Comprehension Interventions by fjzhangxiaoquan

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 107

									COMPREHENSION AND
VOCABULARY INTERVENTIONS
CLOCK HOUR INFORMATION
   If you “saved” your clock hour forms from the 1 st
    intervention training (at a school building), you
    can add tonight’s training.
       Make sure to include that training date as well as
        tonight’s.
       The total clock hours will be 6
       The fee will be $6
   If you did not save your form, you can still get
    clock hours tonight.
       Total clock hours for tonight is 3
       Total fee for tonight is $5
   If you are Title 1, LAP, or a coach, please indicate
    next to your name on the sign in.
LEARNING TARGETS
 I can explain why comprehension instruction is
  important.
 I can name specific comprehension strategies.

 I can create QAR questions.

 I can explain why vocabulary instruction is
  important.
 I can choose specific vocabulary strategies.

 I can plan a week’s worth of vocabulary lessons
  using the strategies from tonight’s work.
NORMS
   Be present in your learning.
       For those of us on different ends of the learning
        continuum, please value those of us still learning.
 Honor the presenter by listening.
 Take care of your needs whenever you need
  them.
        Template
    Road to the Code
 Phonemic Awareness in
    young Children
   SIPPS Beginning




                            Phonemic
                            Awareness
     ELI Strategies

       Templates
    Road to the Code
         SIPPS
       Syllaboards
                              Phonics


   Phonics for Reading
   ELI Strategies and
     Reading Street
                                                                                                                                             All Staff:




       Templates
    6 minute solution
     Skill Builders
                              Fluency




   ELI Strategies and
    Reading Street
Making Meaning strategies
Reading Street Vocab Book
                                                                                               Diagnosing and identifying Reading Problems
                                                                                                                                                          Reading Intervention Materials Training Matrix




                               Vocabulary




     ELI Strategies
                                            Using the Diagnostic Tool/I've Dibeled Now What?




    Makiing Meaning
       Strategies
   ELI Strategies and
                                Comp-
                              rehension




     Reading Street
COMPREHENSION
FOUNDATION NOTES
DISCUSS WITH YOUR TABLE GROUP
 What is reading comprehension?
 Why is comprehension important?

 What instructions help students develop
  comprehension?
 How can we adopt instruction for students with
  special needs?
 How can we monitor students’ progress in
  comprehension?
WHAT IS READING COMPREHENSION
   Comprehension is critically important to the
    development of children’s reading skills…it’s the
    essence of reading. It is a complex cognitive
    process that requires an intentional and
    thoughtful interaction between the reader and
    text.

   Development and application of comprehension
    strategies is intimately linked to student success.
    Lastly, comprehension is not a product of
    reading, but as a result of the active engagement
    between the reader and the text, and not the
    activity or the context.
WHAT COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES DID THE
        NRP IDENTIFY AS MOST PROMISING AND
                    EFFECTIVE?

   The NRP (2000) identified the following
    comprehension strategies as most promising and
    effective for helping students improve their
    comprehension:

       Comprehension Monitoring
       Cooperative Learning
       Graphic and Semantic Organizers
       Story (or Text) Structure and Mapping
       Questioning (Answering & Generating)
       Summarization
       Multiple Strategy Approach
    KEY COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES
        PRESSLEY   2000; RAND   STUDY GROUP,   2002

 Identifying important information
 Inferring/predicting

 Monitoring/clarifying

 Generating and answering questions

 Visualizing

 Summarizing

 Synthesizing

 Evaluating
MAKING MEANING STRATEGIES
THE 9 MAKING MEANING STRATEGIES
1.   Retelling                                                Less
                                       K
2.   Using schema/making connections   /                      Demand
                                       1
3.   Visualizing




                                           Cognitive Demand
4.   Wondering/Questioning
5.   Making Inferences
6.   Determining important ideas
7.   Understanding text structure
8.   Summarizing                       4
9.   Synthesizing                      /
                                                              More
                                       5                      Demand
STRATEGIES FOR STUDENTS
   Think Pair Share
   Visualizing during read aloud
       How did you picture the part where it said, “The students
        were squished on the bus.”? Who did you picture on slide?
        How is that person coming down the slide?
   Students connect discussion comments to those made
    by another reader:
     I agree with _______ because _________________.
     I disagree with ________ because _______________.
     In addition to what ________ said, I’d like to add
      __________________.
   When talking with a partner, help them share more:
     Tell me more of your thinking about ________.
     Let’s talk a little more about ______________.
     Another way to think about it might be ____________.
STRATEGIES FOR TEACHERS
   Use sticky notes to mark the places vocabulary words
    appear. You might write the meaning of the word on
    the note to help you define it smoothly without
    interrupting the reading.
   Use sticky notes to mark stopping places in the book,
    remind you of questions, or other important
    information you want to convey.
   For each skill, teach explicitly, model, and practice.
   Discuss the story and make personal connections by
    asking students:
     What did you hear the second time reading the story that
      you missed the first time?
     What does this story tell us about ________ (theme)? What
      in the story makes you think that?
STRATEGIES FOR TEACHERS
   Use Class Meeting format to discuss stories
       Class meeting rules
         One person talks at a time
         Listen to one another

         Allow people to disagree

         Talk respectfully to one another
JR. GREAT BOOKS STRATEGIES
SHARED INQUIRY DISCUSSION
 By using Shared
 Inquiry Discussion
 “students are encourage
 to think critically and
 deeply about the
 meaning of what they
 read, and to use
 evidence from the story
 to support their ideas”.
A TYPICAL WEEK
 Day 1- First Read and initial questions are
  formed
 Day 2- Second reading of text with directed notes

 Day 3- Discuss questions that were posed on first
  day
 Day 4- Teacher chooses one inquiry question and
  students write down their answer
 Day 5- Shared Inquiry Discussion followed by an
  opportunity for students to change their thinking
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITIES          DURING A
SHARED INQUIRY DISCUSSION

 Choose the Focus Question
 Plan ahead passages that relate to the Focus
  Question
 Only ask questions during the discussion

 Use a seating chart to keep

track of student ideas
 Move the discussion along

 by asking clarifying questions
SAMPLE SEATING CHART
                                            Diojane
                             Miguel
                                                                   Diandre
                                              Believes
                                x x           the              x
         Maria                                character
                                              was
                       x                      wrong                                    Alex


 Gary



                   Agrees
Felicia            with                                                       x
                   Diojane                                                                Jessica

                                                               Wonders
 Felix                                                         why the
                                                               main
                                                               character
                                                               left at the
                                                               end.
                                  Agrees
          Gustov                  with
                                  America                                    America


                             Alejandro
                                                      Leslie
STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES         DURING A
SHARED INQUIRY DISCUSSION

 Read and understand the story
 Come prepared to discuss your answer to the
  focus questions
 Be an attentive listener

 Ask questions of others

 Be open to new ideas

 Use the text to support

your thinking
ELI STRATEGIES
           COOPERATIVE LEARNING WITH
             RECIPROCAL TEACHING
 Groups predict what they story will be about
  using picture clues or story title.
 Groups generate questions
       Who will the story focus on?
       Where will it take place?
       What problems might occur?
 Groups summarize the main parts of the story
 Groups determine if there predictions were
  correct and clarify answers to the questions they
  generated.
GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS: THINK LINKS
1.   The students read a selection
2.   The teacher asks the student to identify the
     main topic of the text and list words that
     describe the topic.
3.   The teacher asks students to give some
     examples or more information from the text for
     each one of the descriptive words that they
     listed.
4.   The students organize and link the information
     using a web.
THINK LINKS
                Words to
                               Details
              describe topic

                Words to
                               Details
              describe topic
  Main Idea
                Words to
                               details
              describe topic

                Words to
                               Details
              describe topic
QAR: QUESTION ANSWER RELATIONSHIPS

   Asking Questions:
       Gives a purpose for reading
       Focuses attention on what must be learned
       Helps develop active thinking while reading
       Helps monitor comprehension
       Helps review content
       Relates what is learned to what is already known
        (connections!)
       Requires students to make inferences
           (Armbruster, Lear, & Osborn, 2001)
QAR: QUESTIONS
 Right There: You can put your finger on it. (What
  was the score at the end of the game?)
 Think and Search: You can put your finger on 2
  or more answers from 2 or more paragraphs.
  (What are some of the things T.J. did?)
 Author and you: Information from the story and
  you. You must think about what you already
  know, what the author is telling you, and how
  both fit together. (What are some other ways
  Jake could have solved the problem?).
 On your own: Information just from you. (Have
  you ever been the new student and what did it
  feel like?)
QAR TYPES OF QUESTIONS


        From The                   From
           Text                  Experience

              Think and   Author and     On your
Right There
               Search        You          own
STORY ELEMENTS GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
                                Story Elements

         Name                                    Date

         Title

                 Characters                             Setting




                 Problem/Goal                           Solution




                                  Beginning




                                   Middle




                                     End
READING STREET RESOURCES
10 IMPORTANT SENTENCES
 Sentences are the basic means of written
  communication.
 Readers use sentences to build meaning in
  context from text.
 10 important sentences manual
       Provided for each selection in the student edition.
       Each sentence is logical and cohesive.
       Each sentence provides a key idea from the selection.


   Ten Important Sentences – 6 Three Minute
    Activities
                 GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
   Graphic Organizer Manual included in teacher
    resource guide.
   1 of the 7 most effect comprehension strategies
   Contents includes “GO” organizers listed numerically
    along with teaching pages which come after the
    graphic organizers
   Other graphic organizers not included on the SWIFT
    page from grades 4-6 Graphic Organizer Book
       Main Idea
       Venn Diagram
       Cause and Effect
       Time Line & Steps in a Process
       3, 4, and 5-Column charts & Outline Forms A & B
MORE GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS FROM
   SWIFT site
       T-chart
       Story Prediction
       Story Prediction from Vocabulary
       K-W-L
       Question the Author
       Story Sequence (A,B, & C)
       Vocabulary Frame
       Web (A & B)
       Word Rating
       Story Comparison
       Story Elements
WRITING IN RESPONSE TO TEXT
    WRITTEN COMPREHENSION RESEARCH
For active involvement of students in reading expository
  text, have students:

   Note important ideas, phrases or words in the
    margins or write notes

   While taking notes, attend to the author’s message
    and evaluate what information is important




CONTINUED
Fountas & Pinnell. Guiding Readers and Writers, 2000
Carnine, Silbert, Kame’enui, and Tarver. Direct Instruction Reading, 2004
Harvey, Stephanie & Goudvis, Anne. Strategies that Work, 2000
    WRITTEN COMPREHENSION RESEARCH
                          CONTINUED


   From note taking, do a short summary of the content
     For future study
     Writing a paragraph summary of the content
     Answering written questions
     Writing a report


   Re-read or skim the passage (Reason we encourage
    the “Look Back Citation”)

   Write the response giving ideas and details

   Examine and evaluate written work samples to
    determine if students are constructing meaning
     STRUCTURED ENGAGEMENT SCAFFOLDS: CRITICAL
       “TOOLS” FOR DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION
1.    Choral responses
2.    Partner responses
3.    Written responses
        A. Focused prompts increase thinking,
           accountability, focus
        B. Structured academic language
4.     Individual responses

“We can’t narrow the gap unless we dramatically
  increase student response to instruction.”

Dr. Kevin Feldman – Director of Reading and Early Intervention
    with Sonoma County Office of Education, CA – February, 2009
IVF
   From Step Up to Writing –
       Summary Paragraphs – “A summary is a shortened,
        condensed version of an item such as an article,
        story, film, or chapter in a textbook. The purpose of a
        summary is to share the key ideas from the item with
        your reader. Summaries keep the same tone as the
        original piece and usually do not contain opinion.
        Summaries do not have a formal conclusion.” sec. 3-3
        IVF summary includes the following:
         Create a topic sentence using the “burrito” topic sentence
          method.
         Copy the topic sentence into a “real” sentence.

         Add a Fact Outline

         Write the summary using your Fact Outline
VOCABULARY
FOUNDATION NOTES
Enhancing Literacy Instruction and More
“OURS IS THE ONLY  LANGUAGE IN WHICH
YOU DRIVE IN A PARKWAY AND PARK IN A
DRIVEWAY AND YOUR NOSE CAN RUN AND
YOUR FEET CAN SMELL”
                       -Richard Lederer
        CUMULATIVE EXPERIENCES


Children from   Words heard per   Words heard in a Words heard in a Words
                hour              100 hour week    5,200 hour year  heard in 4
                                                                    years

Professional    2,153             215,000          11 million         45 million
families

Working Class 1,251               125,000          6 million          26 million
families

Welfare         616               62,000           3 million          13 million
Families

                                                                (Hart & Risley, 1995)
GAINING VOCABULARY FROM READING BOOKS

Percentile Rank    Minutes per day in books

2                  0

10                 .1

50                 4.6

70                 9.6

90                 21.2

98                 65
                      VOCABULARY GAP
   -Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more
    discrepant over time from their peers who have a rich vocabulary
    knowledge (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1997).


   -The number of words students learn varies greatly
      2 vs. 8 words per day
      750 vs. 3000 words per year


   -High SES first graders know twice as many words as lower
    SES (Graves & Slater, 1987).

   -ELL students learn conversation English in less than 2 years,
    but may require 3-5 years to catch up with monolingual peers
    in academic vocabulary (CALPS).
                 Language Experiences by
                         Group
Estimated Cumulative Words Addressed to Child


                                                                                                                           Professional
                                                                                                                          45 Million Words
                (In Millions)




                                                                                                                                Working-
                                                                                                                                 class
                                                                                                                          26 Million Words

                                                                                                                                Welfare
                                                                                                                          13 Million Words




                                                12            24          36                                      48
                                                     (Age Child in Months)


                                                 Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children
                                                      by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995).
          MATTHEW EFFECTS (THE GAP)
   Because poor readers tend to read considerably
    less than better readers, the gap between the
    good and poor readers in number of words read,
    and both receptive and expressive vocabulary,
    becomes progressively greater as the child
    advances through school.

   “The rich get richer and the poor get poorer.”

   Cunningham, A. & Stanovich, K. (Summer 1998) What reading
    does for the mind. American Educator.
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth
                        (Hirsch, 1996)
                    16
                                                                           High Oral
                    15                                                     Language in
                    14                                                     Kindergarten
                    13                                            5.2 years
                                                                  difference
Reading Age Level




                    12
                    11
                    10                                              Low Oral Language
                                                                    in Kindergarten
                     9
                     8
                     7
                     6
                     5
                         5   6   7   8    9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16
                                         Chronological Age
   Only 4% of English Learners’ school day is spent
    engaging in student talk.

   Only 2% of English Learners’ day is spent
    discussing focal lesson content (but not
    necessarily using relevant academic language).
       Arreaga-Mayer & Perdomo-Rivera, 1996
          WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF
          VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION?


   Leads to gains in comprehension

   Increases effective communication

   Has long term impact on powers of communication and
    concept development
 WHAT DOES THIS MEAN FOR MY TEACHING?


 Direct Instruction
 Repetition and multiple exposure

 Words useful in many contexts

 Active engagement

 Multiple instructional methods

 Definition based methods are ineffective (Stahl &
  Fairbanks, 1986)
      SAMPLES OF DICTIONARY-BASED
     VOCABULARY LESSONS (10TH GRADE)
   Word: Definition           Student Sentence

 revise: to change, fix,    I need to revise my
  improve                     motorcycle.
 redundant: repeated,       Mr. Donaldson is a
  boring, over and over       very redundant
  again                       science teacher.
 embolden: to               I am going to
  empower, to make            embolden my body
  strong, gain strength       this summer.
 celestial: heavenly        My dad should put
  seasons                     celestial in his pasta.
           HOW DO WE TEACH IT?
Explicit                    Implicit
                             Oral language
 Engagement in
  literature-rich context     engagement
                             Reading to, with and by
 Repeated/Multiple
  exposure                    adults or peers
                             Independent reading
 Word Learning
  Strategies
            LEARNING FROM CONTEXT
                               Jenkins, Stein, and Wysocki
-Beck & McKeown (1991)         (cited in Beck &McKeown, 1991)


   “Research spanning            One study that showed effects of
                                   learning words in context with
    several decades has            fifth grade students had contexts
    failed to uncover strong       created so that a word’s meaning
                                   was either strongly implied or a
    evidence that word
                                   synonym was provided.
    meanings are routinely         Researchers found that students
    acquired from context”         learned the meaning of words
                                   that had been encountered six to
    (p. 799). They conclude        ten times, unless exposure to
    that some learning from        meaning occurred prior to
    context does occur, but        passage reading, in which case
                                   two exposures were sufficient to
    that the effect is not         produce positive effects.
    very powerful.
   “Because of the developmental nature of reading,
    the later one waits to strengthen weaknesses, the
    more difficult it is for the children to cope with
    the increasing literacy demands in the later
    grades. Moreover, those who have reading
    difficulties in the intermediate grades will, most
    likely, have serious trouble with the study of
    science, social studies, literature, mathematics,
    and other content study that depend, in great
    part, on printed text.”
          -Chall, Jeanne S. & Jacobs, Vicki A. (Sring 2003) Poor
           Children’s Fourth-Grade Slump. American Educator
    CRITICAL FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE
       VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION


 Integrate vocabulary with the lesson.
 Use explicit instruction on a limited number of new
  vocabulary words.
 Create environments where words are talked about
  and used in multiple ways.
 Use new vocabulary in other content areas.

 Teach independent word learning strategies.
MORE CRITICAL FEATURES OF EFFECTIVE
     VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

 Encourage wide reading.
 Provide multiple exposure to words (at least 10).

 Combine definition and context approaches.

 Make connections with background knowledge and
  new vocabulary.
 Present words in semantically related groups.

 Instruction on word parts, word association and
  connotative meaning is important.
MORPHEMIC ANALYSIS OF WORD PARTS MAP
                          WORD

                       disorganized



                       Parts + Meaning




   dis            organize             ed




               Your Sentence Using the Word

He was disorganized, he forgot it was his birthday!
CONCEPT DEFINITION MAP is it
                    What
       What is it? (Definition)      like?




The
Word




          What are some examples?   57
                                                   What is it
                                                   like?
CONCEPT DEFINITION MAP
             What is it? (Definition)              closed

            Mathematical shape

                                                   Plane figure


The        Polygon
Word
                                                    Straight
                                                    sides



pentagon                     hexagon    triangle
               CHOOSING VOCABULARY
   Tier One Words – Basic words that can be
    defined or associated while reading the text.

   Tier Two Words – High Utility words that can be
    specific to a content area or purpose of
    instruction. These should be words that define
    the concept or that students are likely to
    encounter again and again.

   Tier Three Words – Low Frequency words used in
    limited content areas that would not interrupt
    the flow of the concept if not defined.
SELECT WORDS THAT:
 Are unknown to        Decide which of the
  students.              words need explicit
 Are important to       instruction, practice,
  understanding the      and review (no more
  text.                  than 10 a week).
 Likely to be          Tell students the

  encountered in the     meaning of other
  future.                words.
              ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
Students will learn to    How?
speak and write like a:


     Scientist             We explain using
     Mathematician          the vernacular and
     Writer                 then connect to
     Historian              academic language
     Artist                Give students
                             access and
                             experience
SCIENTIFIC ACADEMIC VOCABULARY:
   Everyday Language      Scientific Language
       figure out             conclude
       group                  categorize
       guess                  predict
       see                    observe
       tell                   report
       write down             record
       home                   habitat
       clues, proof           evidence
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY EXAMPLES
First Grade                      Second Grade

   Genre: fiction,                 Genre: genre,
    nonfiction, poem                 biography
   Text Elements: author,          Text Elements:
    character, illustrate,           compare/contrast,
                                     comprehension, main
    BME, problem, solution,          idea, sequence
    predicting, setting, table
                                    Word Study:
    of contents, text
                                     abbreviation, base word,
   Word Study: blend,               compound word,
    consonant, vowel, word           contraction, prefix,
    family/chunk, middle             suffix, syllable
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY EXAMPLES
Third Grade                Fourth Grade

 Genre: expository,        Genre: legends,
  narrative, persuasive,     mystery, tall tale,
  poetry, realistic          fables
 Text Elements:            Text Elements:
  captions, diagrams,        character traits, main
  example, headings,         idea, preview,
  introductions, labels,     strategy, synthesis,
  plot, text features        text feature
 Word Study:               Word Study: prefix,
  antonym, homonym,          suffix, simile
  synonym
      DR. KEVIN FELDMAN

We can’t “narrow the gap”
 unless we dramatically
 increase engagement or
   student response to
       instruction.
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT

    Saying
   Writing
    Doing
                  TRACKING PROGRESS
Students self-rate how well they
understand each vocabulary word     Students (and partners) know
at the beginning of the study and   which words they need more
                                    support in as the study continues.
throughout the story/unit.


                                       Example:
   Ratings are:
       Plus (+)
       Check plus (x+)              scan -, x, x, x+, +
       Check (x)                    Wharf x-, x-, x, x+, +
       Check minus (x-)             Pier -, -, -, x, x+
       Minus (-)
                                     Journey x+, x+, +
ILLUSTRATE AND
ASSOCIATE
 Vocabulary Word                        Picture of Word




   Brief Definition               Antonym/Nonexample




                Create your personal sentence
ILLUSTRATE AND ASSOCIATE
  Vocabulary Word                        Picture of Word


silent




Brief Definition                         Antonym/Nonexample

Being very quiet                             noisy




         Create your personal sentence
The classroom was silent on the weekend.
CLUNK BUG   Context Sentence:




            Definition:




            Meaningful Sentence:
                    CLUNK BUG
                                                         Canvas bag


Definition:
A sturdy bag that                    CLUNK
you carry food in                    WORD             Important
                    Holds food
when you go                       haversack           supply
hiking.




                      The haversack, a canvas shoulder bag that holds
                      rations, is an important supply for a hiker.
                     SENTENCE STEMS
   Least - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Most


 How        happy would you be if . . .
       your mother urged you to have a second piece of
        candy?
       least happy - - - - - - - - - - - most happy

       everyone in your class looked glum?
       least happy - - - - - - - - - - - most happy

       there was a downpour on your class picnic?
       Least happy - - - - - - - - - - - most happy
                    SENTENCE STEMS
 Least      - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Most

 How       much strength does it take to . . .
     pull a sprout out of the ground?
     least strength - - - - - - - - - most strength

     lift an enormous refrigerator?
     least strength - - - - - - - - - most strength

       kick a football a significant distance?
       least strength - - - - - - - - - most strength


               SENTENCE STEMS
   How precious would      How reluctant would
    something be . . .       you be . . .

   if _____
                            if _____
   if _____
                            if _____
   if _____
                            if _____
                  CONNECT TWO
 Based on what I read, I would connect _______
  and _______ because ________________________
 ____________________________________________.



   Example from Brave Irene:

   Based on what I read, I would connect reluctant
    and insisted because although her mother
    insisted she leave the closing laundromat, Lisa
    was very reluctant to listen until she found
    Corduroy.
            CONNECT TWO EXAMPLE
   2.2 “Bad Dog, Dodger!”

   Based on what I read, I would connect practice
    and treat because when Sam took time to practice
    good behavior with Dodger and reward Dodger
    with a treat, Dodger finally started behaving
    better.
                  ALPHABOXES
 Grid with all 26 letters of the alphabet
 Helps children reflect on what they’ve read while
  engaging them in vocabulary expansion
 There are no wrong answers as long as the words
  can be shown to relate to the text/concept/topic
 Open-ended

 Character traits, words to describe a character???

 Send home to have family continue adding to the
  grid???
              ALPHABOX EXAMPLES
Words to describe Wilbur   3.2 “Fly, Eagle, Fly! An
in Charlotte’s Web:        African Tale” – Words
                           that tell about settings:
      adorable                 evening
      caring                   riverbed, reeds, rocky
      dependable
                                 cliffs
                                valley
      panicked
                                forests
      loving
                                muddy cattle tracks
      gullable
                                long thatch grass
      proud
                                slopes of high mountain
                                gully
                                home
                                warm kitchen
OTHER RESOURCES
 http://dictionary.reference.com/
 http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/vocab/TN.html
RIGOROUS VOCABULARY IN
READING STREET
PLANNING VOCABULARY LESSONS
 This procedure/plan is based on the research and
  work of Anita Archer, Augusta Mann and the
  book, Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary
  by Isabel Beck. The steps will be followed when
  introducing new vocabulary for each story.
 Steps 1-5 will be followed for each new
  vocabulary word. The process should be done at a
  “perky pace” and should take no more than 20
  minutes to complete. Repetition is very
  important.
 Plan on using only 1 Graphic Organizer per
  story.
IDENTIFY VOCABULARY WORDS:
   Review the suggested words for vocabulary
    instruction to determine if you need to
    supplement with additional words.
      Your children may be very familiar with a
       word, and you do not need to provide
       instruction.
      Your students may be unfamiliar with a word
       not selected by the publisher and you need to
       provide more instruction on this word.
CHOOSING THE WORDS
 Review the suggested words and activities for
  vocabulary instruction to determine if you need
  to supplement with additional words or activities.
    For example, Reading Street does a nice job in
     2nd grade of including strong vocabulary
     activities. The other grades may need to
     supplement.
 Place identified words into the 3 Tiers.

 Tier II words will then be placed in the lesson
  planner.
 Follow the protocol/chart with the words you
  have selected.
HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A TEACHER WHO
CHOSE THE VOCABULARY WORDS:

    Tier 1        Tier 2     Tier 3
 caterpillar   cocoon
 unscrewed     disrespect
               emerge
                migrant
                sketched
PART 1: TEACHING THE VOCABULARY:
WHAT TO DO FOR EACH WORD
DAY 1      AND    2
1.    Introduce the word.
        Our first word is (vocabulary word). What
         word?
2.    Present a brief student friendly explanation.
        A ___________ is a _______; or To _____________
         means to ____________.
3.    Connect with examples (concrete: something
      students can touch; visual: a visual representation;
      verbal: tell them)
4.    Illustrate the word with an action to represent the
      vocabulary word (not all words lend themselves to
      action).
5.    Check for understanding. This should be done using
      think-pair-share, cooperative groups, or individual
      responses such as “thumbs up or thumbs down” to
      get students actively engaged.
HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW A TEACHER
PLANS TO TEACH THE VOCABULARY:
 Word #1:    cocoon
 Definition: silk-like protective covering
 Connection:
                                                               Here is where the teacher
                                                               would follow the script: Our
                                                               word is cocoon? What word?
                                                               A cocoon is a silk like
                                                               protective covering.
                                                               Here is a picture of a
                                                               cocoon.




 Word #2: caterpillar
 Definition: a small, furry worm with many legs
 Connection:                                      Again, the teacher would
                                                  follow the script: Our word is
                                                  caterpillar? What word?
                                                  A caterpillar is a small,
                                                  furry worm with many legs.
                                                  Here is a picture of a
                                                  caterpillar.
HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF HOW A TEACHER
PLANS TO TEACH THE VOCABULARY:


   Check for Understanding:
       Cocoon: Have students describe a cocoon that they
        have seen to the class.
       Caterpillar: Show pictures of different animals. Have
        students identify the caterpillar.
HERE’S HOW ANOTHER TEACHER
INTRODUCES WORDS

   Brie Ellis at Sherman Elementary
VOCABULARY


Home on the
Range
         dude
city person who works
 on a ranch for vacation
DUDE
       spurs
spiked wheels on
 boots used on horses
SPURS
      roundup
moving cattle in a
herd; usually done on
horseback
ROUND UP
         bawling
crying
BAWL ING
      coyote
small wolf-like
 animal; known for
 howling
COY O TE
PART 2: APPLY               THE     LEARNING: A MENU
Day 3 and 4
Now that students have a basic understanding of the vocabulary words
  and definitions, additional practice and application should be added.

Choose an activity you believe is most beneficial for your students at this
  time.
 With a partner, write a meaningful sentence for each of the tested
  words
 Teacher Guide Vocabulary Activities (see your Reading Street
  teacher’s guide)
 Graphic Organizer (choose 1)
    Illustrate and associate with one or two of the vocabulary words.
    Venn diagram
    Word, Definition, Picture
    Word, Picture, Sentence
    Word Parts Map
    Clunk bug
    Other graphic organizers you love
PART 2: APPLY                    THE        LEARNING: A MENU
   ELL Poster (See Reading Street ELL guide)
   Have students present examples and non-examples for the vocabulary
    word
   Ask deep processing questions (Developed by Sherrie Krause,
    Literacy Coach):
      Answer questions
           “Would you prefer to have a festive day or an ordinary day?”
       Create Examples
           What is something that a good citizen might do?
       Make Choices
           If any of the things I name can hatch, say hatch; if not, say nothing: a
            train, a chicken, a jar of jam, a snake, a tadpole, a horse.
       Pantomime
           Show me how an eagle soars, a rocket, an airplane.
       Personal Context
           Some people are fond of fishing. Tell about something you are fond of.
            Use the word fond when you tell about it.
       Synonyms and Antonyms
           Name a word that means the opposite of genuine; name a word that
            means about the same as genuine.
HERE’S HOW ONE TEACHER PLANNED                                FOR
APPLICATION AND PRACTICE:

  Day   1. Illustrate and associate with two of the vocabulary
           words.
    3
        2. Use a Venn diagram to compare a caterpillar and a
           butterfly- can be done in groups or whole class
        3. Develop Vocabulary lesson on Page 153 in teacher’s
           guide

  Day   1. Word Parts Map using unscrewed and disrespect
           (example of Word Parts Map below; can also be found
    4
           in ELI binder)
        2. Develop Vocabulary lesson on Page 157 in teacher’s
           guide
        3. In small groups make a list of additional words that
           start with the “un” or “dis” prefix and talk about how
           the prefix changes the word meaning.
DAY 5: EXTEND AND REVIEW               THE
LEARNING: A MENU
Day 5
After students have learned, practiced, and applied the
  vocabulary words, they can extend the learning. This
  is also an opportunity to connect this week’s
  vocabulary to previous week’s vocabulary.
Choose an activity you believe is most beneficial for
  your students at this time.
 Memory or Matching or “find your partner”, “dance to
  a partner” : vocab. word on one card, match with
  definition on another card
 Meaningful sentences: use student-generated
  meaningful sentences from earlier. Take out the
  vocabulary word and students select the vocabulary
  word that matches with that sentence.
 Word Wizards; students bring in or say examples that
  they’ve found or used the vocabulary word
DAY 5: EXTEND AND REVIEW                  THE
LEARNING: A MENU

   How can these be alike: teacher picks 2 words and
    students must say how they’re alike. Words can be
    from different weeks. For example: how are rural and
    glacier alike?
   20 questions: student picks a vocabulary word.
    Students ask yes or no questions and student answers
    while class tries to guess what the vocabulary word is.
   Vo-back-ulary: Students have a vocabulary word
    taped to their back. Kids walk around and use these
    to guess the word:
      Name synonyms and antonyms
      Give definitions
      Give meaningful sentences
YOUR TURN
   Use the lesson planning template and graphic
    organizers to plan next week’s vocabulary lessons
    for your reading or intervention group.
EXIT SLIP
   Please reflect on tonight’s learning targets as you
    answer the questions on the exit slip.
       I can explain why comprehension instruction is
        important.
       I can name specific comprehension strategies.
       I can create QAR questions.
       I can explain why vocabulary instruction is
        important.
       I can choose specific vocabulary strategies.
       I can plan a week’s worth of vocabulary lessons using
        the strategies from tonight’s work.

								
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