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BIOLOGY SOL REVIEW SHEET SOL TEST DATE MON, AUG. 2, 2010 NEED ANSWERS TO THIS REVIEW? GO TO http://teacherweb.com/VA/WarwickHS/Willis_T/photo1.aspx CLICK ON “MISCELLANEOUS” TO THE LEFT. CLICK ON “BIOLOGY SOL REVIEW SHEET ANSWERS 2010” ANSWERS WILL BE POSTED BY 12PM FRIDAY, JULY 29, 2010 I. Scientific Investigation A. Scientific Method 1.Steps of the scientific Method i. ___PROBLEM/QUESTION____ ii. OBSERVATION/RESEARCH_____ iii. __FORM A HYPOTHESIS__ iv. _CONDUCT EXPERIMENT (TO TEST YOUR HYPOTHESIS___ v. __COLLECT AND ANALYZE YOUR RESULTS__ vi. ___FORM A CONCLUSION ____ 2._OBSERVATION __- act of gathering information about a system or environment using one or more of the five senses. 3. _INFERENCE_- a conclusion based on prior knowledge or information. 4.__HYPOTHESIS___- ―educated guess‖ or predicted solution to a problem 5.__VARIABLES__- factors that change and can be measured in the experiment. 6._IV__- the variable that you change on purpose. 7.__DV_- The variable that changes as a result of changing the I.V. 8._CONTROL_- A standard against which experimental results can be measured. 9._CONSTANT___- Things that are kept the same in the experiment. B. Graphing 10.Each graph consists of a vertical axis that intersects a horizontal axis at the __ORIGIN POINT_. 11. The __INDEPENDENT VARIABLE__ variable is recorded on the horizontal or x-axis. 12.The _DEPENDENT VARIABLE__ variable is recorded on the vertical or y-axis. 13.There are four types of relationships in a line graph i. Direct relationship- as the I.V. increases the D.V. _INCREASES__. ii. Inverse Relationship – as the IV increases the dependent variable _DECREASES__. iii. Constant Relationship – as the IV increases, the dependent variable __INCREASE___. iv. Cyclical Relationship- as the IV increases, the DV increases up to a certain point, after which the dependent variable _INCREASE__. II. Life at the Molecular Level A. Water 14. Made up of __2___ hydrogen atoms covalently bonded (bonds that share electrons) to __1_____ oxygen atom. 15. The water molecule has a slightly negative charge and a slightly positive charge, which creates a __POLAR__ structure. 16. _POLARITY__- the attraction between the positive end of one water molecule and the negative end of another water molecule. 17. Water has a _HIGH_ specific heat which means that it takes a lot of energy to increase its temperature.(Helps keep temp. in oceans stable and helps humans keep a normal constant body temp.) 18. Called the _UNIVERSAL_ solvent because it can dissolve substances to be more easily transported throughout an organism. 19. Water molecules stick together. This property is called __COHESION__. (this help water move up a stem) 20. Water molecules also stick to other substances. This is called _ADHESION__. a. Macromolecules i. Carbohydrates: 21. Carbohydrates are _ORGANIC__ (contain the element carbon) 22. Carbohydrates produce and store energy throughout the body. SACCHARIDE=MEANS SUGAR 23. __MONOSACCHARIDE_- one sugar (Glucose) 24. _DISACCHARIDE_- two sugars (sucrose, maltose, lactose) 25. _POLYSACCHARIDE_-many sugars (cellulose, starch, glycogen) i. Lipids: 26. Lipids are a large group of organic macromolecules that are insoluble (ex. Fats, oils, waxes) 27. Lipids are made up of three _FATTY__ _ACIDS_ and one __GLYCEROL___ molecule. 28. Most common types of fats are triglycerides, saturated fats, and unsaturated fats. i. Proteins: 29. Proteins are the key structural elements in living things such as cell membranes, skin, muscle, blood, feather, fins, and fur. 30. Special proteins called _ENZYMES__ help speed up chemical reactions. 31. Made up of AMINO__ __ACIDS__ joined together by PEPTIDE__ bonds. 32. __DIPEPTIDE_ - 2 amino acids 33. _POLYPEPTIDE__- 3 or more amino acids i. Nucleic Acids 34. Nucleic Acids are made up of repeating units called NUCLEOTIDES___. 35. A nucleotide consists of a __PHOSPHATE__ , _SUGAR(DEOXYRIBOSE AND RIBOSE SUGARS)_, and NITROGENOUS___ _BASE__. 36. Two types of nucleic acids are __DNA__ and ____RNA___. a. __DNA__ - stores genetic information b. __RNA__ - essential for protein synthesis. ii. Enzymes (a special group of protein) 1. Enzymes DO a. increase the rate of reaction by lowering the reaction’s activation energy b. form temporary enzyme substrate complexes c. remain unaffected by the reaction 2. Enzymes DON’T a. change in the reaction b. make reactions occur that would otherwise not occur at all 3. What controls enzyme activity a. concentration of the enzyme b. temperature of the enzyme c. acidity of the cell b. pH scale 0-14 37. 7 is __NEUTRAL___ 38. below 7 is ___ACID___ 39. above 7 is ___BASE____ Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration a. Photosynthesis 40. What is the equation?__________ANSWER BELOW__ 41. _CHLOROPLAST_ are the sites for photosynthesis. i. Variables that affect the rate of photosynthesis are 1. intensity 2. concentration b. Cellular respiration 42. What is the equation? ___ANSWER BELOW__ SAME AS 43. _CHLOROPLAST__ is the organelle, which is the site for cellular respiration. The Cell -Parts of the Cell theory 44. __CELLS ARE THE BASIC UNIT OF LIFE___ 45. __ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE UP OF CELLS__ 46. __ALL CELLS COME FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS (THROUGH PROCESS OF MITOSIS)___ Development of the cell theory 47. __ROBERT HOOKE__- observed 1st cells from cork. Coined the term ―cell‖ 48. __ANTON LEEWENHOEK___- observed microscopic cells from pond water 49. ___MATTHAIS SCHEIDEN__- studied plant cells 50. __ THEODOR SCHWANN_- studied animal cells 51. __RUDOLF VIRCHOW_- concluded that cells come from pre-existing cells. 52. __PROKARYOTE__ Cells – Lack a true nucleus and membrane bound organelles (ex. Bacteria) 53. __EUKARYOTE__ cells – have a true nucleus and organelles Cellular Organelles 54. ___NUCLEUS__ -command center of the cell; DNA located here 55. __NUCLEOLUS__- small organelle located inside the nucleus; helps make ribosomes 56. _RIBOSOMES___- small organelles in the cytoplasm; makes protein 57. _ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM___- transportation system of the cell. 58. __GOLGI APPARTUS___- packaging and shipping center of the cell 59. __LYSOSOME___- contains digestive enzymes to break down old cell parts and debris 60. __VACUOLE__- storage tank of the cell 61. __MITOCHONDRIA__- power center of the cell 62. __CHLOROPLAST__- organelle for photosynthesis; contains chlorophyll 63. __CENTRIOLES___- assists in cell division 64. __CYTOPLASM__- medium inside cell which organelles are suspended. 65. __CELL/PLASMA MEMBRANE__- layer (membrane) that surrounds the cell. 66. __CELL WALL__- composed of cellulose in plants and chitin in fungi. Plant vs. Animal Cells (how are they different?) 67. ___PLANT CELLS HAVE A CELL WALL; ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT____ 68. __PLANT CELLS HAVE CHLOROPLAST; ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT ___ 69. __ANIMAL CELLS HAVE CENTRIOLES TO HELP PULL THEM APART DURING CELL DIVISION (MITOSIS); PLANT CELLS DO NOT. INSTEAD, PLANT CELLS USE A CELL PLATE TO HELP THEM DIVIDE.__ Cell Membrane (fluid-Mosaic Model) Draw what the cell membrane looks like and label the parts (SEE BELOW) Transport Passive Transport (does NOT require energy) 70. it is also known as _DIFFUSION__ 71. substances move from an area of _HIGH__ concentration to _LOW_ concentration. 72. __FACILIATED DIFFUSION__ diffusion is a unique type of passive transport in which a membrane (carrier) protein is used to shuttle ions and molecules across the membrane. 73. __OSMOSIS_ is the special term applied to the movement of water molecules across the cell membrane (as a result of diffusion) Active Transport (requires energy) 74. substances move from an area of _HIGH__ concentration to __LOW________ concentration. 75. _PINOCYTOSIS__ (cell drinking) In this process, vacuoles form at the surface of the cell membrane. They then suck in substances on the cell surface and transport them into the cell to be digested. 76. _PHAGOCYTOSIS_(cell eating) a process in which large food particles are engulfed by the cell and brought into the cell for intracellular digestion. Cell Reproduction and Genetics 77. _MITOSIS__ is a process in which somatic (body) cells make identical copies of themselves. 78. During this process two things occur 1._CELL DIVISION _ __2._CYTOKINESIS_ Stages of mitosis 79. _PROPHASE__ - chromosomes condense and become visible; nuclear membrane disappears; centrioles begin to move away from each other. 80. _METAPHASE__ - chromosomes meet in the center of the cell 81. _ANAPHASE_ - sister chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and slowly move to opposite poles. 82. _TELOPHASE_ - nuclear membrane begins to form around each new set of chromosomes; cell tears in half forming two daughter cells. Types of Mitosis 83. __BINARY FISSURE - just like mitosis; bacteria replicate their chromosomes and divide into two identical daughter cells. 84. __BUDDING_ - process in which little buds sprout from the parent and eventually develop into a fully formed offspring. (ex. Yeast, hydra) 85. _SPORING__ - organism produces spores that are released from the parent organism into the air. Meiosis: 86. __MEIOSIS_ is a process by which sexually reproducing organisms maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation. 87. Chromosomes exist in pairs called _HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES__ 88. When a cell has a full complement of homologues, or homologous chromosomes, it is said to be _DIPLOID__. 89. Some cells posses only ONE set of chromosomes and they are called _HAPLOID__. Almost all of the cells in the human body are diploid with the exception of sex cells, or gametes which are haploid. 90. Meiosis is limited to sex cells in special sex organs called gonads. The gonads in males are the __TESTES___, and in females, they are the __OVARIES__. 91. Meiosis involves __2__ rounds of cell division. 92. Since meiosis results in the formation of gametes, it is also known as _GAMETOGENESIS__. 93. When meiosis takes place in the male gonads, it results in the production of sperm cells. This is called __SPERMAGENESIS__ in which four sperm cells are produced from each parent cell. 94. In a female, an egg cell (ovum) is produced as the result of meiosis. This process is called _OOGENESIS__. This differs from meiosis in males in that only ONE ovum is produces. The other three cells, called polar bodies, will eventually disintegrate. Mitosis vs. Meiosis 95. __GENETICS__ is the study of heredity. 96. __GREGOR MENDAL__ is the father of genetics; studied offspring of pea plants. Genetics Vocabulary 97. Each trait – an expressed characteristic – is produced by a pair of hereditary factors known as __ALLELES_. 98. _LOCUS_ - location of genes on a chromosome 99. A gene usually consists of a pair of hereditary factors called _ALLELES__. 100. An allele can be __DOMINANT_ or RECESSIVE___. 101. The recessive trait is masked by the dominant trair. 102. Symbols for alleles : ex. T or t 103. GENOTYPE___ - genetic makeup 104. _PHENOTYPE_- appearance 105. _HOMOZYGOUS_- same (pure) TT or tt 106. __HETEROZYGOUS__- different (Tt) hybrid 107. The 1st generation is always called the _PARENT (P1)___ generation. The offspring of the P1 is called the filial or F1 generation. Offspring of F1 is F2. Mendelian Genetics 108. a __MONOHYBRID_ cross constitutes a study of only one trait 109. a _PUNNETT_ __SQUARE_ is nothing more than a table using letters to represent possible genotypes. 110. Law of _INDEPENDENT__ __ASSORTMENT__ - says that each gene is inherited separately from others. 111. A _DIHYBRID__ cross constitutes a study of two traits at the same time. Beyond Mendelian Genetics 112. ___INCOMPLETE__ __DOMINANCE__ - blending (red and white flowers produce pink flowers) 113. ___CODOMINANCE__ - see both traits (ex. AB blood type) DNA Structure 114. DNA molecule is called a __DOUBLE__ __HELIX___ or twisted ladder. 115. ___WATSON___ and __CRICK_ first determined the double helix structure of DNA. 116. Each strand of DNA is made up of repeating subunits called __NUCLEOTIDES__. 117. Each nucleotide consists of a __PHOSPHATE__, __SUGAR__, and __NITROGENOUS___ base (A-T, C-G (DNA), A-U, C-G (RNA)) 118. The name of the five carbon sugar in DNA is _DEOXYRIBOSE__. 119. A nucleotide in DNA can be attached to one of four bases: __ADENINE__, __GUANINE___, _CYTOSINE___, or __THYMINE___. 120. __A__ binds with ___T___ 121. __C__ binds with __G_ 122. This is called base pairing known as Chargoff’s base pairing rule. DNA replication DNA molecule unzips and joins with free nucleotides to make two DNA molecules Proteins and the Genetic Code 123. DNA does not directly manufacture proteins, this job falls to an intermediate known as RIBOSOMES___. DNA to RNA to PROTEINS Differences between DNA and RNA 124. _DNA IS MADE UP OF 2 STRANDS; RNA IS MADE UP OF 1 STRAND___ 125. __DNA SUGAR’S NAME=DEOXYRIBOSE; RNA SUGAR’S NAME= RIBOSE__ 126. _DNA MOLECULES INCLUDE A-T, C-G; RNA MOLECULES INCLUDE A-U, C-G ___ Types of RNA and their function 127. __MESSENGER RNA (MRNA)- CARRIES COPIES OF INSTRUCTIONS ON HOW TO MAKE PROTEIN TO THE RIBOSOMES.__ 128. __RIBOSOMAL RNA (RRNA)-_THESE MAKE UP RIBOSOMES OF THE CELL; RIBOSOMES ARE WHERE AMINO ACIDS ARE ASSEMBLED TO CREATE PROTEIN. 129. TRANSFER RNA—(TRNA)- TRANSFERS EACH AMINO ACID TO THE RIBOSOME AS IT IS RELATED BY CODES ON MRNA STRAND (WHICH CAME FROM DNA TO TELL THE CELL HOW TO MAKE PROTEIN). Transcription: Synthesis of mRNA One strand of DNA acts as a template 130. mRNA is made in the _NUCLEUS_ of the cell then peels away from the DNA template 131. mRNA then moves to the __CYTOPLASM__. Translation: Protein Synthesis 132. mRNA carries the message of DNA in the form of _CODONS_ which are groups of three bases. 133. mRNA finds a ribosome. This is where tRNA comes in. One end of the tRNA binds to an amino acid. The other end, called an _ANTICODONS__ has three nitrogenous bases that pair up with the bases contained in the codon. 134. Each amino acid is linked by a PEPTIDE__ bond to create your polypeptide (protein) 135. _MUTATION_ - a change in one or more of nucleotide bases (can occur from radiation or chemical agents) may cause a change in base or may add/delete a base 136. _CHROMOSOMAL__ mutation – change in number or structure of chromosomes. 137. __DUPLICATION_ - chromosomes don’t separate (ex Down’s Syndrome extra chromosome in pair 21 138. __TRANSLOCATION__ - chromosome pieces moved 139. __INVERSION__ - segment of chromosome inserted in reverse orientation. 140. _DELETION__ - segment of chromosome lost How to Look for Genetic Defects 141. _CYSTIC_ _FIBROSIS_ - look at chemical in blood / urine 142. __ AMNIOCENTESIS___ - amniotic fluid taken from womb to look at fetal cells. 143. __KARYOTYPE___ - paired chromosomes arranged based on shape and size. Genetic Disorders 144. __PHENYLKETONIA (PKU)___ - body unable to metabolize phenylalanine 145. __SICKLE CELL ANEMIA___ - red blood cells abnormally shaped. 146. __TAY-SACHS DISEASE__ - nervous system malfunctions due to accumulation of fat in brain. 147. __RECOMBINANT___ __DNA___ - building recombinant DNA (DNA constructed from the DNA of different organisms) Taxonomy / Ecology 148. Seven Levels of Classification (BEST WAY TO REMEMBER IS TO THINK ABOUT THE MNEUMONIC ―KINGS PLAY CARDS ON FAT GREEN STOOLS‖ i. _KINGDOM____ ii. PHYLUM__ iii. _CLASS___ iv. _ORDER__ v. FAMILY___ vi. _GENUS__ vii. SPECIES___ 149. In order to accurately classify organisms, biologists must be able to look at __HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES__ structures (ex. Wing of bat, arm or human, flippers of whale) 150. __UNICELLULAR___ - Prokaryotic, single celled 151. _MULTICELLULAR___ - Eukaryotic (protozoa, algae, slime molds) most unicellular some multi. 152. __KINGDOM FUNGI__ - eukaryotic, heterotrophic, cell wall of chitin 153. ___KINGDOM PLANT__ - ALL multicellular, autotrophic, cell wall of cellulose 154. ___KINGDOM ANIMALIA_ - ALL multicellular, heterotrophic, lack cell wall 155. Classification of Invertebrates (Give the Correct Phylum) a. __PHYLUM PORIFERA__ two layers of cells with pores (sponge) b. __PHYLUM CNIDARIAN__ two layers of cells, hollow digestive cavity with tentacles (jellyfish, hydra) c. __PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES__ three layers of cells; flat; bilateral symmetry (tapeworm, planaria, fluke) d. __PHYLUM NEMATODA__ digestive system with mouth and anus; round (hookworm) e. __PHYLUM ANNELIDA__ long, segmented body, digestive system, closed circulatory system (earthworm) f. ___PHYLUM MOLLUSK__soft body, hard shell (clam, snail) g. _PHYLUM ARTHROPOD___ segmented body; jointed legs; exoskeleton h. __PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA_ spiny skinned; complete digestive system (starfish, sea urchin) 156. Classification of Arthropods (Name the 5 Classes ) a. _CLASS CRUSTACEAN__ gills, jointed legs (crab, lobster) b. _CLASS UNIRAMIANS__ 3 body parts, one pair antennae, 6 legs, spiracles c. _CLASS ARACHNIDS__ 2 body parts; 8 legs d. _CLASS CHILOPODA_ one pair of legs per segment e. _CLASS DILOPODA__ two pairs of legs per segment 157. Classification of Vertebrates (Give the Correct Class) a. __LAMPREY AND HAGFISH_ jawless fishes b. __CHRONDRICHTHYE__ fishes with skeleton of cartilage c. __OSTEIECHTHYE_ fishes with skeleton of bone d. __AMPHIBIAN__ Breath through gills, lungs, moist skin, 3 chambered heart. e. __REPTILIAN__ cold-blooded, scales, 3 chambered heart f. __AVES_warm-blooded, wings, 4 chambered heart g. __MAMMALIA_ warm-blooded, hair, milk to feed young. 158. Classification of Plants a. __BRYOPHYTE OR AVASCULAR PLANTS_ no true roots, stems, and leaves b. _VASCULAR PLANTS_ true roots, stems, and leaves. (contain vascular system) 159. Naming Organisms: a. Always use the BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE b. Example: humans are called __Homo__ __sapien_ c. _Homo_- genus d. _sapien__- species e. __FOSSILS_ provide the most direct evidence that evolution has occurred (ex. Bones, shells, footprints) 160. Theory of Evolution a. _GRADUALISM__ - Darwin model which suggests that evolution is a slow, gradual and continuous process. b. PUNCTUATED__ ___EQUILIBRIUM__ - long periods of no physical change followed by short periods of abrupt change. c. _SPECIATION_ - process by which genetically distinct species arise as a result of accumulation of adaptations over time. d. __SPECIES__ - population of organisms that can interbreed. 161. Evidence for Evolution a. _Geological Evidence--When similar animals are found in different locations. This suggest that they came from one common ancestor. b. _Fossil Evidence-- Remains of ancient life is a piece of evidence that supports all things came from a common ancestor. c. _Homologous Structures-- When organisms who develop differently but have same 4 limb structures. d. Same Embryological Development_ In early stages of development, certain animals have the same embryonic structure. e. _Biochemical Similarity---the theory of evolution states that certain animals came from previous ancestors._ 162. Darwin’s Ideas a. _INDIVIDUAL ORGANISMS DIFFER, AND SOME OF THIS VARIATIONS IS HERITABLE._ b. __ORGANISMS PRODUCE MORE OFFSPRING THAN CAN SURVIVE, THEY COMPETE FOR RESOURCES(FOOD, WATER, MATES, ETC.)__ c. __EACH UNIQUE ORGANISM HAS DIFFERENT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE. THIS CAUSES SPECIES TO CHANGE OVERTIME—HE KNEW THIS TO BE THE PROCESS OF NATURAL SELECTION._ d. _SPECIES TODAY ARE DESCENDED WITH MODIFICATIONS FROM THEIR ANCESTRAL SPECIES THAT LIVED IN THE DISTANT PAST._ Ecology 163. ECOLOGY__ - the study of organisms and their interactions with the environment. Ecology Vocabulary 164. __POPULATION__ - group of organisms of the same species that live together in a particular location. 165. _COMMUNITY_ - all of the populations living together in a specific location 166. _ECOSYSTEM__- the community of organisms in an area, as well as the nonliving factors of the environment. 167. __BIOSPHERE __ - all the living and non-living portions of the earth that sustain life. 168. _ABIOTIC__ - non-living factors 169. __BIOTIC__ living factors 170. PRODUCER OR AUTOTROPH___ - produce own food (photosynthesis) 171. _CONSUMER OR HETEROTROPH___ - get food from other organisms 172. __HERBIVORES__ - plant eaters 173. __PREY__ - meat eaters 174. __PREDATOR__ - hunt for food 175. _DECOMPOSER__ - eat animals that are already dead 176. _OMNIVORE__ - eat both plants and animal 177. _SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP_ - two organisms living together with close nutritional relationship 178. _ COMMENSALISM_ - one organism benefits, one unaffected (shark/remora) 179. __MUTUALISM__- both organisms benefit (lichen) 180. __PARASITISM__ - one organism that benefited, the other is harmed.
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