options to determine the best way to protect
                 communities
             •   Train doctors and nurses to treat victims of chemical agent exposure
   b. Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program
      After the March 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident in Pennsylvania,
      the federal lead role in offsite radiological emergency planning and preparedness
      activities was transferred from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to FEMA.
      Onsite activities continue to be the responsibility of the NRC.
       (i)   FEMA established the Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program to:
             •   Ensure that the public health and safety of citizens living around commercial
                 nuclear power plants would be adequately protected in the event of a nuclear
                 power station accident
             •   Inform and educate the public about radiological emergency preparedness
       (ii) FEMA's REP program responsibilities encompass only offsite activities; that is,
            state and local government emergency preparedness activities that take place
            beyond the nuclear power plant boundaries.
   c. The U.S. Coast Guard’s National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program
      (NPREP)
      NPREP was developed to meet the intent of section 4202 (a) of the Oil Pollution Act of
      1990 (OPA 90). NPREP plays a key role in assuring the preparedness of the National
      Response System to successfully respond to major oil and hazardous chemical
      incidents.
       (i)   NPREP is a unified federal effort and incorporates the exercise requirements of the
             U. S. Coast Guard, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Research and


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            Special Programs Administration (RSPA) [Office of Pipeline Safety], and the
            Minerals Management Service (MMS).
       (ii) NPREP participants include multi-jurisdiction, multi-agency, multi-discipline
            participants, as well as private-sector and nongovernmental organizations, in
            marine incident response exercises, some of which will include hazardous
            materials.

4. Exercise Planning
   Planners should refer to HSEEP Volume III for guidance in planning exercises. This volume
   outlines the necessary steps and milestones associated with designing, developing,
   conducting, and evaluating a successful exercise.
   Chapters 2, 3, and 4 of HSEEP Volume III are organized in a manner to allow planners
   flexibility when designing and developing an exercise. In an attempt to standardize the
   language and concepts adopted by and used in the exercise field, planners should
   consistently use the terminology and processes described in this manual. These chapters
   are organized as follows:
           General guidance on designing and conducting various types of exercises
           Information common to all discussion-based exercises (for example, seminars,
           workshops, tabletop exercises (TTXs), and games) and operations-based exercises
           (for example, drills, functional exercises (FEs), and full-scale exercises (FSEs))
           Information specific to each exercise type
   Successful exercises can be attributed to several factors, ranging from the support of
   elected officials to skilled planning and execution by the exercise planning team. This team
   is responsible for designing, developing, conducting, and evaluating all aspects of any
   exercise (either discussion or operations based). The planning team determines exercise
   objectives, tailors the scenario to jurisdictional needs, and develops documentation used in
   evaluating, controlling, and simulating. Members of the planning team also help with
   developing and distributing pre-exercise materials and conducting exercise briefings and
   training sessions.

5. Exercise Types
   Chapter 3 of HSEEP Volume III describes the various types of exercises. The type of
   exercise that best meets a jurisdiction’s requirements is identified through analysis of the
   stated exercise purpose, proposed objectives, experience, operations, historical
   precedence, and recommended levels of participation. A specified planning process from
   concept development through conduct and evaluation has been defined for each type of
   exercise.
   a. Discussion-Based Exercises
      Discussion-based exercises are normally used as a starting point in the building block
      approach to the cycle, mix, and range of exercises. Discussion-based exercises include
      seminars, workshops, tabletop exercises (TTXs), and games. These types of exercises
      typically highlight existing plans, policies, mutual aid agreements, and procedures. Thus,
      they are exceptional tools for familiarizing agencies and personnel with current or
      expected jurisdictional capabilities.
      Discussion-based exercises typically focus on strategic, policy-oriented issues, and
      operations-based exercises tend to focus more on tactical response-related issues.


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       Facilitators and/or presenters usually lead the discussion, keeping participants on track
       while meeting the objectives of the exercise.
       (i)   Seminars—Seminars are generally employed to orient participants to, or provide an
             overview of, authorities, strategies, plans, policies, procedures, protocols, response
             resources, or concepts and ideas. Seminars provide a good starting point for
             jurisdictions that are developing or making major changes to their plans and
             procedures. They offer the following attributes:
             •   Low-stress environment employing a number of instruction techniques such as
                 lectures, multimedia presentations, panel discussions, case study discussions,
                 expert testimony, and decision support tools
             •   Informal discussions led by a seminar leader
             •   Lack of time constraints caused by real-time portrayal of events
             •   Effective with both small and large groups
       (ii) Workshops—Workshops represent the second tier of exercises in the HSEEP
            building block approach. Although similar to seminars, workshops differ in two
            important aspects: participant interaction is increased, and the focus is on
            achieving or building a product (such as a plan or a policy). Workshops provide an
            ideal forum for:
             •   Collecting or sharing information
             •   Obtaining new or different perspectives
             •   Testing new ideas, processes, or procedures
             •   Training groups in coordinated activities
             •   Problem-solving of complex issues
             •   Obtaining consensus
             •   Team building
             In conjunction with exercise development, workshops are most useful in achieving
             specific aspects of exercise design such as:
             •   Determining program or exercise objectives
             •   Developing exercise scenario and key events listings
             •   Determining evaluation elements and standards of performance
             A workshop may be used to produce new standard/emergency operating
             procedures (SOPs/EOPs), mutual aid agreements, Multiyear Exercise Plans, and
             Improvement Plans (IPs). To be effective, workshops must be highly focused on a
             specific issue and the desired outcome or goal must be clearly defined.
             Potentially relevant topics and goals are numerous, but all workshops share the
             following common attributes:
             •   Low-stress environment
             •   No-fault forum
             •   Information conveyed employing different instructional techniques


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          •   Facilitated, working breakout sessions
          •   Plenum discussions led by a workshop leader
          •   Goals oriented toward an identifiable product
          •   Lack of time constraint from real-time portrayal of events
          •   Effective with both small and large groups
      (iii) Tabletop Exercises (TTXs)—TTXs involve senior staff, elected or appointed
            officials, or other key personnel in an informal setting, discussing simulated
            situations. This type of exercise is intended to stimulate discussion of various
            issues regarding a hypothetical situation. It can be used to assess plans, policies,
            and procedures or to assess types of systems needed to guide the prevention of,
            response to, and recovery from a defined event.
          TTXs typically are aimed at facilitating understanding of concepts, identifying
          strengths and shortfalls, and/or achieving a change in attitude. Participants are
          encouraged to discuss issues in depth and develop decisions through slow-paced
          problem solving rather than the rapid, spontaneous decision making that occurs
          under actual or simulated emergency conditions.
          In contrast to the scale and cost of operations-based exercises and games, TTXs
          can be a cost-effective tool when used in conjunction with more complex exercises.
          The effectiveness of a TTX is derived from the energetic involvement of participants
          and their assessment of recommended revisions to current policies, procedures,
          and plans.
          TTX methods are divided into two categories:
          •   In a basic TTX, the scene set by the scenario materials remains constant. It
              describes an event or emergency incident and brings discussion participants up
              to the simulated present time. Players apply their knowledge and skills to a list
              of problems presented the leader/moderator, problems are discussed as a
              group, and resolution is generally agreed on and summarized by the leader.
          •   In an advanced TTX, play revolves around delivery of pre-scripted messages to
              players that alter the original scenario. The exercise controller (moderator)
              usually introduces problems one at a time in the form of a written message,
              simulated telephone call, videotape, or other means. Participants discuss the
              issues raised by the problem, using appropriate plans and procedures.
          TTX attributes may include:
          •   Practicing group problem-solving
          •   Familiarizing senior officials with a situation
          •   Conducting a specific case study
          •   Examining personnel contingencies
          •   Testing group message interpretation
          •   Participating in information sharing
          •   Assessing interagency coordination
          •   Achieving limited or specific objectives


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       (iv) Games—A game is a simulation of operations that often involves two or more
            teams, usually in a competitive environment, using rules, data, and procedures
            designed to depict an actual or assumed real-life situation. It does not involve the
            use of actual resources, and the sequence of events affects, and is in turn affected
            by, the decisions made by the players.
             Players are commonly presented with scenarios and asked to perform a task
             associated with the scenario episode. As each episode moves to the next level of
             detail or complexity, it takes into account players’ earlier decisions; thus, the
             decisions made by participants determine the flow of the game. The goal is to
             explore decision-making processes and the consequences of those decisions.
             •   In a game, the same situation can be examined from various perspectives by
                 changing the variables and parameters that guide player actions.
             •   Large-scale games can be multi-jurisdictional and include active participation
                 from federal, state, tribal, and local governments.
             •   Games stress the importance of planners’ and players’ understanding and
                 comprehension of interrelated processes.
             •   With the evolving complexity and sophistication of current simulations,
                 opportunities to provide enhanced realism for game participants have
                 increased. Computer-generated scenarios and simulations can provide a more
                 realistic and time-sensitive method of introducing situations for analysis.
                 Planner decisions can be input and models run to show the effect of decisions
                 made during a game.
             Distributed games (available via the Internet) offer many additional benefits, such
             as saving participants time and travel expenses, offering more frequent training
             opportunities, and taking less time away from primary functions. They also provide
             a collaborative environment that reflects realistic occurrences.
   b. Operations-Based Exercises
      Operations-based exercises represent the next iteration of the exercise cycle. They are
      used to validate the plans, policies, agreements, and procedures solidified in discussion-
      based exercises. Operations-based exercises include drills, functional exercises (FEs),
      and full-scale exercises (FSEs). They can clarify roles and responsibilities, identify gaps
      in resources needed to implement plans and procedures, and improve individual and
      team performance. Operations-based exercises are characterized by actual response,
      mobilization of apparatus and resources, and commitment of personnel, usually over an
      extended period of time.
       (i)   Drills—A drill is a coordinated, supervised activity usually employed to test a single
             specific operation or function in a single agency. Drills are commonly used to
             provide training on new equipment, develop or test new policies or procedures, or
             practice and maintain current skills. Typical attributes include:
             •   A narrow focus, measured against established standards
             •   Instant feedback
             •   Realistic environment
             •   Performance in isolation



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      (ii) Functional Exercises (FE)—The FE, also known as a command post exercise
           (CPX), is designed to test and evaluate individual capabilities, multiple functions or
           activities within a function, or interdependent groups of functions. FEs are generally
           focused on exercising the plans, policies, procedures, and staffs of the direction
           and control nodes of Incident Command (IC) and Unified Command (UC).
           Generally, events are projected through an exercise scenario with event updates
           that drive activity at the management level. Movement of personnel and equipment
           is simulated.
          The objective of the FE is to execute specific plans and procedures and apply
          established policies, plans, and procedures under crisis conditions, within or by
          particular function teams. An FE simulates the reality of operations in a functional
          area by presenting complex and realistic problems that require rapid and effective
          responses by trained personnel in a highly stressful environment. Attributes of an
          FE include:
          •   Evaluating functions
          •   Evaluating Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs), headquarters, and staff
          •   Reinforcing established policies and procedures
          •   Measuring resource adequacy
          •   Examining inter-jurisdictional relationships
      (iii) Full-Scale Exercises—The FSE is the most complex step in the exercise cycle.
            FSEs are multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional exercises that test many facets of
            emergency response and recovery. They include many first responders operating
            under the Incident Command System (ICS) or Unified Command System (UCS) to
            effectively and efficiently respond to, and recover from, an incident.
          An FSE focuses on implementing and analyzing the plans, policies, and procedures
          developed in discussion-based exercises and honed in previous, smaller,
          operations-based exercises. The events are projected through a scripted exercise
          scenario with built-in flexibility to allow updates to drive activity. It is conducted in a
          real-time, stressful environment that closely mirrors a real event. First responders
          and resources are mobilized and deployed to the scene where they conduct their
          actions as if a real incident had occurred (with minor exceptions).
          The FSE simulates the reality of operations in multiple functional areas by
          presenting complex and realistic problems requiring critical thinking, rapid problem-
          solving, and effective responses by trained personnel in a highly stressful
          environment. An FSE provides an opportunity to execute plans, procedures, and
          cooperative (mutual aid) agreements in response to a simulated live event in a
          highly stressful environment.
          Typical FSE attributes include:
          •   Assessing organizational and individual performance
          •   Demonstrating interagency cooperation
          •   Allocating resources and personnel
          •   Assessing equipment capabilities
          •   Activating personnel and equipment


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            •   Assessing inter-jurisdictional cooperation
            •   Exercising public information systems
            •   Testing communications systems and procedure
            •   Analyzing memorandums of understanding (MOUs), SOPs, plans, policies, and
                procedures
            The level of support needed to conduct an FSE is greater than needed during other
            types of exercises. The exercise site is usually extensive, with complex site
            logistics. Food and water must be supplied to participants and volunteers. Safety
            issues, including those surrounding the use of props and special effects, must be
            monitored.
            FSE controllers ensure that participants’ behavior remains within predefined
            boundaries. Simulation Cell (SIMCELL) controllers continuously inject scenario
            elements to simulate real events. Evaluators observe behaviors and compare them
            against established plans, policies, procedures, and standard practices (if
            applicable). Safety controllers ensure that all activity is executed within a safe
            environment.

6. Improvement Planning
   Exercises are valuable learning opportunities from which the response community can make
   significant advancements in its preparedness for the real incident. Post-exercise activities
   are essential to garnering the benefits of an exercise. Careful analysis and prioritization
   should go into developing the After Action Report (AAR) recommendations and the
   Improvement Plan (IP) content.
   a. Exercise Evaluation
      The evaluation process for all operations-based exercises should include a formal
      exercise evaluation, integrated analysis, and the AAR/IP. This process begins during
      exercise planning and ends when improvements have been implemented and validated
      through subsequent exercises.
   b. Exercise Evaluation Guides
      DHS/ODP has developed Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs) to help with exercise
      evaluation. These guides incorporate the critical tasks to be completed during an
      exercise. They were developed for use both by experienced exercise evaluators and by
      practitioners who are subject matter experts (SMEs) but have little or no exercise
      evaluation experience.
       Each EEG provides evaluators with information on what they should expect to hear
       discussed, space to record their observations, and questions to consider after the
       exercise (as the first step in the analysis process). Each EEG can be used by one
       individual evaluator assigned to observe individual tasks or groups of tasks. During the
       analysis phase, evaluators combine their observations with those of the other
       evaluators. They reconstruct events, and analyze outcomes and interactions across
       agencies, disciplines, and jurisdictions to achieve broad mission outcomes. The
       responsible team (agency or discipline), function, jurisdiction, and mission outcome are
       noted on the EEG to facilitate analysis.




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  c. Improvement Plan
     The IP converts lessons learned from the exercise into concrete, measurable steps that
     result in improved response capabilities. It is developed by the jurisdiction and
     specifically details the actions that will be taken to address each recommendation
     presented in the draft AAR, who or what agency will be responsible for taking the action,
     and the timeline for completion.
  d. Improvement Tracking and Planning
     Once the IP has identified recommendations and action items and responsibility and due
     dates have been assigned, the jurisdiction and/or organization/agency should ensure
     that each action item is tracked to completion. Each response community should review
     all exercise evaluation feedback and resulting IPs to assess progress on enhancing
     preparedness and incorporate the information into its planning process.




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SECTION L—TECHNOLOGY

1. Overview
   Use of technological tools can substantially aid efforts to mitigate the impacts of a
   Transportation Security Incident (TSI). The enormous quantities of information required to
   be collected and disseminated during a response cannot be handled effectively without the
   use of computers, the Internet, automated tracking devices, and various means of
   communications including satellite, VHF (very high frequency) or UHF (ultra high frequency),
   cellular voice communications, and e-mail.
   The personnel staffing the Unified Command (UC), including the Operations, Planning, and
   Logistics sections, and field personnel, should all have access to the latest communications,
   tracking, and information dissemination tools in order to carry out an effective response.
   These tools (computers and associated hardware and software, tracking devices, and
   communications) need to be procured, developed, tested, supported, and ready to deploy
   prior to a response. Additionally, regional charts, maps, aerial photos, and resource listings
   all need to be obtained and loaded into a MTR Network in advance.
   This section of the MTR Plan briefly outlines various technological tools that should be
   evaluated, procured, tested, operated, maintained, and supported in advance of a response.
   Due to the recognition that technological tools are a “force multiplier,” there is a separate
   Volume IV of the MTR Plan that presents information on the application and use of existing
   technologies to aid first responders. Technology “Readiness” is also discussed in Section M
   of this Volume of the Plan.




                       Figure L1—The various Technological Components of MTR




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2. Technological Program
   A Technology Team should be established to manage the Technology Program and to:
          Evaluate and inventory the technological tools presently available in the region
          Identify additional technological tools that will assist response efforts
          Select and identify means of procuring technological tools (computers, software,
          communications, remote sensors, tracking devices, etc.)
          Maintain technology equipment, software, and databases
          Identify, train, and ensure availability of technicians to set up, maintain, and operate
          the technological tools, including support of a redundant server system to host the
          MTR Network when procured

3. Technological Tools
   The following available, and in many cases Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS), technology
   should be evaluated, procured as appropriate and supported to aid emergency response
   efforts.
          Automated “notification system” to rapidly disseminate information, verify, and track
          receipt of information by designated key parties and provide amplifying information
          via the Web. (See Figure L2 at the end of this section.)
          Automated MARSEC increase notification and tracking system that communicates to
          the marine facilities and vessels the increase of security required to provide
          increased protection from further attacks and verify which facilities have taken the
          actions outlined in their Security Plans. (See Figure L3 at the end of this section.)
          Interoperable communications: See Section H (Communications) in this Volume of
          the Plan.
          Computers and required software to support command posts along with display
          projectors, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panels, WiFi (wireless Internet) systems,
          and wireless cell phone or alternative Internet access system to allow connection to
          the Internet without the need to connect to phone, DSL, cable, or T1 lines.
          A secure, password protected MTR Network that is pre-loaded with ICS forms,
          maps, charts, aerial photos, facility and vessel information, resource data bases,
          contact lists, and other information. See Volume IV for more information on the MTR
          Network components and Figures L4 and L5 at the end of this section.
          Real-time satellite, cell, and/or AIS (VHF-based Automated Identification System)
          resource tracking systems to track the locations of critical maritime and terrestrial
          response resources including special teams. See Volume IV for more information on
          the Automated Secure Resource Tracking System (ASRTS).
          Technology “Ready Kits” with computers, scanners, WiFi, software, digital cameras,
          projectors, and LCD panels for deployment to command posts.
          Software programs that provide trajectory analysis for chemical, biological,
          radiological and nuclear releases as well as comprehensive information on various
          chemicals.




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                          Figure L2—Initial Notification and Tracking System




                        Figure L3—MARSEC Notification and Tracking System




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                      Figure L4—MTR Network Presentation of ICS Forms




               Figure L5—MTR Network Presentation of Real Time Vessel Tracking




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SECTION M—READINESS MEASURES

1. Discussion
   The objective of the MTR Preparedness Plan is to outline measures that should be taken by
   a response community in advance to ensure that they are adequately prepared to respond
   to a Transportation Security Incident (TSI) and minimize loss of life and property,
   environmental impacts, and disruption to the marine transportation system. In determining
   the level of preparedness, the response community, through the regional Area Maritime
   Security Committee (AMSC) and other forum(s), should assess the potential risks and
   consequences of TSI(s) and the appropriate level of preparedness. This section of the MTR
   Plan provides criteria for assessing the various levels of preparedness with the ultimate
   objective of attaining Tier 5 readiness in all five areas of preparedness, as represented by
   the “Green” area of the below “Dashboard Gauges.” The areas of preparedness are:
   a. Plan—A comprehensive, updated, distributed Plan should be developed and distributed
      that identifies the scenarios, the resource needs and helps facilitate coordinated and
      effective responses.
   b. Personnel—An adequate number of skilled personnel need to be available to carry out
      a complex response.
   c. Training—A comprehensive training program that includes periodic drills and exercises
      needs to be established and carried out.
   d. Equipment—Adequate response equipment needs to be available, operational and
      tracked and databases of these resources comprehensive and current.
   e. Technology—Computers, an MTR Network, an automated resource-tracking system,
      communications, and other technological tools are force multipliers that should be
      established in advance.
   This readiness system, referred as “TOPS” or “Terrorism Operational Preparedness
   System” is graphically depicted below. .




                               Figure M1—TOPS Dashboard Gauges




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2. Readiness Measures
  A readiness rating scale for each of the above categories is provided below to serve as
  guidance to response communities in “preparing” for TSI (Transportation Security Incident)
  or other maritime incidents. The rating scale from 1 to 5 for all categories represents
  attainment of the following number of “key readiness factors”:
         1: Red: One or none of the five “Readiness” components has been addressed
         2: Red/Yellow: Two of the five components addressed
         3: Yellow: Three of the five components addressed
         4: Yellow/Green: Four of the five components addressed
         5: Green: All of the five components addressed
  a. Plan
     The factors in determining the level of readiness that has been attained with respect to
     having an adequate Response Plan are:
          •   All the response components outlined in this MTR Plan (Volumes 1, 2, 3 and 4)
              are addressed
          •   The Plan is in place and is reviewed and updated annually
          •   Plan has been adequately distributed to all the response stakeholders and
              available on the Internet
          •   Plan vetted and approved by the Area Maritime Security Committee or other
              appropriate response organization
          •   Plan is periodically tested and validated in drills and exercises
  b. Personnel
     The factors in determining the level of Personnel readiness are:
          •   A personnel “needs assessment” has been conducted based on the potential
              risks and consequences of Transportation Security Incident(s), and as identified
              in the Plan
          •   An inventory of regional available, trained personnel has been conducted in all
              categories: public and private responders and Subject Matter Experts
          •   A “gap analysis” has identified personnel needs (quantities of trained
              personnel)
          •   A comprehensive listing of available response personnel and their various
              means of contact has been provided and incorporated into the Plans and
              notification systems
          •   A comprehensive system of maintaining records on response personnel, their
              qualifications, and their points of contact and updated annually
  c. Training
     The factors in determining the level of Training readiness are:
          •   A training “needs assessment” has been conducted based on the potential risks
              and consequences of Transportation Security Incident(s) and as identified in
              the Plan



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            •   A training program that addresses ICS, Law Enforcement, CBRNE (Chemical,
                Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives) has been developed and is
                available
            •   A Web-based “awareness” training program or other broad based efficient
                training program is available to efficiently train large numbers of responders and
                a comprehensive, hands-on training program provided for operations and
                technical level responders
            •   Training is provided on an initial and recurring basis to all responders that the
                regional assessment has identified as needing training
            •   Records of training are maintained and trained personnel provided appropriate
                training credentials
   d. Equipment
      The factors in determining the level of Equipment readiness are:
            •   A response equipment “needs assessment” has been conducted based on the
                potential risks of Transportation Security Incident(s) and a listing of response
                tools needed to address the range of potential incidents
            •   The identified required response equipment has been procured and is
                operational
            •   The response equipment is properly listed and updated in the MTR Plan
                resource inventory and activation systems
            •   The equipment is properly maintained, trained operators are available and the
                equipment and operators periodically deployed in drills and exercises
            •   The equipment has a system that allows tracking its actual location with
                additional information provided about the operational status and capabilities to
                the Unified Command
   e. Technology
      The factors in determining the level of Technology readiness are:
            •   A technological “needs assessment” has been conducted based on the
                available technological tools available and identified the additional tools needed
                to enhance emergency response
            •   A technology enhanced “notification system” is in place, updated and
                operational
            •   Interoperable communications systems are procured and available
            •   The technological tools available include computers and required software, a
                secure, password protected MTR Network real time tracking systems and
                technology “ready kits” comprised of computers, servers, wireless cards and
                other items prepared and ready for deployment to command centers
            •   Technical assist teams and documentation teams are trained and available to
                set up, operate, maintain and service the technological tools




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3. Evaluation
   The above readiness “dashboard gauges” are provided to assist planners and response
   agencies identify areas to address through planning, procurement, funding and training to
   ensure that response preparedness is established and maintained at a level appropriate for
   the risk and consequences of a TSI in that maritime region.




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SECTION N—PLAN DISSEMINATION AND SECURITY

1. Discussion
   The wide dissemination of the MTR Response Plan to appropriate response and planning
   entities is essential for aiding effective and coordinated responses to Transportation Security
   Incidents (TSIs) and other maritime incidents. This section provides guidance on distribution
   of the Plans and access to the MTR Network. Additionally, while wide-scale distribution is
   important, there is also a need to ensure that protection of Sensitive Security Information
   (SSI) is provided for. This Plan and access to the MTR Network where available, should be
   limited to those with a legitimate “need to know” so as to avoid persons intending to cause
   harm from learning of strengths and weaknesses of the response system. A vetting process
   for determining who should be provided copies, along with the issuance of user names and
   passwords for access to the MTR Network should be developed and maintained by the
   holder of the Plan. The Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) may be the best forum
   for identifying who should be provided access and managing the information dissemination
   program.

2. Dissemination
   Dissemination of Plans and providing access to the MTR Network can be done both by
   physical distribution as well as electronic distribution including access over a secure Internet
   site. These and other factors in disseminating the Plan are discussed below.
   a. Authorized Plan Holders
      The AMSC or other response committee should develop a list of port stakeholders that
      should be provided copies of the MTR Plan and provided access to MTR Network.
      Parties that are candidates to hold a copy of the Plan are:
       (i)   Coast Guard units
       (ii) Police and fire departments
       (iii) FBI representatives
       (iv) Affected city, county, and state emergency services coordinators and operations
            centers
       (v) Potentially affected or involved commercial interests (salvors, vessel and facility
           operators, and first responders)
   b. Plan Dissemination Media
      The Plans should be disseminated via the following three methods:
       (i)   Printed copies of the four-volume set
       (ii) Web-accessed copies via the MTR Network that allows downloading of updates
            and latest changes
       (iii) CD copies of the Plan volumes that allow responders to load the Plan onto their
             laptop computers, which are typically more available than documents
   c. Printed Plan Dissemination
      The four-volume MTR Plan should have varied distribution dependent on the persons or
      organizations that are requesting copies. Some organizations will need numerous


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     Volume III Field Guides while others may have no need for the Volume III Field Guides,
     as they do not have field response personnel. Similarly, Volume IV—Technology, may
     not be of interest to all users and only be of interest to technical staff of various response
     entities. The Plan distribution records should identify which volumes and how many are
     distributed to ensure that changes and updates are properly disseminated. Attachment
     N1 to this section provides a Plan dissemination template for recording this and other
     distribution information.
  d. MTR Network Access
     In addition to the printed copy of the Plan, the MTR Network should also provide access
     to the Plan, recognizing that in a majority of responses, the persons staffing the
     Command Posts and Operations Centers will not bring their copies of the Plan with
     them. In most cases, persons staffing command posts only need Volume II to carry out a
     response, as Volume I is focused on pre-response planning, Volume III is a field guide
     and the technical team should have Volume IV. All of the information in the four-volume
     MTR Plan should be Web accessible via a user name and password. Additionally, the
     MTR Network should have the most updated volumes, as well as the most
     comprehensive resource database incorporated.

3. Record Keeping
  Document control and access control should be provided to keep track of who has copies of
  the Plan and access to the MTR Network, and who should be notified of updates and
  changes. Attachment N1 to this section provides a Plan dissemination template for
  recording this and other distribution information. Attachment N2 provides additional records
  for the user name and password access to the MTR Network. Due to security concerns, the
  records on MTR Network access should be considered Sensitive Security Information and
  secured in a locked cabinet, and/or in a secured computer database, when not in use. In the
  event of an actual incident, MTR Network access will likely be provided to numerous
  response parties who have not previously been authorized access. These will be individuals
  who, in the emergency response, have a “need to know” and should be provided access
  provided there is appropriate sponsorship.
  These records should be maintained by the agency of person assigned the responsibility for
  updating and disseminating the Plan and controlling access to the MTR Plan.




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ATTACHMENT N1

MTR Plan—Record of Authorized Holders of Printed Plan and CD Plan
                                                                                                     Copies of Volume
Organization               Representative   Position   Phone Number   E-mail         I    II   III      IV   CD    Last Update




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ATTACHMENT N2

  MTR Network—Record of Persons Authorized Access
  Note: This record, when information is listed, is considered Sensitive Security Information and should be stored in a secure
  container and/or a secure computer system
  Name        Position       Organization           Phone        E-mail      User Name         Password           Access Level




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SECTION O: ACRONYMS
AAR           After Action Report                      CB/RRT     Chemical and Biological Rapid
A&E           Apparatus and Equipment                             Response Team
ABC           Airway, Breathing, and Circulation       CBIRF      Chemical and Biological Incident
ABS           Arson and Bomb Squad (SPD)                          Response Force
ACF           Alternative Care Facility                CBO        Community-Based Organization
ACP           Area Contingency Plan (for oil spill     CBRNE      Chemical, Biological, Radiological,
              response)                                           Nuclear, or High Yield Explosive
ADIOS         Automated Data Injury for Oil            CCC        Crisis Coordination Center
              Spills                                   CCP        Casualty Collection Point
AFRAT         Air Force Radiological                   CDC        Centers for Disease Control
              Assessment Team                          CDRG       Catastrophic Disaster Response
AHPA          Animal Health and Protection Act                    Group
AIS           Automated Identification System          CEMNET     Comprehensive Emergency
ALOHA         Aerial Locations of Hazardous                       Management Network
              Atmospheres                              CEMP       Comprehensive Emergency
ALS           Advanced Life Support                               Management Plan
AMS           Aerial Measuring System                  CEPPO      Chemical Emergency
AMSC          Area Maritime Security Committee                    Preparedness and Prevention
AMSP          Area Maritime Security Plan                         Office (EPA)
ANG           Air National Guard                       CERCLA     Comprehensive Environmental
AOR           Area of Responsibility                              Response, Compensation, and
APHIS         Animal and Plant Health                             Liability Act
              Inspection Service                       CERT       Community Emergency Response
APR           Air Purifying Respirator                            Team
ARAC          Atmospheric Release Advisory             CFR        Code of Federal Regulations
              Capability                               CHEMTREC   Chemical Transportation
ARC           American Red Cross                                  Emergency Center
ARES          Amateur Radio Emergency                  CI/KR      Critical Infrastructure/Key
              Services                                            Resources
ARNG          Army National Guard                      CIA        Central Intelligence Agency
ART           Apparatus Response Team                  CID        Criminal Investigation Division
ATF           Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms           CIH        Certified Industrial Hygienist
ATSDR         Agency for Toxic Substances and          CIMS       Critical Incident Management
              Disease Registry (USPHS)                            System
BATF          Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and            CIMST      Critical Incident Management
              Firearms                                            Support Team
BLS           Basic Life Support                       CINC       Commander-in-Chief
BNICE         Biological, Nuclear, Incendiary,         CIP        Critical Infrastructure Protection
              Chemical, Explosive                      CIRG       Critical Incident Response Group
C2            Command and Control                      CISD       Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
C3            Command, Control, and                    CISM       Critical Incident Stress
              Communication                                       Management
C3I           Command, Control,                        CM         Consequence Management
              Communication, and Intelligence          CMAT       Consequence Management
C4            Command, Control,                                   Advisory Team
              Communication, and Coordination          CMC        Crisis Management Coordinator
CADD          Computer Aided Design and                CME        Chief Medical Examiner
              Drafting                                 CMG        Consequence Management Group
CAM           Chemical Agent Monitor                   CMHT       Consequence Management Home
CAMEO         Computer-Aided Management of                        Team (DOE)
              Emergency Operations (EPA)               CMO        Consequence Management
CART          Chemical Agent Response Team                        Official
CAT           Crisis Action Team


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CMPT          Consequence Management                 DIA           Defense Intelligence Agency
              Planning Team (DOE)                    DMAT          Disaster Medical Assistance Team
CMRT          Consequence Management                 DMAT          Disaster Management Assist
              Response Team (DOE)                                  Team
CMU           Crisis Management Unit                 DMORT         Disaster Mortuary Operational
CNU           Crisis Negotiations Unit (FBI)                       Response Team
COA           Courses of Action                      DOC           Department Operations Center
COBRA         Chemical Ordnance Biological           DOC           Department of Commerce
              Radiological Antiterrorism             DOD           Department of Defense
COG           Continuity of Government               DOE           Department of Energy
CONOPS        Concept of Operations                  DOE NEST      Department of Energy Nuclear
CONPLAN       Concept of Operations Plan                           Emergency Support Team
CONUS         Continental United States              DOE RAP       Department of Energy
COOP          Continuity of Operations                             Radiological Assistance Program
COTP          Captain of the Port                    DOE-NLs       Department of Energy National
CP            Command Post                                         Laboratories
CPAS          Cellular Priority Access Service       DOH           Department of Health
CPB           Customs and Border Protection          DOI           Department of the Interior
CPX           Command Post Exercise (same as         DOJ           Department of Justice
              Functional Exercise—FEX)               DOL           Department of Labor
CRC           Crisis Response Cell                   DOMS          Director of Military Support
CSD/WMD       Civil Support Detachment for           DOS           Department of State
              Weapons of Mass Destruction            DOT           Department of Transportation
CSG           Counterterrorism Security Group        DPMU          Disaster Portable Morgue Unit
CSO           Company Security Officer               DSCA          Defense Support of Civil
CSP           Certified Safety Professional                        Authorities
CST           Civil Support Teams (National          EAP           Emergency Assistance Personnel
              Guard)                                 EAS           Emergency Alert System
CT            Counterterrorism                       ECC           Emergency Communications
CTC           Counterterrorism Center                              Center
CVTS          Cooperative Vessel Traffic Service     ECOT          Emergency Communications and
CW            Chemical Warfare                                     Outreach Team (EPA)
CWA           Chemical Warfare Agent                 EEG           Exercise Evaluation Guide
CWIRP         Chemical Weapons Improved              EMA           Emergency Management Agency
              Response Program                       EMD           Emergency Management Division
DCE           Defense Coordinating Element           EMS           Emergency Medical Services
DCI           Director of Central Intelligence       EMSL          Environmental Monitoring Systems
DCO           Defense Coordinating Office(r)                       Laboratory (EPA)
DEA           Drug Enforcement Agency                EMT           Emergency Medical Technician
DECON         Decontamination                        EO            Executive Order
DEM           Division of Emergency                  EOC           Emergency Operations Center
              Management                             EOD           Explosive Ordnance Disposal
DEST          Domestic Emergency Support             EOP           Emergency Operations Plan
              Team                                   EPA           U.S. Environmental Protection
DGMQ          Division of Global Migration and                     Agency
              Quarantine (CDC)                       EPA ERT       U.S. Environmental Protection
DHHS          Department of Health and Human                       Agency Environmental Response
              Services                                             Team
DHS           Department of Homeland Security        EPCRA         Emergency Planning and
DHS-BTS       DHS Border and Transportation                        Community Right-to-Know Act
              Security Directorate                   EPD           Electronic Personal Dosimeter
DHS-EPR       DHS Emergency Preparedness             EPIC          Environmental Photographic
              and Response Directorate                             Interpretation Center (EPA)
DHS-IAIP      DHS Information Analysis and           EPLO          Emergency Preparedness Liaison
              Infrastructure Protection                            Officer
              Directorate


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EPO           Epidemiology Program Office          GIS        Geographic Information System
              (CDC)                                GNOME      General NOAA Oil Modeling
ER            Emergency Room                                  Environment
ERC           Environmental Response Center        GPS        Global Positioning System
              (EPA)                                GSA        General Services Administration
ERC           Emergency Response Coordinator       HAN        Health Alert Network
              (ATSDR)                              HAZCAT     Hazard Categorization Test
ERP           Emergency Response Plan              HAZMAT     Hazardous Materials
ERT           Emergency Recovery Team (FBI)        HAZWOPER   Hazardous Waste Operations and
ERT           Emergency Response Team                         Emergency Response
              (FEMA)                               HHS        Department of Health and Human
ERT           Environmental Response Team                     Services
              (EPA)                                HMRT       Hazardous Materials Response
ERTU          Evidence Response Team Unit                     Team
              (FBI)                                HMRU       Hazardous Materials Response
ESCC          Epidemic Support Coordination                   Unit (FBI)
              Center                               HRT        Hostage Rescue Team (FBI)
ESF           Emergency Support Function           HRT        Health Response Team (OSHA)
ESFLG         ESF Leaders Group                    HSAS       Homeland Security Advisory
EST           Emergency Support Team                          System
ETA           Estimated Time of Arrival            HSC        Homeland Security Council
FAA           Federal Aviation Administration      HSEEP      Homeland Security Exercise and
FAC           Fire Alarm Center (SFD Dispatch)                Evaluation Program
FBI           Federal Bureau of Investigation      HSOC       Homeland Security Operations
FCC           Federal Coordinating Center                     Center
FCC           Federal Communications               HSP        Homeland Security Program
              Commission                           HSPD       Homeland Security Presidential
FCM           Federal Communications Manager                  Directive
FCO           Federal Coordinating Office(r)       HUD        Housing and Urban Development
FD            Fire Department                      IAP        Incident Action Plan
FDA           Food and Drug Administration         IBRRC      International Bird Rescue
FECC          Federal Emergency                               Research Center
              Communications Coordinator           IC         Incident Command or Incident
FEMA          Federal Emergency Management                    Commander
              Agency                               ICE        Immigration and Customs
FEST          Foreign Emergency Support Team                  Enforcement
FEX           Functional Exercise                  ICP        Incident Command Post
FFPE          Firefighter Protective Ensemble      ICS        Incident Command System
FID           Flame Ionization Detector            ICS/UC     Incident Command System/Unified
FIRST         Federal Incident Response                       Command
              Support Team                         ICU        Intensive Care Unit
FMSC          Federal Maritime Security            ID         Infectious Disease
              Coordinator                          IDLH       Immediate Danger to Life or
FOC           FEMA Operations Center                          Health
FOG           Field Operations Guide               IED        Improvised Explosive Device
FOIA          Freedom of Information Act           IMT        Incident Management Team
FOSC          Federal On-Scene Coordinator         IO         Information Officer
FPS           Federal Protective Service           IONS       Incident of National Significance
FRC           Federal Resource Coordinator         IP         Improvement Plan
FSO           Facility Security Officer            IR         Infrared
FSE           Full Scale Exercise                  IST        Incident Support Team
GAO           General Accounting Office            JFO        Joint Field Office
GAR           Governor's Authorized                JIC        Joint Information Center
              Representative                       JIS        Joint Information System
GETS          Government Emergency                 JOC        Joint Operations Center
              Telecommunications Service           JTOT       Joint Technical Operations Team


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JTTF          Joint Terrorism Task Force             NEST          Nuclear Emergency Support Team
LE            Law enforcement                                      (DOE)
LFA           Lead Federal Agency                    NFPA          National Fire Protection
LNO           Liaison Officer                                      Association
MAC           Multi-Agency Coordinating              NG            National Guard
MACS          Multi-Agency Coordination System       NGO           Non-governmental Organization
MARAD         Maritime Administration                NICC          National Infrastructure
MARSEC        Maritime Security                                    Coordinating Center
MATTS         Mobile Air Transportable               NICC          National Interagency Coordination
              Telecommunications System                            Center
MCI           Mass Casualty Incident                 NIFC          National Interagency Fire Cache
MCP           Mobile Command Post                    NIH           National Institutes of Health
ME            Medical Examiner                       NIMS          National Incident Management
MERRT         Medical Emergency Radiological                       System
              Response Team (VA)                     NIOSH         National Institute for Occupational
MERS          Mobile Emergency Response                            Safety and Health (CDC)
              Support (FEMA)                         NIRT          Nuclear Incident Response Team
MMC           Mass Medication Complex                NJTTF         National Joint Terrorism Task
              (Center)                                             Force
MMF           Mass Medication Facility               NMCC          National Military Command Center
MMRS          Metropolitan Medical Response          NMFS          National Marine Fisheries Service
              System (DHS/FEMA)                                    (NOAA)
MMST          Metropolitan Medical Strike Team       NNSA          National Nuclear Security
MOA           Memorandum of Agreement                              Administration
MOU           Memorandum of Understanding            NOAA          National Oceanographic and
MSL           Marine Safety Lab                                    Atmospheric Administration
MSST          Marine Safety and Security Team        NPFC          National Pollution Funds Center
              (USCG)                                               (USCG)
MST           Management Support Team                NPS           National Pharmaceutical Stockpile
MSU           Management Support Unit                NRAT          National Radiological Advisory
MTSA          Maritime Transportation Security                     Team
              Act of 2002                            NRC           Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NASA          National Aeronautics and Space         NRC           National Response Center
              Administration                         NRCC          National Response Coordination
NATO          North Atlantic Treaty Organization                   Center
NAWAS         National Warning System                NRDA          Natural Resource Damage
NBC           Nuclear, Biological, and/or                          Assessment
              Chemical                               NRP           National Response Plan
NCEH          National Center for Environmental      NRS           National Response System
              Health                                 NRT           National Response Team
NCERT         National Counter-Terrorism             NSA           National Security Agency
              Evidence Response Team (EPA)           NSF           National Strike Force (USCG)
NCID          National Center for Infectious         NSP           National Search and Rescue Plan
              Diseases                               NSSE          National Special Security Event
NCP           National Oil and Hazardous             NTSB          National Transportation Safety
              Substances Pollution Contingency                     Board
              Plan                                   NWS           National Weather Service
NCS           National Communications System         OCEFT         Office of Criminal Enforcement,
NCSA          National Center for                                  Forensics, and Training (EPA)
              Supercomputing Applications            OCME          Office of the Chief Medical
NCTC          National Counterterrorism Center                     Examiner
NDAA          National Defense Authorization         OCONUS        Outside the Continental United
              Act                                                  States
NDMS          National Disaster Medical System       ODP           Office of Domestic Preparedness
NDPO          National Domestic Preparedness         OECA          Office of Enforcement,
              Office                                               Compliance, and Assurance (EPA)


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OEM           Office of Emergency Management         REOC        Regional Emergency Operations
OEO           Office of Emergency Operations                     Center (HHS)
              (DOE)                                  REPLO       Regional Emergency
OEP           Office of Emergency                                Preparedness Liaison Officer
              Preparedness                           RERP        Radiological Emergency
OER           Office of Emergency Response                       Response Plan (EPA)
              (HHS)                                  RERT        Radiological Emergency
OGC           Office of the General Counsel                      Response Team (EPA)
OHS           Office of Homeland Security            RFA         Request for Federal Assistance
OPA           Oil Pollution Act                      RMC         Resource Management Center
OSC           On-Scene Commander (FBI or                         (SFD)
              USCG)                                  RNAT        Rapid Needs Assessment Team
OSC           On-Scene Coordinator (EPA or                       (FEMA)
              USCG)                                  ROC         Regional Operations Center
OSD           Office of the Secretary of Defense     ROSS        Resource Ordering & Status
OSHA          Occupational Safety and Health                     System
              Administration                         ROV         Remotely Operated Vehicle
OSI           Office of Special Investigations       RRC         Regional Response Center (EPA)
OSRO          Oil Spill Recovery Organizations       RRCC        Regional Response Coordination
OSTLF         Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund                     Center
PAO           Public Affairs Office(r)               RRIS        Rapid Response Information
PCC           Poison Control Center                              System (FEMA)
PD            Police Department                      RRT         Regional Response Team
PDD           Presidential Decision Directive        RSPA        Research and Special Programs
PED           Presidential Emergency                             Administration
              Declaration                            SAC         Special Agent-in-Charge (FBI)
PFO           Principal Federal Official             SAR         Search and Rescue
PHS           Public Health Service                  SARA        Superfund Amendments and
PIO           Public Information Officer                         Reauthorization Act
POC           Point of Contact                       SARS        Severe Acute Respiratory
POLREP        Pollution Report                                   Syndrome
POSSE         Program of Ship Salvage                SCBA        Self-Contained Breathing
              Engineering                                        Apparatus
POTUS         President of the United States         SCO         State Coordinating Officer
PPE           Personal Protective Equipment          SECDEF      Secretary of Defense
PR            Public Relations                       SECENERGY   Secretary of Energy
PSA           Public Safety/Service                  SECNAV      Secretary of the Navy
              Announcement                           SEF         State Emergency Function
PSMFC         Puget Sound Marine Firefighting        SEOC        State Emergency Operations
              Commission                                         Center
PST           Pacific Strike Team (USCG)             SFD         Seattle Fire Department
RAID          Rapid Assessment and Initial           SFLEO       Senior Federal Law Enforcement
              Detection                                          Official
RAMP          Remedial Action Management             SFO         Senior Federal Official
              Program                                SIPRNET     Secret Internet Protocol Routing
RAP           Radiological Assistance Program                    Network
              (DOE)                                  SITREP      Situation Report
RCP           Regional Contingency Plan              SLUDGE-M    Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination,
RCRA          Resource Conservation and                          Defecation, Gastro-intestinal,
              Recovery Act                                       Emesis, Miosis
RDD           Radiological Dispersal Device          SMART       Special Monitoring of Advanced
RDLU          Rapid Deployment Logistics Unit                    Response Technologies
              (FBI)                                  SMC         SAR Mission Coordinator
REAC          Radiation Emergency Assistance         SME         Subject Matter Expert
              Center                                 SNS         Strategic National Stockpile



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SO or SSO     Safety Officer or Site Safety             USC            U.S. Code
              Officer                                   USCA           U.S. Code Annotated
SOP           Standard Operating Procedure              USCG           U.S. Coast Guard
SPD           Seattle Police Department                 USCG NSF       U.S. Coast Guard National Strike
SPOC          Seattle Police Operations Center                         Force
SSC           Scientific Support Coordinator            USDA           U.S. Department of Agriculture
SSI           Sensitive Security Information            USFA           U.S. Fire Administration
SUPSALV       Supervisor of Salvage and Diving          USFS           U.S. Forest Service
              (U.S. Navy)                               USFWS          U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
SWAT          Special Weapons and Tactics                              (DOI)
TCC           Transportable Communications              USMC           U.S. Marine Corps
              Center                                    USPHS          U.S. Public Health Service
TFR           Temporary Flight Restriction              USSS           US Secret Service
TOC           Tactical Operations Center                VATS           Vessel and Terminal Security
TOPS          Terrorism Operational                     VHF-FM         Very High Frequency–Frequency
              Preparedness System                                      Modulation
TRIS          Tri-County Radio Interoperability         VIN            Vehicle Identification Number
              System                                    VMAT           Veterinarian Medical Assistance
TSA           Transportation Security                                  Team
              Administration                            VMI            Vendor Managed Inventory
TSI           Transportation Security Incident          VSO            Vessel Security Officer
TSP           Telecommunications Service                VSP            Vessel Sanitation Program (CDC)
              Priority                                  VTC            Video Teleconferencing
TTX           Tabletop Exercise                         VTS            Vessel Traffic Service
UASI          Urban Area Security Initiative            WADOH          Washington State Department of
UC            Unified Command                                          Health
US&R          Urban Search and Rescue                   WANG           Washington Army National Guard
USACE         U.S. Army Corps of Engineers              WAP            Wireless Application Protocol
USAF          US Air Force                              WAWAS          Washington Area Warning System
USAMRICD      U.S. Army Medical Research                WMD            Weapon(s) of Mass Destruction
              Institute of Chemical Defense             WPS            Wireless Priority Service
USAMRIID      U.S. Army Medical Research                WSDOT          Washington State Department of
              Institute of Infectious Diseases                         Transportation
USANG         U.S. Army National Guard                  WSP            Washington State Patrol
USAO          U.S. Attorney’s Office




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SECTION P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
   Agency                   A division of government with a specific function offering a particular kind of
                            assistance. In ICS, agencies are defined either as jurisdictional (having
                            statutory responsibility for incident management) or as assisting or
                            cooperating (providing resources or other assistance).
   Agency Representative    A person assigned by a primary, assisting, or cooperating federal, state,
                            local, or tribal government agency or private entity that has been delegated
                            authority to make decisions affecting that agency’s or organization’s
                            participation in incident management activities following appropriate
                            consultation with the leadership of that agency.
   Area Command (Unified    An organization established (1) to oversee the management of multiple
   Area Command)            incidents that are each being handled by an ICS organization or (2) to
                            oversee the management of large or multiple incidents to which several
                            Incident Management Teams have been assigned. Area Command has the
                            responsibility to set overall strategy and priorities, allocate critical resources
                            according to priorities, ensure that incidents are properly managed, and
                            ensure that objectives are met and strategies followed. Area Command
                            becomes Unified Area Command when incidents are multi-jurisdictional.
                            Area Command may be established at an EOC facility or at some location
                            other than an ICP.
   Area Contingency Plan    The plan prepared by an Area Committee in part to address removal of a
   (ACP)                    WCD and to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of such a discharge
                            from a vessel, offshore facility, or onshore facility operating in or near an
                            area designated by the President of the United States.
   Area Maritime Security   The committee established pursuant to the Maritime Transportation Security
   Committee (AMSC)         Act (specifically 46 U.S.C. 70112(a)(2)(A)). The AMSC is established under
                            the direction of the COTP and shall assist in the development, review, and
                            update of the AMSP for their area of responsibility.
   Area Maritime Security   The plan developed by the AMSC pursuant to the Maritime Transportation
   Plan (AMSP)              Security Act (specifically 46 U.S.C. 70103(b)). The Area Maritime Security
                            (AMS) Plan is developed by the COTP, in consultation with the AMSC, and
                            is based on an Area Maritime Security Assessment that meets the
                            provisions of subpart D of Title 33 Code of Federal Regulations Part 103.
   Available Resources      Resources assigned to an incident, checked in, and available for use,
                            normally located in a Staging Area.
   Awareness                The continual process of collecting, analyzing, and disseminating
                            intelligence, information, and knowledge to allow organizations and
                            individuals to anticipate requirements and to react effectively.
   Captain of the Port      The Coast Guard officer designated by the Commandant to command a
                            Captain of the Port Zone as described in Part 3 of Title 33 Code of Federal
                            Regulations.
   Captain of the Port      A zone specified in Title 33 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 3 and, for
   (COTP) Zone              coastal ports, the seaward extension of that zone to the outer boundary of
                            the EEZ.
   Casualty                 Any person who is declared dead or is missing, ill, or injured.




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   Catastrophic Incident   Any natural or manmade incident, including terrorism, that results in
                           extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely
                           affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national
                           morale, and/or government functions. A catastrophic event could result in
                           sustained national impacts over a prolonged period of time; almost
                           immediately exceeds resources normally available to state, local, tribal, and
                           private-sector authorities in the impacted area; and significantly interrupts
                           governmental operations and emergency services to such an extent that
                           national security could be threatened. All catastrophic events are Incidents
                           of National Significance.
   Chain of Command        A series of command, control, executive, or management positions in
                           hierarchical order of authority.
   Civil Transportation    The total quantity of privately owned transportation services, equipment,
   Capacity                facilities, and systems from all transportation modes nationally or in a
                           prescribed area or region.
   Coastal Zone            As defined by the NCP, means all U.S. waters subject to tide, U.S. waters of
                           the Great Lakes, specified ports and harbors on inland rivers, waters of the
                           contiguous zone, other water of the high seas subject to the NCP, and the
                           land surface or land substrata, ground waters, and ambient air proximal to
                           those waters. The term “coastal zone” delineates an area of federal
                           responsibility for response action. Precise boundaries are determined by
                           EPA/USCG agreements and identified in RCPs.
   Command Staff           In an incident management organization, the Command Staff consists of the
                           Incident Command and the special staff positions of Public Information
                           Officer, Safety Officer, Liaison Officer, and other positions as required, who
                           report directly to the Incident Commander. They may have an assistant or
                           assistants, as needed.
   Common Operating        A broad view of the overall situation as reflected by situation reports, aerial
   Picture (COP)           photography, and other information or intelligence.
   Community Recovery      In the context of the NRP and its annexes, the process of assessing the
                           effects of an Incident of National Significance, defining resources, and
                           developing and implementing a course of action to restore and revitalize the
                           socioeconomic and physical structure of a community.
   Consequence             Predominantly an emergency management function and includes measures
   Management              to protect public health and safety, restore essential government services,
                           and provide emergency relief to governments, businesses, and individuals
                           affected by the consequences of terrorism. The requirements of
                           consequence management and crisis management are combined in the
                           NRP. See also Crisis Management.
   Cooperative Vessel      The system of vessel traffic management established and jointly operated by
   Traffic Service         the United States and Canada within adjoining waters. In addition, CVTS
                           facilitates traffic movement and anchorages, avoids jurisdictional disputes,
                           and renders assistance in emergencies occurring in adjoining United States
                           and Canadian waters.
   Contiguous Zone         The zone of the high seas established by the United States under Article 24
                           of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone that is
                           contiguous to the territorial sea and that extends 9 miles seaward from the
                           outer limit of the territorial sea.
   Credible Threat         A potential terrorist threat that, based on a threat assessment, is credible
                           and likely to involve WMD.



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   Crisis Management          Predominantly a law enforcement function and included measures to
                              identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate,
                              prevent, and/or resolve a threat or act of terrorism. The requirements of
                              consequence management and crisis management are combined in the
                              NRP. See also Consequence Management.
   Critical Infrastructures   Systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the United States
                              that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a
                              debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public
                              health or safety, or any combination of those matters.
   Cultural Resources         Cultural resources include historic and prehistoric structures, archeological
                              sites, cultural landscapes, and museum collections.
   Defense Support of Civil   Refers to DOD support, including federal military forces, DOD civilians and
   Authorities (DSCA)         DOD contractor personnel, and DOD agencies and components, for
                              domestic emergencies and for designated law enforcement and other
                              activities.
   Deputy                     A fully qualified individual who, in the absence of a superior, could be
                              delegated the authority to manage a functional operation or perform a
                              specific task. In some cases, a deputy could act as relief for a superior and
                              therefore must be fully qualified in the position. Deputies can be assigned to
                              the Incident Commander, General Staff, and Branch Directors.
   Disaster                   See Major Disaster.
   Disaster Recovery          A facility established in a centralized location within or near the disaster area
   Center (DRC)               at which disaster victims (individuals, families, or businesses) apply for
                              disaster aid.
   District Commander         The Coast Guard officer designated by the Commandant of the U.S. Coast
                              Guard to command a Coast Guard District as described in Part 3 of Title 33
                              Code of Federal Regulations.
   District Response Group    Established in each DHS/USCG District, the District Response Group is
                              primarily responsible for providing the OSC technical assistance, personnel,
                              and equipment during responses typically involving marine zones.
   Emergency                  As defined by the Stafford Act, an emergency is “any occasion or instance
                              for which, in the determination of the President, federal assistance is needed
                              to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to
                              protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat
                              of a catastrophe in any part of the United States.”
   Emergency Operations       The physical location at which the coordination of information and resources
   Center (EOC)               to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. An
                              EOC may be a temporary facility or may be located in a more central or
                              permanently established facility, perhaps at a higher level of organization
                              within a jurisdiction. EOCs may be organized by major functional disciplines
                              (e.g., fire, law enforcement, and medical services), by jurisdiction (e.g.,
                              federal, state, regional, county, city, tribal), or by some combination thereof.
   Emergency Operations       The “steady-state” plan maintained by various jurisdictional levels for
   Plan (EOP)                 managing a wide variety of potential hazards.
   Emergency Public           Information that is disseminated primarily in anticipation of an emergency or
   Information                during an emergency. In addition to providing situational information to the
                              public, it also frequently provides directive actions required to be taken by
                              the general public.




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   Emergency Response     Includes federal, state, local, and tribal emergency public safety, law
   Provider               enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical (including hospital
                          emergency facilities), and related personnel, agencies, and authorities. (See
                          section 2(6), Homeland Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, 116 Stat.
                          2135 (2002).) Also known as “emergency responder.”
   Emergency Support      A grouping of government and certain private-sector capabilities into an
   Function (ESF)         organizational structure to provide the support, resources, program
                          implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed to save lives,
                          protect property and the environment, restore essential services and critical
                          infrastructure, and help victims and communities return to normal, when
                          feasible, following domestic incidents. The ESFs serve as the primary
                          operational-level mechanism to provide assistance to state, local, and tribal
                          governments or to federal departments and agencies conducting missions of
                          primary federal responsibility.
   Emerging Infectious    New or recurring infectious diseases of people, domestic animals, and/or
   Diseases               wildlife, including identification, etiology, pathogenesis, zoonotic potential,
                          and ecological impact.
   Environment            Natural and cultural resources and historic properties as those terms are
                          defined in this glossary and in relevant laws.
   Environmental          Established by the EPA, the Environmental Response Team includes
   Response Team          expertise in biology, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and engineering. The
                          Environmental Response Team provides technical advice and assistance to
                          the OSC for both planning and response to discharges and releases of oil
                          and hazardous substances into the environment.
   Evacuation             Organized, phased, and supervised withdrawal, dispersal, or removal of
                          civilians from dangerous or potentially dangerous areas, and their reception
                          and care in safe areas.
   Exclusive Economic     The zone contiguous to the territorial seas of the United States, extending to
   Zone (EEZ)             a distance up to 200 nautical miles from the baseline from which the breadth
                          of the territorial seas is measured.
   Facility Management    Facility selection and acquisition, building services, information systems,
                          communications, safety and health, and physical security.
   Federal Coordinating   The federal officer who is appointed to manage federal resource support
   Officer (FCO)          activities related to Stafford Act disasters and emergencies. The FCO is
                          responsible for coordinating the timely delivery of federal disaster assistance
                          resources and programs to the affected state and local governments,
                          individual victims, and the private sector.
   Federal Emergency      The person assigned by GSA who functions as the principal federal
   Communications         manager for emergency telecommunications requirements in major
   Coordinator (FECC)     disasters, emergencies, and extraordinary situations, when requested by the
                          FCO or FRC.
   Federal Maritime       The COTPs are designated the FMSCs for their respective COTP zones
   Security Coordinator   described in 33 CFR Part 3, including all ports and area located therein.
   Federal On-Scene       The federal official predesignated by the EPA or the USCG to coordinate
   Coordinator (FOSC or   responses under subpart D of the NCP, or the government official
   OSC)                   designated to coordinate and direct removal actions under subpart E of the
                          NCP.




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   Federal Resource        The federal official appointed to manage federal resource support activities
   Coordinator (FRC)       related to non-Stafford Act incidents. The FRC is responsible for
                           coordinating support from other federal departments and agencies using
                           interagency agreements and MOUs.
   First Responder         Local and nongovernmental police, fire, and emergency personnel who in
                           the early stages of an incident are responsible for the protection and
                           preservation of life, property, evidence, and the environment, including
                           emergency response providers as defined in section 2 of the Homeland
                           Security Act of 2002 (6 U.S.C. 101), as well as emergency management,
                           public health, clinical care, public works, and other skilled support personnel
                           (such as equipment operators) who provide immediate support services
                           during prevention, response, and recovery operations. First responders may
                           include personnel from federal, state, local, tribal, or nongovernmental
                           organizations.
   Hazard                  Something that is potentially dangerous or harmful, often the root cause of
                           an unwanted outcome.
   Hazard Mitigation       Any cost-effective measure that will reduce the potential for damage to a
                           facility from a disaster event.
   Hazardous Material      For the purposes of ESF #1, hazardous material is a substance or material,
                           including a hazardous substance, that has been determined by the
                           Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to
                           health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and which has
                           been so designated (see 49 CFR 171.8). For the purposes of ESF #10 and
                           the Oil and Hazardous Materials Incident Annex, the term is intended to
                           mean hazardous substances, pollutants, and contaminants as defined by
                           the NCP.
   Hazardous Substance     As defined by the NCP, any substance designated pursuant to section
                           311(b)(2)(A) of the Clean Water Act; any element, compound, mixture,
                           solution, or substance designated pursuant to section 102 of the
                           Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
                           (CERCLA); any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under
                           or listed pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (but not
                           including any waste the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal
                           Act (42 U.S.C. § 6901 et seq.) has been suspended by act of Congress);
                           any toxic pollutant listed under section 307(a) of the Clean Water Act; any
                           hazardous air pollutant listed under section 112 of the Clean Air Act (42
                           U.S.C. § 7521 et seq.); and any imminently hazardous chemical substance
                           or mixture with respect to which the EPA Administrator has taken action
                           pursuant to section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. § 2601
                           et seq.).
   Incident                An occurrence or event, natural or caused by a human, that requires an
                           emergency response to protect life or property. Incidents can, for example,
                           include major disasters, emergencies, terrorist attacks, terrorist threats,
                           wildland and urban fires, floods, hazardous materials spills, nuclear
                           accidents, aircraft accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tropical
                           storms, war-related disasters, public health and medical emergencies, and
                           other occurrences requiring an emergency response.
   Incident Action Plan    An oral or written plan containing general objectives reflecting the overall
                           strategy for managing an incident. It may include the identification of
                           operational resources and assignments. It may also include attachments
                           that provide direction and important information for management of the
                           incident during one or more operational periods.


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   Incident Command Post    The field location at which the primary tactical-level, on-scene incident
   (ICP)                    command functions are performed. The ICP may be collocated with the
                            incident base or other incident facilities and is normally identified by a green
                            rotating or flashing light.
   Incident Command         A standardized on-scene emergency management construct specifically
   System (ICS)             designed to provide for the adoption of an integrated organizational structure
                            that reflects the complexity and demands of single or multiple incidents,
                            without being hindered by jurisdictional boundaries. ICS is the combination
                            of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications
                            operating with a common organizational structure, designed to aid in the
                            management of resources during incidents. ICS is used for all kinds of
                            emergencies and is applicable to small as well as large and complex
                            incidents. ICS is used by various jurisdictions and functional agencies, both
                            public and private, or organized field-level incident management operations.
   Incident Commander       The individual responsible for all incident activities, including the
   (IC)                     development of strategies and tactics and the ordering and release of
                            resources. The IC has overall authority and responsibility for conducting
                            incident operations and is responsible for the management of all incident
                            operations at the incident site.
   Incident Management      The Incident Commander and appropriate Command and General Staff
   Team (IMT)               personnel assigned to an incident.
   Incident Mitigation      Actions taken during an incident designed to minimize impacts or contain the
                            damages to property or the environment.
   Incident of National     Based on criteria established in HSPD-5 (paragraph 4), an actual or
   Significance (IONS)      potential high-impact event that requires a coordinated and effective
                            response by and appropriate combination of federal, state, local, tribal,
                            nongovernmental, and/or private-sector entities in order to save lives and
                            minimize damage, and provide the basis for long-term community recovery
                            and mitigation activities.
   Information Officer      See Public Information Officer.
   Infrastructure           The manmade physical systems, assets, projects, and structures, publicly
                            and/or privately owned, that are used by or provide benefit to the public.
                            Examples of infrastructure include utilities, bridges, levees, drinking water
                            systems, electrical systems, communications systems, dams, sewage
                            systems, and roads.
   Infrastructure Liaison   Assigned by DHS/IAIP, the Infrastructure Liaison serves as the principal
                            advisor to the JFO Coordination Group regarding all national- and regional-
                            level critical infrastructure and key resources incident-related issues.
   Initial Actions          The actions taken by those responders first to arrive at an incident site.
   Initial Response         Resources initially committed to an incident.




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   Initial Response           Disaster support commodities that may be pre-staged, in anticipation of a
   Resources (IRR)            catastrophic event, at a federal facility close to a disaster area for immediate
                              application through an NRP ESF operation. The initial response resources
                              are provided to victims and all levels of government responders immediately
                              after a disaster occurs. They are designed to augment state and local
                              capabilities. DHS/EPR/FEMA Logistics Division stores and maintains
                              critically needed initial response commodities for victims and responders
                              and pre-positions supplies and equipment when required. The initial
                              response resources include supplies (baby food, baby formula, blankets,
                              cots, diapers, meals ready-to-eat, plastic sheeting, tents, and water) and
                              equipment (emergency generators, industrial ice-makers, mobile kitchen
                              kits, portable potties with service, portable showers, and refrigerated vans).
   Inland Waters              The operating area shoreward of the boundary lines (except in the Gulf of
                              Mexico) defined in 46 CFR 7. In the Gulf of Mexico, it means the area
                              shoreward of the line of demarcation (COLREG lines) as defined in Sections
                              80.740–80.850 of 33 CFR Chapter I. The inland operating area does not
                              include the Great Lakes.
   Inland Zone                As defined in the NCP, the environment inland of the coastal zone excluding
                              the Great Lakes and specified ports and harbors on the inland rivers. The
                              term “coastal zone” delineates an area of federal responsibility for response
                              action. Precise boundaries are determined by EPA/USCG agreements and
                              identified in RCPs.
   Interagency Modeling       An interagency center responsible for production, coordination, and
   and Atmospheric            dissemination of consequence predictions for an airborne hazardous
   Assessment Center          material release. The IMAAC generates the single federal prediction of
   (IMAAC)                    atmospheric dispersions and their consequences utilizing the best available
                              resources from the federal government.
   Joint Field Office (JFO)   A temporary federal facility established locally to provide a central point for
                              federal, state, local, and tribal executives with responsibility for incident
                              oversight, direction, and/or assistance to effectively coordinate protection,
                              prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery actions. The JFO will
                              combine the traditional functions of the JOC, the FEMA DFO, and the JIC
                              within a single federal facility.
   Joint Information Center   A facility established to coordinate all incident-related public information
   (JIC)                      activities. It is the central point of contact for all news media at the scene of
                              the incident. Public information officials from all participating agencies
                              should collocate at the JIC.
   Joint Information System   Integrates incident information and public affairs into a cohesive organization
   (JIS)                      designed to provide consistent, coordinated, timely information during a
                              crisis or incident operations. The mission of the JIS is to provide a structure
                              and system for developing and delivering coordinated interagency
                              messages; developing, recommending, and executing public information
                              plans and strategies on behalf of the IC; advising the IC concerning public
                              affairs issues that could affect a response effort; and controlling rumors and
                              inaccurate information that could undermine public confidence in the
                              emergency response effort.
   Joint Operations Center    The JOC is the focal point for all federal investigative law enforcement
   (JOC)                      activities during a terrorist or potential terrorist incident or any other
                              significant criminal incident, and is managed by the SFLEO. The JOC
                              becomes a component of the JFO when the NRP is activated.




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   Jurisdiction              A range or sphere of authority. Public agencies have jurisdiction at an
                             incident related to their legal responsibilities and authorities. Jurisdictional
                             authority at an incident can be political or geographical (e.g., city, county,
                             tribal, state, or federal boundary lines) or functional (e.g., law enforcement,
                             public health).
   Liaison Officer           A member of the Command Staff responsible for coordinating with
                             representatives from cooperating and assisting agencies.
   Local Government          A county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority, school
                             district, special district, intrastate district, council of governments (regardless
                             of whether the council of governments is incorporated as a nonprofit
                             corporation under state law), regional or interstate government entity, or
                             agency or instrumentality of a local government; an Indian tribe or
                             authorized tribal organization or, in Alaska, a Native Village or Alaska
                             Regional Native Corporation; or a rural community, unincorporated town or
                             village, or other public entity. (As defined in section 2(10) of the Homeland
                             Security Act of 2002, Public Law 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135, et seq. (2002).)
   Long-Range                Used by the FCO and management team to address internal staffing,
   Management Plan           organization, and team requirements.
   Major Disaster            As defined by the Stafford Act, any natural catastrophe (including any
                             hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave,
                             tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or
                             drought) or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of
                             the United States, which in the determination of the President causes
                             damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster
                             assistance under this act to supplement the efforts and available resources
                             of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating
                             the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby.
   Maritime Domain           The U.S. Maritime Domain encompasses all U.S. ports, inland waterways,
                             harbors, navigable waters, Great Lakes, territorial seas, contiguous waters,
                             customs waters, coastal seas, littoral areas, the U.S. Exclusive Economic
                             Zone, and oceanic regions of U.S. national interest, as well as the sea lanes
                             to the United States, U.S. maritime approaches, and the high seas
                             surrounding America.
   Maritime Security Level   The security level set to reflect the prevailing threat environment to the
                             marine elements of the national transportation system, including ports,
                             vessels, facilities, and critical assets and infrastructure located on or
                             adjacent to waters subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S.
   MARSEC 1 (Maritime        The level for which minimum appropriate protective security measures shall
   Security Level 1)         be maintained at all times.
   MARSEC 2 (Maritime        The level for which further specific protective security measures shall be
   Security Level 2)         maintained for a period of time as a result of heightened risk of a
                             transportation security incident.
   MARSEC 3 (Maritime        The level for which appropriate additional protective security measures shall
   Security Level 3)         be maintained for a limited period of time when a transportation security
                             incident is probable or imminent, although it may not be possible to identify
                             the specific target.
   Maritime Transportation   Legislation passed by the 107th Congress, and signed by President Bush on
   Security Act              November 25, 2002, to increase the port security efforts of the Coast Guard
                             and other agencies in the U.S. Maritime Domain (Pub.L.No.107-295 MTSA).




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Volume I—Preparedness                                                        Last Saved: 1/26/2006

   Marine Transportation   38The U.S. Marine Transportation System (MTS) consists of waterways,
   System                  ports and their inter-modal connections, vessels, vehicles, and system
                           users, as well as federal maritime navigation systems. Specifically, it
                           consists of: 25,000 miles of navigable channels; over 300 ports; 238 locks at
                           192 locations; Great Lakes; St. Lawrence Seaway; over 3,700 marine
                           terminals; and numerous recreational marinas. Through 1400 designated
                           inter-modal connections, it connects with over 174,000 miles of rail
                           connecting all 48 contiguous States, as well as Canada and Mexico); over
                           45,000 miles of interstate highway (supported by over 115,000 miles of other
                           roadways); and over 460,000 miles of pipelines.
   Materiel Management     Requisitioning and sourcing (requirements processing); acquisition, asset
                           visibility (resource tracking), receipt, storage, and handling; security and
                           accountability; inventory, deployment, issue, and distribution; and recovery,
                           reuse, and disposition.
   Mission Assignment      The vehicle used by DHS/EPR/FEMA to support federal operations in a
                           Stafford Act major disaster or emergency declaration. It orders immediate,
                           short-term emergency response assistance when an applicable state or
                           local government is overwhelmed by the event and lacks the capability to
                           perform, or contract for, the necessary work.
   Mitigation              Activities designed to reduce or eliminate risks to persons or property or to
                           lessen the actual or potential effects or consequences of an incident.
                           Mitigation measures may be implemented prior to, during, or after an
                           incident. Mitigation measures are often developed in accordance with
                           lessons learned from prior incidents. Mitigation involves ongoing actions to
                           reduce exposure to, probability of, or potential loss from hazards. Measures
                           may include zoning and building codes, floodplain buyouts, and analysis of
                           hazard-related data to determine where it is safe to build or locate temporary
                           facilities. Mitigation can include efforts to educate governments, businesses,
                           and the public on measures they can take to reduce loss and injury.
   Mobilization            The process and procedures used by all organizations—federal, state, local,
                           and tribal—for activating, assembling, and transporting all resources that
                           have been requested to respond to or support an incident.
   Mobilization Center     An off-site temporary facility at which response personnel and equipment
                           are received from the Point of Arrival and are pre-positioned for deployment
                           to an incident logistics base, to a local Staging Area, or directly to an
                           incident site, as required. A mobilization center also provides temporary
                           support services, such as food and billeting, for response personnel prior to
                           their assignment, release, or reassignment and serves as a place to out-
                           process following demobilization while awaiting transportation.
   Multi-agency Command    An interagency coordination center established by DHS/USSS during
   Center (MACC)           NSSEs as a component of the JFO. The MACC serves as the focal point for
                           interagency security planning and coordination, including the coordination of
                           all NSSE-related information from other intra-agency centers (e.g., police
                           command posts, Secret Service security rooms) and other interagency
                           centers (e.g., intelligence operations centers, joint information centers).
   Multi-agency            Functions within a broader multi-agency coordination system. It may
   Coordination Entity     establish priorities among incidents and associated resource allocations,
                           sort out conflicts between agency policies, and provide strategic guidance
                           and direction to support incident management activities.




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Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                     Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
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   Multi-agency              Provides the architecture to support coordination for incident prioritization,
   Coordination System       critical resource allocation, communications systems integration, and
                             information coordination. The components of multi-agency coordination
                             systems include facilities, equipment, EOCs, specific multi-agency
                             coordination entities, personnel, procedures, and communications. The
                             systems assist agencies and organizations to fully integrate the subsystems
                             of NIMS.
   Multi-jurisdictional      An incident requiring action from multiple agencies that each have
   Incident                  jurisdiction to manage certain aspects of an incident. In ICS, these incidents
                             will be managed under Unified Command.
   Mutual Aid Agreement      Written agreement between agencies, organizations, and/or jurisdictions that
                             they will assist one another on request by furnishing personnel, equipment,
                             and/or expertise in a specified manner.
   National Coordinating     A joint telecommunications industry/federal government operation
   Center for                established to assist in the initiation, coordination, restoration, and
   Telecommunications        reconstitution of NS/EP telecommunications services and facilities.
   National                  The NCTC serves as the primary federal organization for analyzing and
   Counterterrorism Center   integrating all intelligence possessed or acquired by the U.S. Government
   (NCTC)                    pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism, excepting purely domestic
                             counterterrorism information. The NCTC may, consistent with applicable
                             law, receive, retain, and disseminate information from any federal, state, or
                             local government or other source necessary to fulfill its responsibilities.
   National Disaster         A coordinated partnership between DHS, HHS, DOD, and the Department of
   Medical System (NDMS)     Veterans Affairs established for the purpose of responding to the needs of
                             victims of a public health emergency. NDMS provides medical response
                             assets and the movement of patients to health care facilities where definitive
                             medical care is received when required.
   National Incident         A system mandated by HSPD-5 that provides a consistent, nationwide
   Management System         approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments; the private sector;
   (NIMS)                    and NGOs to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond
                             to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or
                             complexity. To provide for interoperability and compatibility among federal,
                             state, local, and tribal capabilities, the NIMS includes a core set of concepts,
                             principles, and terminology. HSPD-5 identifies these as the ICS; multi-
                             agency coordination systems; training; identification and management of
                             resources (including systems for classifying types of resources); qualification
                             and certification; and the collection, tracking, and reporting of incident
                             information and incident resources.
   National Infrastructure   Managed by the DHS Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection
   Coordinating Center       Directorate, the NICC monitors the nation’s critical infrastructure and key
                             resources on an ongoing basis. In the event of an incident, the NICC
                             provides a coordinating vehicle to share information with critical
                             infrastructure and key resources information-sharing entities.
   National Interagency      The organization responsible for coordinating allocation of resources to one
   Coordination Center       or more coordination centers or major fires within the nation. Located in
   (NICC)                    Boise, ID.
   National Interagency      A facility located in Boise, ID, that is jointly operated by several federal
   Fire Center (NIFC)        agencies and is dedicated to coordination, logistical support, and improved
                             weather services in support of fire management operations throughout the
                             United States.



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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                    Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Volume I—Preparedness                                                             Last Saved: 1/26/2006

   Natural Resources           Natural resources include land, fish, wildlife, domesticated animals, plants,
                               biota, and water. Water means salt and fresh water, surface and ground
                               water, including water used for drinking, irrigation, aquaculture, and
                               recreational purposes, as well as in its capacity as fish and wildlife habitat,
                               including coral reef ecosystems as defined in 16 U.S.C. 64501. Land means
                               soil, surface and subsurface minerals, and other terrestrial features.
   National Response           A national communications center for activities related to oil and hazardous
   Center                      substance response actions. The National Response Center, located at
                               DHS/USCG Headquarters in Washington, D.C., receives and relays notices
                               of oil and hazardous substance releases to the appropriate federal OSC.
   National Response           Pursuant to the NCP, the mechanism for coordinating response actions by
   System                      all levels of government (40 CFR § 300.21) for oil and hazardous substance
                               spills and releases.
   National Response           The NRT, comprised of the 16 federal agencies with major environmental
   Team (NRT)                  and public health responsibilities, is the primary vehicle for coordinating
                               federal agency activities under the NCP. The NRT carries out national
                               planning and response coordination and is the head of a highly organized
                               federal oil and hazardous substance emergency response network. The
                               EPA serves as the NRT Chair, and DHS/USCG serves as Vice Chair.
   National Security and       NS/EP telecommunications services are those used to maintain a state of
   Emergency                   readiness or to respond to and manage any event or crisis (local, national,
   Preparedness (NS/EP)        or international) that causes or could cause injury or harm to the population
   Telecommunications          or damage to or loss of property, or could degrade or threaten the NS/EP
                               posture of the United States.
   National Special Security   A designated event that, by virtue of its political, economic, social, or
   Event (NSSE)                religious significance, may be the target of terrorism or other criminal
                               activity.
   National Strike Force       The National Strike Force consists of three strike teams established by
                               DHS/USCG on the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf coasts. The strike teams can
                               provide advice and technical assistance for oil and hazardous substances
                               removal, communications support, special equipment, and services.
   Nearshore Waters            The operating area extending seaward 12 nautical miles from the boundary
                               lines (except in the Gulf of Mexico) defined in 46 CFR 7. In the Gulf of
                               Mexico, it means the area extending seaward 12 nautical miles from the line
                               of demarcation (COLREG lines) as defined in Sections 80.740–80.850 of 33
                               CFR Chapter I.
   Nongovernmental             A nonprofit entity that is based on interests of its members, individuals, or
   Organization (NGO)          institutions and that is not created by a government, but may work
                               cooperatively with government. Such organizations serve a public purpose,
                               not a private benefit. Examples of NGOs include faith-based charity
                               organizations and the American Red Cross.
   Nuclear Incident            Created by the Homeland Security Act to provide DHS with a
   Response Team (NIRT)        nuclear/radiological response capability. When activated, the NIRT consists
                               of specialized federal response teams drawn from DOE and/or EPA. These
                               teams may become DHS operational assets providing technical expertise
                               and equipment when activated during a crisis or in response to a
                               nuclear/radiological incident as part of the DHS federal response.
   Ocean                       The nearshore, offshore, and open ocean operating areas as defined in
                               these guidelines.




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Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                       Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
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   Offshore                     The operating area up to 38 nautical miles seaward of the outer boundary of
                                the nearshore area (12–50 miles).
   On-Scene Coordinator         See Federal On-Scene Coordinator.
   (OSC)
   Open Ocean                   The operating area seaward of the outer boundary of the offshore operating
                                area to the seaward boundary of the EEZ (50–200 miles).
   Pollutant or Contaminant     As defined in the NCP, includes, but is not limited to, any element,
                                substance, compound, or mixture, including disease-causing agents, which
                                after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation,
                                or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the environment or
                                indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be
                                anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer,
                                genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions, or physical deformations in
                                such organisms or their offspring.
   Preparedness                 The range of deliberate, critical tasks and activities necessary to build,
                                sustain, and improve the operational capability to prevent, protect against,
                                respond to, and recover from domestic incidents. Preparedness is a
                                continuous process involving efforts at all levels of government and between
                                government and private-sector and nongovernmental organizations to
                                identify threats, determine vulnerabilities, and identify required resources.
   Prevention                   Actions taken to avoid an incident or to intervene to stop an incident from
                                occurring. Prevention involves actions taken to protect lives and property. It
                                involves applying intelligence and other information to a range of activities
                                that may include such countermeasures as deterrence operations;
                                heightened inspections; improved surveillance and security operations;
                                investigations to determine the full nature and source of the threat; public
                                health and agricultural surveillance and testing processes; immunizations,
                                isolation, or quarantine; and, as appropriate, specific law enforcement
                                operations aimed at deterring, preempting, interdicting, or disrupting illegal
                                activity and apprehending potential perpetrators and bringing them to justice.
   Principal Federal Official   The federal official designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security to act
   (PFO)                        as his/her representative locally to oversee, coordinate, and execute the
                                Secretary’s incident management responsibilities under HSPD-5 for
                                Incidents of National Significance.
   Private Sector               Organizations and entities that are not part of any governmental structure.
                                Includes for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, formal and informal
                                structures, commerce and industry, private emergency response
                                organizations, and private voluntary organizations.
   Public Assistance            The program administered by FEMA that provides supplemental federal
   Program                      disaster grant assistance for debris removal and disposal, emergency
                                protective measures, and the repair, replacement, or restoration of disaster-
                                damaged, publicly owned facilities and the facilities of certain private
                                nonprofit organizations.
   Public Health                Protection, safety, improvement, and interconnections of health and disease
                                prevention among people, domestic animals and wildlife.
   Public Information           A member of the Command Staff responsible for interfacing with the public
   Officer (PIO)                and media or with other agencies with incident related information
                                requirements.
   Public Works                 Work, construction, physical facilities, and services provided by
                                governments for the benefit and use of the public.


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Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Volume I—Preparedness                                                         Last Saved: 1/26/2006

   Radiological Emergency   Teams provided by the EPA’s Office of Radiation and Indoor Air to support
   Response Teams           and respond to incidents or sites containing radiological hazards. These
   (RERTs)                  teams provide expertise in radiation monitoring, radionuclide analyses,
                            radiation health physics, and risk assessment. RERTs can provide both
                            mobile and fixed laboratory support during a response.
   Recovery                 The development, coordination, and execution of service and site restoration
                            plans for impacted communities and the reconstitution of government
                            operations and services through individual, private-sector, nongovernmental,
                            and public assistance programs that identify needs and define resources;
                            provide housing and promote restoration; address long-term care and
                            treatment of affected persons; implement additional measures for
                            community restoration; incorporate mitigation measures and techniques, as
                            feasible; evaluate the incident to identify lessons learned; and develop
                            initiatives to mitigate the effects of future incidents.
   Regional Emergency       A senior-level executive from a DOT operating administration who is pre-
   Transportation           designated by the DOT order to serve as the regional representative of the
   Coordinator (RETCO)      Secretary of Transportation for emergency transportation preparedness and
                            response, including oversight of ESF #1. Depending upon the nature and
                            extent of the disaster or major incident, the Secretary may designate another
                            official in this capacity.
   Regional Response        Regional counterparts to the National Response Team, the RRTs comprise
   Teams (RRTs)             regional representatives of the federal agencies on the NRT and
                            representatives of each state within the region. The RRTs serve as planning
                            and preparedness bodies before a response, and provide coordination and
                            advice to the federal OSC during response actions.
   Resources                Personnel and major items of equipment, supplies, and facilities available or
                            potentially available for assignment to incident operations and for which
                            status is maintained. Resources are described by kind and type and may be
                            used in operational support or supervisory capacities at an incident or at an
                            EOC.
   Response                 Activities that address the short-term, direct effects of an incident. Response
                            includes immediate actions to save lives, protect property, and meet basic
                            human needs. Response also includes the execution of emergency
                            operations plans and of incident mitigation activities designed to limit the
                            loss of life, personal injury, property damage, and other unfavorable
                            outcomes. As indicated by the situation, response activities include applying
                            intelligence and other information to lessen the effects or consequences of
                            an incident; increased security operations; continuing investigations into the
                            nature and source of the threat; ongoing public health and agricultural
                            surveillance and testing processes; immunizations, isolation, or quarantine;
                            and specific law enforcement operations aimed at preempting, interdicting,
                            or disrupting illegal activity, and apprehending actual perpetrators and
                            bringing them to justice.
   SAR Mission              Coast Guard official in charge of Search and Rescue, responsible for
   Coordinator              coordinating all Coast Guard and other federal, state, and private actions
                            and resources employed in conducting search and rescue.
   Sector Commander         Field level Coast Guard operational command. The senior Coast Guard
                            official is the Sector Commander and, in most cases, this individual will also
                            be the designated COTP.




                                               P–13
Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                    Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
Last Saved: 1/26/2006                                                        Volume I—Preparedness

   Security Zone             All areas of land, water, or land and water, which are so designated by the
                             Captain of the Port for such time as he deems necessary to prevent damage
                             or injury to any vessel or waterfront facility, to safeguard ports, harbors,
                             territories, or waters of the United States or to secure the observance of the
                             rights and obligations of the United States.
   Senior Federal Official   An individual representing a federal department or agency with primary
   (SFO)                     statutory responsibility for incident management. SFOs utilize existing
                             authorities, expertise, and capabilities to aid in management of the incident
                             working in coordination with other members of the JFO Coordination Group.
   Shared Resources          Provides a single, interagency emergency message handling system by
   (SHARES) High             bringing together existing HF radio resources of federal, state, and industry
   Frequency Radio           organizations when normal communications are destroyed or unavailable for
   Program                   the transmission of National Security and Emergency Preparedness
                             (NS/EP) information.
   Situation Assessment      The evaluation and interpretation of information gathered from a variety of
                             sources (including weather information and forecasts, computerized models,
                             GIS data mapping, remote sensing sources, ground surveys, etc.) that,
                             when communicated to emergency managers and decision makers, can
                             provide a basis for incident management decision making.
   Span of Control           A span of control is the number of people who report to one manager in a
                             hierarchy. The more people under the control of one manager, the wider the
                             span of control.
   State                     Any state of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth
                             of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the
                             Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and any possession of the
                             United States. (As defined in section 2(14) of the Homeland Security Act of
                             2002, Public Law 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135, et seq. (2002).)
   Strategic                 Strategic elements of incident management are characterized by
                             continuous, long-term, high-level planning by organizations headed by
                             elected or other senior officials. These elements involve the adoption of
                             long-range goals and objectives, the setting of priorities, the establishment
                             of budgets and other fiscal decisions, policy development, and the
                             application of measures of performance or effectiveness.
   Strategic Plan            A plan that addresses long-term issues such as impact of weather forecasts,
                             time-phased resource requirements, and problems such as permanent
                             housing for displaced disaster victims, environmental pollution, and
                             infrastructure restoration.
   Subject-Matter Expert     An individual who is a technical expert in a specific area or in performing a
   (SME)                     specialized job, task, or skill.
   Supervisor of Salvage     A salvage, search, and recovery operation established by the Department of
   and Diving (SUPSALV)      the Navy. SUPSALV has extensive experience to support response
                             activities, including specialized salvage, firefighting, and petroleum, oil, and
                             lubricants offloading. SUPSALV, when available, will provide equipment for
                             training exercises to support national and regional contingency planning.
   Telecommunications        The transmission, emission, or reception of voice and/or data through any
                             medium by wire, radio, other electrical electromagnetic, or optical means.
                             Telecommunications includes all aspects of transmitting information.




                                                P–14
Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE                                   Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Volume I—Preparedness                                                            Last Saved: 1/26/2006

   Telecommunications        The NS/EP TSP Program is the regulatory, administrative, and operational
   Service Priority (TSP)    program authorizing and providing for priority treatment (i.e., provisioning
   Program                   and restoration) of NS/EP telecommunications services. As such, it
                             establishes the framework for NS/EP telecommunications service vendors to
                             provide, restore, or otherwise act on a priority basis to ensure effective
                             NS/EP telecommunications services.
   Terrorism                 Any activity that (1) involves an act that (a) is dangerous to human life or
                             potentially destructive of critical infrastructure or key resources; and (b) is a
                             violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state or other
                             subdivision of the United States; and (2) appears to be intended (a) to
                             intimidate or coerce a civilian population; (b) to influence the policy of a
                             government by intimidation or coercion; or (c) to affect the conduct of a
                             government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping.
   Threat                    An indication of possible violence, harm, or danger.
   Transportation            Transportation prioritizing, ordering, sourcing, and acquisition; time phasing
   Management                plans; fleet management; and movement coordination and tracking.
   Transportation Security   A security incident resulting in a significant loss of life, environmental
   Incident (TSI)            damage, transportation system disruption, or economic disruption in a
                             particular area.
   Tribe                     Any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community,
                             including any Alaskan Native Village as defined in or established pursuant to
                             the Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act (85 Stat. 688) [43 U.S.C.A. and
                             1601 et seq.], that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and
                             services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as
                             Indians.
   Unified Command           An application of ICS used when there is more than one agency with
                             incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. Agencies
                             work together through the designated members of the Unified Command to
                             establish their designated Incident Commanders at a single ICP and to
                             establish a common set of objectives and strategies and a single Incident
                             Action Plan.
   Urban Search and          Operational activities that include locating, extricating, and providing onsite
   Rescue                    medical treatment to victims trapped in collapsed structures.
   Vessel Traffic Service    The service implemented by the United States Coast Guard designed to
                             improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the
                             environment. The VTS has the capability to interact with marine traffic and
                             respond to traffic situations developing in the VTS area.
   Volunteer                 Any individual accepted to perform services by an agency that has authority
                             to accept volunteer services when the individual performs services without
                             promise, expectation, or receipt of compensation for services performed.
                             (See, for example, 16 U.S.C. § 742f(c) and 29 CFR § 553.101.)
   Volunteer and Donations   Facility from which the Volunteer and Donations Coordination Team
   Coordination Center       operates. It is best situated in or close by the state EOC for coordination
                             purposes. Requirements may include space for a phone bank, meeting
                             space, and space for a team of specialists to review and process offers.




                                                 P–15
Section P: GLOSSARY OF TERMS                                     Marine Terrorism Response Plan–PSE
Last Saved: 1/26/2006                                                         Volume I—Preparedness

   Weapon of Mass              As defined in Title 18, U.S.C. § 2332a: (1) any explosive, incendiary, or
   Destruction (WMD)           poison gas, bomb, grenade, rocket having a propellant charge of more than
                               4 ounces, or missile having an explosive or incendiary charge of more than
                               one-quarter ounce, or mine or similar device; (2) any weapon that is
                               designed or intended to cause death or serious bodily injury through the
                               release, dissemination, or impact of toxic or poisonous chemicals or their
                               precursors; (3) any weapon involving a disease organism; or (4) any weapon
                               that is designed to release radiation or radioactivity at a level dangerous to
                               human life.
   Wireless Priority Service   WPS allows authorized NS/EP personnel to gain priority access to the next
   (WPS)                       available wireless radio channel to initiate calls during an emergency when
                               carrier channels may be congested.




                                                 P–16

				
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