BIOLOGY SOL REVIEW SHEET ANSWERS by fjzhangxiaoquan

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									BIOLOGY SOL REVIEW SHEET                                SOL TEST DATE MON, AUG. 2, 2010
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  I.      Scientific Investigation
       A. Scientific Method
           1.Steps of the scientific Method
                i.   ___PROBLEM/QUESTION____
               ii.   OBSERVATION/RESEARCH_____
              iii.   __FORM A HYPOTHESIS__
              iv.    _CONDUCT EXPERIMENT (TO TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS___
               v.    __COLLECT AND ANALYZE YOUR RESULTS__
              vi.    ___FORM A CONCLUSION ____
           2._OBSERVATION __- act of gathering information about a system or environment
             using one or more of the five senses.
           3. _INFERENCE_- a conclusion based on prior knowledge or information.
           4.__HYPOTHESIS___- ―educated guess‖ or predicted solution to a problem
           5.__VARIABLES__- factors that change and can be measured in the experiment.
           6._IV__- the variable that you change on purpose.
           7.__DV_- The variable that changes as a result of changing the I.V.
           8._CONTROL_- A standard against which experimental results can be measured.
           9._CONSTANT___- Things that are kept the same in the experiment.
       B. Graphing
           10.Each graph consists of a vertical axis that intersects a horizontal axis at the
           __ORIGIN POINT_.
           11. The __INDEPENDENT VARIABLE__ variable is recorded on the horizontal or
           x-axis.
           12.The _DEPENDENT VARIABLE__ variable is recorded on the vertical or y-axis.
           13.There are four types of relationships in a line graph
                i.   Direct relationship- as the I.V. increases the D.V. _INCREASES__.
            ii.    Inverse Relationship – as the IV increases the dependent variable
                   _DECREASES__.
           iii.    Constant Relationship – as the IV increases, the dependent variable
                   __INCREASE___.
            iv.    Cyclical Relationship- as the IV increases, the DV increases up to a certain
                   point, after which the dependent variable _INCREASE__.


II.     Life at the Molecular Level
      A. Water
        14. Made up of __2___ hydrogen atoms covalently bonded (bonds that share
           electrons) to __1_____ oxygen atom.
        15. The water molecule has a slightly negative charge and a slightly positive charge,
           which creates a __POLAR__ structure.
        16. _POLARITY__- the attraction between the positive end of one water molecule
           and the negative end of another water molecule.
        17. Water has a _HIGH_ specific heat which means that it takes a lot of energy to
           increase its temperature.(Helps keep temp. in oceans stable and helps humans
           keep a normal constant body temp.)
        18. Called the _UNIVERSAL_ solvent because it can dissolve substances to be more
           easily transported throughout an organism.
        19. Water molecules stick together. This property is called __COHESION__. (this
           help water move up a stem)
        20. Water molecules also stick to other substances. This is called _ADHESION__.
                  a. Macromolecules
                         i. Carbohydrates:
        21. Carbohydrates are _ORGANIC__ (contain the element carbon)
        22. Carbohydrates produce and store energy throughout the body.
                           SACCHARIDE=MEANS SUGAR
        23. __MONOSACCHARIDE_- one sugar (Glucose)
        24. _DISACCHARIDE_- two sugars (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
        25. _POLYSACCHARIDE_-many sugars (cellulose, starch, glycogen)
                  i. Lipids:
26. Lipids are a large group of organic macromolecules that are insoluble (ex. Fats,
   oils, waxes)
27. Lipids are made up of three _FATTY__ _ACIDS_ and one __GLYCEROL___
   molecule.
28. Most common types of fats are triglycerides, saturated fats, and unsaturated fats.
                  i. Proteins:
29. Proteins are the key structural elements in living things such as cell membranes,
   skin, muscle, blood, feather, fins, and fur.
30. Special proteins called _ENZYMES__ help speed up chemical reactions.
31. Made up of AMINO__ __ACIDS__ joined together by PEPTIDE__ bonds.
32. __DIPEPTIDE_ - 2 amino acids
33. _POLYPEPTIDE__- 3 or more amino acids
                  i. Nucleic Acids
34. Nucleic Acids are made up of repeating units called NUCLEOTIDES___.
35. A nucleotide consists of a __PHOSPHATE__ , _SUGAR(DEOXYRIBOSE AND
   RIBOSE SUGARS)_, and NITROGENOUS___ _BASE__.
36. Two types of nucleic acids are __DNA__ and ____RNA___.
                                 a. __DNA__ - stores genetic information
                                 b. __RNA__ - essential for protein synthesis.
                  ii. Enzymes (a special group of protein)
                         1. Enzymes DO
                                 a. increase the rate of reaction by lowering the
                                     reaction’s activation energy
                                 b. form temporary enzyme substrate complexes
                                 c. remain unaffected by the reaction
                         2. Enzymes DON’T
                                 a. change in the reaction
                                 b. make reactions occur that would otherwise not
                                     occur at all
                         3. What controls enzyme activity
                                          a. concentration of the enzyme
                                          b. temperature of the enzyme
                                          c. acidity of the cell
                   b. pH scale 0-14
          37. 7 is __NEUTRAL___
          38. below 7 is ___ACID___
          39. above 7 is ___BASE____


Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration
                   a. Photosynthesis
          40. What is the equation?__________ANSWER BELOW__




          41. _CHLOROPLAST_ are the sites for photosynthesis.
                           i. Variables that affect the rate of photosynthesis are
                                  1. intensity
                                  2. concentration
                   b. Cellular respiration
          42. What is the equation? ___ANSWER BELOW__




                                             SAME AS
           43. _CHLOROPLAST__ is the organelle, which is the site for cellular respiration.
The Cell
-Parts of the Cell theory
           44. __CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE___
           45. __ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF CELLS__
           46. __ALL CELLS COME FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS (THROUGH PROCESS
               OF MITOSIS)___
Development of the cell theory
           47. __ROBERT HOOKE__- observed 1st cells from cork. Coined the term ―cell‖
           48. __ANTON LEEWENHOEK___- observed microscopic cells from pond water
           49. ___MATTHAIS SCHEIDEN__- studied plant cells
           50. __ THEODOR SCHWANN_- studied animal cells
           51. __RUDOLF VIRCHOW_- concluded that cells come from pre-existing cells.
           52. __PROKARYOTE__ Cells – Lack a true nucleus and membrane bound
               organelles (ex. Bacteria)
           53. __EUKARYOTE__ cells – have a true nucleus and organelles
Cellular Organelles
           54. ___NUCLEUS__ -command center of the cell; DNA located here
           55. __NUCLEOLUS__- small organelle located inside the nucleus; helps make
               ribosomes
           56. _RIBOSOMES___- small organelles in the cytoplasm; makes protein
           57. _ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM___- transportation system of the cell.
           58. __GOLGI APPARTUS___- packaging and shipping center of the cell
           59. __LYSOSOME___- contains digestive enzymes to break down old cell parts and
               debris
           60. __VACUOLE__- storage tank of the cell
           61. __MITOCHONDRIA__- power center of the cell
           62. __CHLOROPLAST__- organelle for photosynthesis; contains chlorophyll
           63. __CENTRIOLES___- assists in cell division
           64. __CYTOPLASM__- medium inside cell which organelles are suspended.
           65. __CELL/PLASMA MEMBRANE__- layer (membrane) that surrounds the cell.
            66. __CELL WALL__- composed of cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi.
Plant vs. Animal Cells (how are they different?)
            67. ___PLANT CELLS HAVE A CELL WALL; ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT____
            68. __PLANT CELLS HAVE CHLOROPLAST; ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT ___
            69. __ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CENTRIOLES TO HELP PULL THEM APART
               DURING CELL DIVISION (MITOSIS); PLANT CELLS DO NOT. INSTEAD,
               PLANT CELLS USE A CELL PLATE TO HELP THEM DIVIDE.__
Cell Membrane (fluid-Mosaic Model)
Draw what the cell membrane looks like and label the parts (SEE BELOW)




Transport
Passive Transport (does NOT require energy)
            70. it is also known as _DIFFUSION__
            71. substances move from an area of _HIGH__ concentration to _LOW_
               concentration.
            72. __FACILIATED DIFFUSION__ diffusion is a unique type of passive transport
               in which a membrane (carrier) protein is used to shuttle ions and molecules across
               the membrane.
            73. __OSMOSIS_ is the special term applied to the movement of water molecules
               across the cell membrane (as a result of diffusion)
Active Transport (requires energy)
           74. substances move from an area of _HIGH__ concentration to __LOW________
              concentration.
           75. _PINOCYTOSIS__ (cell drinking) In this process, vacuoles form at the surface of
              the cell membrane. They then suck in substances on the cell surface and transport
              them into the cell to be digested.
           76. _PHAGOCYTOSIS_(cell eating) a process in which large food particles are
              engulfed by the cell and brought into the cell for intracellular digestion.
Cell Reproduction and Genetics
           77. _MITOSIS__ is a process in which somatic (body) cells make identical copies of
              themselves.
           78. During this process two things occur 1._CELL DIVISION _
              __2._CYTOKINESIS_
Stages of mitosis
           79. _PROPHASE__ - chromosomes condense and become visible; nuclear membrane
              disappears; centrioles begin to move away from each other.
           80. _METAPHASE__ - chromosomes meet in the center of the cell
           81. _ANAPHASE_ - sister chromatids of each chromosome separate at the
              centromere and slowly move to opposite poles.
           82. _TELOPHASE_ - nuclear membrane begins to form around each new set of
              chromosomes; cell tears in half forming two daughter cells.
Types of Mitosis
           83. __BINARY FISSURE - just like mitosis; bacteria replicate their chromosomes
              and divide into two identical daughter cells.
           84. __BUDDING_ - process in which little buds sprout from the parent and
              eventually develop into a fully formed offspring. (ex. Yeast, hydra)
           85. _SPORING__ - organism produces spores that are released from the parent
              organism into the air.
Meiosis:
           86. __MEIOSIS_ is a process by which sexually reproducing organisms maintain the
              same number of chromosomes from generation to generation.
           87. Chromosomes exist in pairs called _HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES__
           88. When a cell has a full complement of homologues, or homologous chromosomes,
               it is said to be _DIPLOID__.
           89. Some cells posses only ONE set of chromosomes and they are called
               _HAPLOID__.
Almost all of the cells in the human body are diploid with the exception of sex cells, or gametes
which are haploid.
           90. Meiosis is limited to sex cells in special sex organs called gonads. The gonads in
               males are the __TESTES___, and in females, they are the __OVARIES__.
           91. Meiosis involves __2__ rounds of cell division.
           92. Since meiosis results in the formation of gametes, it is also known as
               _GAMETOGENESIS__.
           93. When meiosis takes place in the male gonads, it results in the production of sperm
               cells. This is called __SPERMAGENESIS__ in which four sperm cells are
               produced from each parent cell.
           94. In a female, an egg cell (ovum) is produced as the result of meiosis. This process
               is called _OOGENESIS__. This differs from meiosis in males in that only ONE
               ovum is produces. The other three cells, called polar bodies, will eventually
               disintegrate.
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
           95. __GENETICS__ is the study of heredity.
           96. __GREGOR MENDAL__ is the father of genetics; studied offspring of pea
               plants.
Genetics Vocabulary
           97. Each trait – an expressed characteristic – is produced by a pair of hereditary
               factors known as __ALLELES_.
           98. _LOCUS_ - location of genes on a chromosome
           99. A gene usually consists of a pair of hereditary factors called _ALLELES__.
           100.          An allele can be __DOMINANT_ or RECESSIVE___.
           101.          The recessive trait is masked by the dominant trair.
           102.          Symbols for alleles : ex. T or t
           103.          GENOTYPE___ - genetic makeup
          104.         _PHENOTYPE_- appearance
          105.         _HOMOZYGOUS_- same (pure) TT or tt
          106.         __HETEROZYGOUS__- different (Tt) hybrid
          107.         The 1st generation is always called the _PARENT (P1)___ generation.
             The offspring of the P1 is called the filial or F1 generation. Offspring of F1 is F2.
Mendelian Genetics
          108.         a __MONOHYBRID_ cross constitutes a study of only one trait
          109.         a _PUNNETT_ __SQUARE_ is nothing more than a table using letters
             to represent possible genotypes.
          110.         Law of _INDEPENDENT__ __ASSORTMENT__ - says that each gene
             is inherited separately from others.
          111.         A _DIHYBRID__ cross constitutes a study of two traits at the same time.
Beyond Mendelian Genetics
          112.         ___INCOMPLETE__ __DOMINANCE__ - blending (red and white
             flowers produce pink flowers)
          113.         ___CODOMINANCE__ - see both traits (ex. AB blood type)
DNA Structure
          114.         DNA molecule is called a __DOUBLE__ __HELIX___ or twisted
             ladder.
          115.         ___WATSON___ and __CRICK_ first determined the double helix
             structure of DNA.
          116.         Each strand of DNA is made up of repeating subunits called
             __NUCLEOTIDES__.
          117.         Each nucleotide consists of a __PHOSPHATE__, __SUGAR__, and
             __NITROGENOUS___ base (A-T, C-G (DNA), A-U, C-G (RNA))
          118.         The name of the five carbon sugar in DNA is _DEOXYRIBOSE__.
          119.         A nucleotide in DNA can be attached to one of four bases:
             __ADENINE__, __GUANINE___, _CYTOSINE___, or __THYMINE___.
          120.         __A__ binds with ___T___
          121.         __C__ binds with __G_
          122.         This is called base pairing known as Chargoff’s base pairing rule.
DNA replication
DNA molecule unzips and joins with free nucleotides to make two DNA molecules
Proteins and the Genetic Code
          123.       DNA does not directly manufacture proteins, this job falls to an
              intermediate known as RIBOSOMES___.
DNA to RNA to PROTEINS
Differences between DNA and RNA
          124.       _DNA IS MADE UP OF 2 STRANDS; RNA IS MADE UP OF 1
              STRAND___
          125.       __DNA SUGAR’S NAME=DEOXYRIBOSE; RNA SUGAR’S NAME=
              RIBOSE__
          126.       _DNA MOLECULES INCLUDE A-T, C-G; RNA MOLECULES
              INCLUDE A-U, C-G ___


Types of RNA and their function
          127.       __MESSENGER RNA (MRNA)- CARRIES COPIES OF
              INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO MAKE PROTEIN TO THE RIBOSOMES.__
          128.       __RIBOSOMAL RNA (RRNA)-_THESE MAKE UP RIBOSOMES OF
              THE CELL; RIBOSOMES ARE WHERE AMINO ACIDS ARE ASSEMBLED
              TO CREATE PROTEIN.
          129.       TRANSFER RNA—(TRNA)- TRANSFERS EACH AMINO ACID TO
              THE RIBOSOME AS IT IS RELATED BY CODES ON MRNA STRAND
              (WHICH CAME FROM DNA TO TELL THE CELL HOW TO MAKE
              PROTEIN).
Transcription: Synthesis of mRNA
One strand of DNA acts as a template
          130.       mRNA is made in the _NUCLEUS_ of the cell then peels away from the
              DNA template
          131.       mRNA then moves to the __CYTOPLASM__.
Translation: Protein Synthesis
          132.         mRNA carries the message of DNA in the form of _CODONS_ which are
              groups of three bases.
          133.         mRNA finds a ribosome. This is where tRNA comes in. One end of the
              tRNA binds to an amino acid. The other end, called an _ANTICODONS__ has
              three nitrogenous bases that pair up with the bases contained in the codon.
          134.         Each amino acid is linked by a PEPTIDE__ bond to create your
              polypeptide (protein)
          135.         _MUTATION_ - a change in one or more of nucleotide bases (can occur
              from radiation or chemical agents) may cause a change in base or may add/delete
              a base
          136.         _CHROMOSOMAL__ mutation – change in number or structure of
              chromosomes.
          137.         __DUPLICATION_ - chromosomes don’t separate (ex Down’s Syndrome
              extra chromosome in pair 21
          138.         __TRANSLOCATION__ - chromosome pieces moved
          139.         __INVERSION__ - segment of chromosome inserted in reverse
              orientation.
          140.         _DELETION__ - segment of chromosome lost
How to Look for Genetic Defects
          141.         _CYSTIC_ _FIBROSIS_ - look at chemical in blood / urine
          142.         __ AMNIOCENTESIS___ - amniotic fluid taken from womb to look at fetal
              cells.
          143.         __KARYOTYPE___ - paired chromosomes arranged based on shape and
              size.
Genetic Disorders
          144.         __PHENYLKETONIA (PKU)___ - body unable to metabolize
              phenylalanine
          145.         __SICKLE CELL ANEMIA___ - red blood cells abnormally shaped.
          146.         __TAY-SACHS DISEASE__ - nervous system malfunctions due to
              accumulation of fat in brain.
         147.        __RECOMBINANT___ __DNA___ - building recombinant DNA
            (DNA constructed from the DNA of different organisms)
Taxonomy / Ecology
         148.        Seven Levels of Classification (BEST WAY TO REMEMBER IS TO
            THINK ABOUT THE MNEUMONIC ―KINGS PLAY CARDS ON FAT
            GREEN STOOLS‖
                          i. _KINGDOM____
                         ii. PHYLUM__
                         iii. _CLASS___
                         iv. _ORDER__
                         v.   FAMILY___
                         vi. _GENUS__
                        vii. SPECIES___
         149.        In order to accurately classify organisms, biologists must be able to look at
            __HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES__ structures (ex. Wing of bat, arm or
            human, flippers of whale)
         150.        __UNICELLULAR___ - Prokaryotic, single celled
         151.        _MULTICELLULAR___ - Eukaryotic (protozoa, algae, slime molds)
            most unicellular some multi.
         152.        __KINGDOM FUNGI__ - eukaryotic, heterotrophic, cell wall of chitin
         153.        ___KINGDOM PLANT__ - ALL multicellular, autotrophic, cell wall of
            cellulose
         154.        ___KINGDOM ANIMALIA_ - ALL multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell
            wall
         155.        Classification of Invertebrates (Give the Correct Phylum)
                   a. __PHYLUM PORIFERA__ two layers of cells with pores (sponge)
                   b. __PHYLUM CNIDARIAN__ two layers of cells, hollow digestive cavity
                      with tentacles (jellyfish, hydra)
                   c. __PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES__ three layers of cells; flat;
                      bilateral symmetry (tapeworm, planaria, fluke)
       d. __PHYLUM NEMATODA__ digestive system with mouth and anus;
          round (hookworm)
       e. __PHYLUM ANNELIDA__ long, segmented body, digestive system,
          closed circulatory system (earthworm)
       f. ___PHYLUM MOLLUSK__soft body, hard shell (clam, snail)
       g. _PHYLUM ARTHROPOD___ segmented body; jointed legs;
          exoskeleton
       h. __PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA_ spiny skinned; complete digestive
          system (starfish, sea urchin)
156.      Classification of Arthropods (Name the 5 Classes )
       a. _CLASS CRUSTACEAN__ gills, jointed legs (crab, lobster)
       b. _CLASS UNIRAMIANS__ 3 body parts, one pair antennae, 6 legs,
          spiracles
       c. _CLASS ARACHNIDS__ 2 body parts; 8 legs
       d. _CLASS CHILOPODA_ one pair of legs per segment
       e. _CLASS DILOPODA__ two pairs of legs per segment
157.     Classification of Vertebrates (Give the Correct Class)
       a. __LAMPREY AND HAGFISH_ jawless fishes
       b. __CHRONDRICHTHYE__ fishes with skeleton of cartilage
       c. __OSTEIECHTHYE_ fishes with skeleton of bone
       d. __AMPHIBIAN__ Breath through gills, lungs, moist skin, 3 chambered
          heart.
       e. __REPTILIAN__ cold-blooded, scales, 3 chambered heart
       f. __AVES_warm-blooded, wings, 4 chambered heart
       g. __MAMMALIA_ warm-blooded, hair, milk to feed young.
158.     Classification of Plants
       a. __BRYOPHYTE OR AVASCULAR PLANTS_ no true roots, stems,
          and leaves
       b. _VASCULAR PLANTS_ true roots, stems, and leaves. (contain
          vascular system)
159.     Naming Organisms:
       a. Always use the BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
       b. Example: humans are called __Homo__ __sapien_
       c. _Homo_- genus
       d. _sapien__- species
       e. __FOSSILS_ provide the most direct evidence that evolution has
            occurred (ex. Bones, shells, footprints)
160.        Theory of Evolution
       a. _GRADUALISM__ - Darwin model which suggests that evolution is a
            slow, gradual and continuous process.
       b. PUNCTUATED__ ___EQUILIBRIUM__ - long periods of no physical
            change followed by short periods of abrupt change.
       c. _SPECIATION_ - process by which genetically distinct species arise as a
            result of accumulation of adaptations over time.
       d. __SPECIES__ - population of organisms that can interbreed.
161.        Evidence for Evolution
       a.   _Geological Evidence--When similar animals are found in different locations.
            This suggest that they came   from one common ancestor.
       b.   _Fossil Evidence-- Remains of ancient life is a piece of evidence that supports all
            things came from a   common ancestor.
       c.   _Homologous Structures-- When organisms who develop differently but have
            same 4 limb structures.
       d. Same Embryological Development_ In early stages of development,
            certain animals have the same embryonic structure.
       e. _Biochemical Similarity---the theory of evolution states that certain
            animals came from previous ancestors._
162.        Darwin’s Ideas
       a. _INDIVIDUAL ORGANISMS DIFFER, AND SOME OF THIS
            VARIATIONS IS HERITABLE._
       b. __ORGANISMS PRODUCE MORE OFFSPRING THAN CAN
            SURVIVE, THEY COMPETE FOR RESOURCES(FOOD, WATER,
            MATES, ETC.)__
                  c. __EACH UNIQUE ORGANISM HAS DIFFERENT ADVANTAGES
                        AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.
                        THIS CAUSES SPECIES TO CHANGE OVERTIME—HE KNEW
                        THIS TO BE THE PROCESS OF NATURAL SELECTION._
                  d. _SPECIES TODAY ARE DESCENDED WITH MODIFICATIONS
                        FROM THEIR ANCESTRAL SPECIES THAT LIVED IN THE
                        DISTANT PAST._
Ecology
          163.       ECOLOGY__ - the study of organisms and their interactions with the
             environment.
Ecology Vocabulary
          164.       __POPULATION__ - group of organisms of the same species that live
             together in a particular location.
          165.       _COMMUNITY_ - all of the populations living together in a specific
             location
          166.       _ECOSYSTEM__- the community of organisms in an area, as well as the
             nonliving factors of the environment.
          167.       __BIOSPHERE __ - all the living and non-living portions of the earth that
             sustain life.
          168.       _ABIOTIC__ - non-living factors
          169.       __BIOTIC__ living factors
          170.       PRODUCER OR AUTOTROPH___ - produce own food (photosynthesis)
          171.       _CONSUMER OR HETEROTROPH___ - get food from other organisms
          172.       __HERBIVORES__ - plant eaters
          173.       __PREY__ - meat eaters
          174.       __PREDATOR__ - hunt for food
          175.       _DECOMPOSER__ - eat animals that are already dead
          176.       _OMNIVORE__ - eat both plants and animal
          177.       _SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP_ - two organisms living together with
             close nutritional relationship
178.      _ COMMENSALISM_ - one organism benefits, one unaffected
   (shark/remora)
179.      __MUTUALISM__- both organisms benefit (lichen)
180.      __PARASITISM__ - one organism that benefited, the other is harmed.

								
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