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The Six Dimensions of Wellness

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									                  How We Learn
    The Percentage (%) Of Information That We Retain When We:

10% Read
20%        Hear
30% See
50% See and Hear
70% Discuss
80% Experience
                95% S H A R E
0        20          40          60              80          100
                                   Based on work by William Glasser
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               Fit and Well for Life

         Adopting a wellness lifestyle is
          the most important thing you can
          do to ensure a high quality of life
          for yourself, both now and in the
          future by delaying the aging

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       Developing a Behavior
           Change Plan

    1. What you do today determines
      where you will be tomorrow
      2. Make a personal contract
      3. This class is about choices

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        The Six Dimensions of
     Physical wellness
     Emotional wellness

     Intellectual wellness

     Spiritual wellness

     Interpersonal and social wellness

     Environmental wellness
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PHYE 155              Mr. Kleinkopf
   This class could be renamed
    delaying the aging process.
   It is about making personal
    health choices.
   You won‘t be told to do or not to
    do--just given choices.

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        Five Health-Related
     Components of Fitness/Unit 1
        Cardiorespiratory
        Muscular strength
        Muscular
        Flexibility
        Body composition
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     Cardiorespiratory Endurance
      The ability of the body to
       perform prolonged, large-
       muscle, dynamic exercise at
       moderate-to-high levels of
      A key ―health-related‖

       component of fitness
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           Frequency, Intensity, and
          Duration for CRE(aerobic)
        Frequency
         –  3-5 times per week
        Intensity
          – target heart rate zone
          – Talk test
        Duration
         20 to 60 minutes in your target
        Continuous (not stop and go
        Using Major Muscles (MM)          Mayfield Publishing Company
           Famous Nothings
   I started out with nothing I still have most of it.
   It‘s easier to get older than to get wiser.
   Kids in the back seat cause accidents---
    accidents in the back seat cause kids.
   Some days you‘re the dog, some days you‘re
    the hydrant.
   Funny, I don‘t remember being absent minded.
   Funny, I don‘t remember being absent minded.

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     The Cardiorespiratory System,
          Exercise & Ch. 13
      Cardio:
       – heart and blood
      Respiratory:

       – lungs, air passages,
         and breathing
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        Resting Heart Rate

   Resting heart rate is a great
    predictor of previous cardio-
    respiratory endurance (aerobic)
    in individuals with normal
    cardiovascular functioning and free
    of other disease.

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Using Your Target Heart Rate Zone
      1. Estimate maximum heart rate
       (MHR) by subtracting age from
      2. Multiply MHR by 70% and

       85% to find target heart rate
      Athletes use 80%/95%

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     Major Risk Factors That Can
            Be Changed

                Tobacco use/ living
                 & working with a
                High blood

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 Exercise
 Dealing with stress

 Diet/Cholesterol/Obesity/Sat. Fat

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     Major Risk Factors That Cannot
              Be Changed
      Heredity
      Diabetes

      Race

      Gender

      Age

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         Benefits of Cardiorespiratory
      Improved cardiorespiratory
        – increases stroke volume
      Improved cellular metabolism:

        – increases vascularization in the

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                 More Benefits
        Reduced risk of chronic disease:
          – cancer
          – diabetes
          – osteoporosis
        Improved immune function
        Better body composition

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        More benefits
 Lung capacity Inc. to 75 %
  Measured by max V02
 Bowel Regularity

 Adaptation to stressful change ^

 Blood pressure Dec.

 Blood volume ^ 1 Qt.

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         More benefits

 HDL ^
 Total Cholesterol Dec.

 LDL Dec.

 Insomnia Diminishes

 Beta Endorphins Inc.

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         Cardiovascular Disease
             (CVD) Ch.. 15
      Hypertension
      Atherosclerosis

      Heart disease and heart attacks

      Stroke

      Congestive heart failure

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        Lipid Profiles

 What do they measure?
 At what age should we begin

 What is a risk ratio? TC/HDL

 How often should we check?

 Who can read them?

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        C-Reactive Protein
   CRP-A new factor, which is a
    protein found in the bloodstream of
    those individuals who have artery
    disease. The greater the vessel
    inflammation, the larger the amount
    of CRP found. About $20 for the
    test. May be more accurate than
    risk-ratios for determining CVD.
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         Contributing Risk Factors That
                    are New
        C-Reactive Protein Levels (CRP)
     •   Hypertriglyceridemia
        Hyperhomocystinemia
        HDL >35, LDL< 130 mg/dl
        Triglycerides < 200 mg/dl
        Keep total cholesterol < 180 20yr.old
                                <200 Adults

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       Ch. 13/15 Misc. Notes
•   Aspirin should be taken daily for those over 30
    who are aspirin tolerant. Coated baby aspirin
•   Stretching should be sport specific.
     cool down
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           Notes Continued
•   Risk ratios maybe more important than
    total cholesterol readings.
•   CRP (C-Reactive Protein) will be a new
    measurement of the future.
•   About 1.5 M adults will suffer CVD
    illnesses this year. A little less than ½
    won‘t be there the next day. Exercisers
    will have by far the best odds.

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             Related terms
   Aneurysm
   Hypertrophy
   Atrophy
   MI
   Angina
   Thrombus
   Atheriosclerosis/
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    About 1/6 of all Americans
   The Silent Killer
   A controllable CVD risk
   120/80 College age
   140/90 Adult population on
    the street

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    Hypertension Risk Factors
   Tobacco in any form
   Birth Control
   Age
   Race
   Obesity

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 Genetics (heredity)
 Diets high In Sat. Fats

 Inability to adapt to stress

 Sometimes unknown

   –We simple don‘t know why.
   –Called essential hypertension.
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 Pregnancy
 Diabetes

 Any medical problems

  –associated with kidney disease

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     Protect Yourself Against CVD

      Eat heart-healthy
      Exercise regularly

      Avoid tobacco

      Know and manage blood


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Major Factors Con’t.

Unhealthy Cholesterol

  Physical Inactivity

 Dealing With Stress

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 Manage stress/anger
 Tobacco

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         Benefits of Strength Training
        Improved physical performance
        Injury prevention
        Improved body composition
         (increases fat-free mass and elevates
        Enhanced self-image
        Osteoporosis dec.
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         What Determines Flexibility?
        Joint structure
        Muscle elasticity and length
        Nervous system activity
          – stretch receptors control the length
            of muscles
          – proprioceptive neuromuscular
            facilitation (PNF) technique may
            improve flexibility

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         Muscle Tissue and Flexibility
        Muscle tissue can be stretched to
         increase flexibility
        Connective tissue is most important
         part of muscle tissue for flexibility
         –collagen (white fibers) for
          structure and support
         –elastin (yellow fibers) are
          elastic and flexible
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     Muscular Strength and
           Muscular strength
            – the maximum amount of
                force a muscle can produce in
                a single effort
           Muscular endurance
            –   the ability of a muscle to
                exert a submaximal force
                continuously or repeatedly
                over time
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     Physiology of Weight Training
        Myofibrils make up muscle fibers.
         Bundles of muscle fibers make up
        Types of muscle fibers
         – slow-twitch fibers (fatigue-resistant;
           endurance activities)
         – fast-twitch fibers (contract more
           rapidly and forcefully, fatigue more
           quickly; strength and power activities)

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            Types of Weight Training
        Isometric (static) - application of force
         without movement
        Isotonic (dynamic) - application of
         force with movement
         – constant and variable resistance (most
           common types)
         – eccentric loading
         – plyometrics
         – isokinetic
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         Physiological Benefits of
      Reduces soreness and aches and
      Improves performance in sports

       and other activities
      Contributes to good posture

      Promotes relaxation

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             Stretching Techniques
        Static stretching
          – gradual stretching
        Ballistic stretching (POOR)
         sudden stretching in a
         bouncing movement
        Proprioceptive neuromuscular
         facilitation (PNF)
          – muscle is contracted, then

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         Weight Management Basics
                 Ch. 12/14

        Moderation is the best choice
        60% of American adults are overweight
         (US News Aug.2002)
        25% of American adults are obese
        One out of four American children are
         considered obese
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          Nutrition Con’t.
–   carbohydrates -
    quick source of fuel           Fats
–   fats - long term fuel
–   proteins - primarily    Protein/Mainly Plant
    build new muscle
    and tissue                Carbohydrates

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          Set Point Theory
   Some authors agree that your body
    has a genetic ―Set Point‖ for your
    ideal weight. Regardless of what you
    think about metabolism, exercise is
    the only thing that will permanently
    change your set point for weight
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               Energy Production
        Metabolism
         – the sum of all chemical processes
           necessary to maintain the body
         – metabolic rate depends on an
           individual‘s level of activity
         – It is basically genetically determined
           and lowers as we age
        Energy from food = fuel for the body

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     ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
        The cellular energy. Three energy
         systems are:
          – immediate
          – nonoxidative (anaerobic)
          – oxidative (aerobic)
        Individuals generally use all three
         systems in combination while exercising

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            Health Risks of Obesity
        Major risk factor for heart
        Increased risk of CVD,
         hypertension, gallbladder
         disease, diabetes
        Associated with certain
         types of cancer
        Complications in pregnancy
        Respiratory problems
        Joint disease

                                       Mayfield Publishing Company

         Factors Influencing Obesity
        Genetic
         – genes influence body size and shape,
           body fat distribution, and metabolic
        Environmental
         – lifestyle choices
        Metabolism and energy balance

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           Overweight and Obesity
        Overweight: total body weight above
         recommended range
        Obesity: more serious degree of
         overweight based on percent body fat or
         other method
        Percent body fat --proportion of body‘s
         total weight that is fat -- is a more accurate
         measurement of body composition than
         total body weight
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             Changing Your Energy
        For weight loss, a negative calorie
         balance must be created by
         expending more calories than are
        Increasing physical activity increases
         calories expended
        Changing diet decreases calories
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                Lifestyle Factors
        Diet and eating habits
        Physical activity and exercise
         – regular physical activity
        Thoughts and emotions
         – having a healthy outlook
        Coping strategies
         – appropriate help to ease the stress

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     Dietary Guidelines for Weight
        Control consumption of
         calories, fat, sugar,
         protein, alcohol
        Monitor portion sizes
        Increase intake of
         complex carbohydrates
        Develop regular eating
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      Body Composition
 We will measure Adipose Tissue
  with an estimation method
  between 2 and 3% accuracy.
 Fat is essential. It is a source of

  energy, temperature regulation
  and cushions the organs. Non-
  essential fat is the problem.
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                 Body Composition
        Fat-free mass
         – all the body‘s nonfat tissues
         – bone, water, muscle, connective tissue,
           organ tissues, teeth
        Fat
          – essential fat (needed for body function)
              found in nerves, brain, heart, lungs, liver,
               mammary glands
          – nonessential (storage) fat (excess body fat)
              found in adipose tissue

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           Body Composition in the
               United States
        More than60% of American adults are
         classified as overweight
        25% of American adults are classified as
        Sedentary lifestyles are on the increase
        Average calorie intake has increased by
         100-300 calories/day in 10 years

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     Assessing Body Composition
      Ht/Wt. Measurements
      Body Mass Index (BMI)

       –calculated by dividing (weight
        X 703) by square of height
      Percent body fat

       –calculated using skinfold
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   Other methods
    –underwater (hydrostatic)
    –bioelectrical impedance
     analysis (BIA)
    –Futrex-infrared light beam

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              Essential Nutrients
        Fuelers the body cannot produce in
         sufficient quantity for its needs
          – proteins
          – fats
          – carbohydrates

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 vitamins
 minerals
 water( by far the most important of the
  fuelers and fixers)
 For every 1 lb of wt. loss during
  exercise-rehydrate with 3 cups H20.
  With extreme workouts, rehydrate
  with electrolytes and glucose solutions
  like Gatorade.

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           Vitamins and Minerals
      Vitamins - organic substances

         – required in very small amounts to help
           chemical reactions
         – humans need 13 vitamins
         – antioxidants help preserve body‘s
           healthy cells
        Minerals - inorganic compounds
         – help regulate body functions
         – 17 essential minerals

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               Sources of Energy
        Measured by number of kilocalories (kcal
         or calorie)
        Average adult requires around 2000
         calories per day
        Excess calories stored by the body as fat
          – protein and carbohydrates provide 4
          – fats provide 9 cal/gram
          – alcohol provides 7 cal/gram

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      Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
    RMR accounts for 55-75%
     of daily energy expenditure
    Affected by
      – heredity and environment
      – gender
      – lifestyle
    Exercise increases RMR

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        10-15% of total calories should come
         from protein
        Important component of muscle, bone,
         blood, enzymes, cell membranes,
        Composed of amino acids
        Sources: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk,
         cheese, beans, peas, nuts

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        25-30% of total calories should
         come from fat
        Most concentrated source of energy
        Provide insulation and support for
        Help absorb fat-soluble vitamins
        5 main types of fats from foods

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   5 types of fats from foods
     – Saturated
     – Monounsaturated
     – Polyunsaturated
     – Omega 3‘s (Fish Oils)
     – Trans Fatty Acids-Hydrogenated
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   Monounsaturated fats are liquid at
    room temp. and turn thick and
    cloudy when cooled. Olive, and nut
    oils are Mono‘s. They raise HDL.
   Polyunsaturated oils are clear/ liquid
    and remain that way when cooled.
    They have little effect on HDL.
    Corn and Safflower are Poly‘s.
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 Omega 3‘s are fish fats and seem
  to protect the heart from CVD.
  They should be consumed 2 to 3
  times per week.
 New labels will soon include

  Trans-fatty fats as an ingredient.
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 Saturated fats like butter and
  palm oil are solid at room temp
  and lower HDL.
 Transfatty acids are made when
  we pass hydrogen gas thru a
  vegetable oil (hydrogenation) to
  stabilize the fat. They lower
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          Order of Fats

 I would put Mono‘s and Omega
  3‘s on the top of the list with 
 I would list Polyunsaturated next

 I would list Hydrogenated fats
  next (read the label)
 I would list Sat. fats tied for last.

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         Fat Facts
        Fats make up over 40%
         of average American diet
         (5 tablespoons per day)
        Saturated fats raise blood
         levels of LDL (―bad‖
        Unsaturated fats lower
         LDL and raise HDL
         (―good‖ cholesterol)
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        60 to 65% of total calories should
         come from carbohydrates
        Supply energy to cells, especially during
         high-intensity exercise
        Simple carbohydrates provide sweetness
        Complex carbohydrates provide starch
         and most dietary fiber
        Americans need to consume more
         unrefined complex carbohydrates
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   Contribute to disease prevention
    – manage diabetes and high blood
    – prevent conditions arising in the
      intestinal tract
   Foods highest in dietary fiber
    – fruits, legumes, oats, barley, wheat
      bran, cereals, grains, and vegetables

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                 Dietary Fiber
        Carbohydrate plant substances that
         are difficult or impossible for
         humans to digest
        I recommend diets high in complex
         carbohydrates and low in fat.
        Two types of complex carbohydrates
          – soluble I and insoluble II

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            Fiber 1’s
Fiber 1‘s lower intestinal cancer
 rates and raise HDL by lowering
 LDL. (beans, oats, nuts, apples,
 peas) are good sources of fiber 1‘
 Fiber 2‘s Lower intestinal
 cancers also.

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           Dietary Guidelines
      Eat a variety of foods
      Balance foods you eat with

       physical activity
      Choose plenty of grain products,

       vegetables, and fruits
      Choose a diet low in fat,

       saturated fat, and cholesterol
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 Be moderate in consumption of
 Choose a diet moderate in salt

  and sodium
 Drink alcohol moderately, if at

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 Over the counter “fixers” are totally
non-necessary and usually dangerous

 Creatine Monohydrate
 Protein Powders

 Testosterone (anabolic-

  androgenic steroids)
 Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid

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    Over the counter fixers
 Human Growth Hormone
 Erythropoietin (EPO)

 Ma Huang (Ephedra)

 Androstenedione (Andro)

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               Body Image

      The picture of the body as seen
       through the mind‘s eye ---- does
       not determine Worth as a human
      Worth is not a function of how

       one looks!
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          Eating Disorders
   Eating disorders characterized by
    dissatisfaction with body image and
    body weight
    – anorexia nervosa
    – bulimia nervosa
    – binge-eating disorder

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             Addictive Behaviors
    Habits that have gotten out of control, with a
     resulting possible negative impact on health
    Characteristics of addictive behaviors
      – reinforcement
      – compulsion or craving
      – loss of control
      – escalation
      – negative consequences

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               Substance Abuse
      Physical dependence may or may
       not be present
      Involves one or more:

         – recurrent drug use resulting in failure
           to fulfill major responsibilities
         – recurrent drug use in physically
           hazardous situations

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             Substance Dependence
        Includes 3 or more of the following:
         –   developing tolerance to the substance
         –   experiencing withdrawal
         –   taking substance in larger amounts
         –   wanting to cut down or regulate use
         –   spending a great deal of time obtaining the
             substance or recovering from its effects
         –   giving up or reducing important activities
         –   continuing to use substance despite
             recognizing drug-related problems
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        Tobacco/chapter 11
   Pg. 232 lists Nicotine at the most
    addictive substance known to man.
   Of all your choices in this class,
    tobacco will kill more of you than
    any other(430,000 this year in the
   160,000 lung cancer deaths alone.
    90% of all lung cancers are directly
    caused by smoking. 30% of the total.
   6000 new users(young)each day-US
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      Overview of Tobacco Use
•   About 1 in 4 American adults smoke
•   Every hour, 60 Americans die from
    preventable smoking-related diseases
•   Over 430,000 Americans die annually from
    the effects of cigarette smoking
•   Environmental tobacco smoke causes more
    than 50,000 deaths annually among
•   10% of infant deaths are caused by pregnant
    women smoking
•   Spit tobacco and cigar use are rapidly rising
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    When you buy your next
     carton of cigarettes--
 Turn to the person next to you
  and exclaim_____
 That‘s a day and a half worth of

  my life I just traded for.
 That‘s $50 of medical costs for

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        Nicotine addiction
         – physical dependence on the
           psychoactive drug nicotine
        Withdrawal symptoms
         – muscular pains, headaches,
           nausea, insomnia,

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       Smoke If you chose!
   It causes impotency in males and
    sexual dysfunction in females.
   Your children will be sick more and
    longer if you smoke in their
    1100 in the US died today.
   They died as a direct result of
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       Health Hazards of Tobacco
    Short-term effects
      – respiratory (shortness of breath, smoker‘s
        cough), loss of appetite, diarrhea, fatigue,
        hoarseness, stomach pains, insomnia,
        impaired night sight
       43 chemicals are directly linked to cancer.
       Others are co carcinogens.

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Benefits of quitting smoking
• Year one-
    Heart disease is ½ that of a smoker
•   Year 5
    Risk of stroke =‗s that of a non-smoker
•   Year 10
    lung cancer 50% of continuing smoker
    other cancer incidence decreases
•   Year 15
     Lung cancer risk 25% of continuing smoker
     Risk of CVD/Stroke =‗s that of non-smokers

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            Environmental Tobacco
        ETS (Secondhand) smoke. Higher
         concentrations of carcinogens,nicotine
         and tar.
        ETS causes nearly 3000 deaths/year from
         lung cancer and 50,000/year from heart
         disease in nonsmokers.
        1 in 4 adults smoke, a little higher among
         college students. 30%
         (38%m/30%women total tobacco use)
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   Incurable and irreversible.
   Caused by environmental,
    occupational and smoking.
   If you smoke, you will get
    emphysema. When?
   Lung size is huge. (Tennis court in
    the aveg. person, one cell thick)
   Chronic Bronchitis can heal.
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             Spit Tobacco
   A dip in the cheek is worth the
    nicotine of 2 to 3 cigarettes, 4 if it is
    a filtered.
   A 2 can a week dipper is a 1&1/2
    pack /day smoker.
   30,000 oral cancers/ yr.. ^ your oral
    cancer odds 50X. (Cheek, gum,
    throat, larynx cancers)

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      Spit Tobacco

 More than 5 million adult users
 7% of HS are users

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       Tobacco Vs. Alcohol
   It‘s a toss-up.
   You can be a part-time user of
    alcohol. You are addicted by the
    2nd pack of cigarettes.
   Alcohol is a severe depressant,
    tobacco a stimulant & is the most
    addictive substance known to man.

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        Alcohol C2H5OH
 Alcohol is a CNS depressant.
 Ethyl alcohol is drinking alcohol.

 Concentration is 1/2 the proof.

 Beer,Wine, and Hard Liquor

  contain similar concentrations
  when computed out/ drink.

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                   Alcohol Facts
        70% of Americans over age 15 drink
         alcohol in some form
        85% of college students(44% Binge)
        Alcohol-related injuries are leading cause
         of death among people between ages 15
         and 24
        Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is
         detm. by amount of alcohol consumed,
         weight, body fat, gender.

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         Effects of Chronic Use of
      Cirrhosis of the liver
      Pancreatic inflammation

      Cardiovascular problems

      Cancer!

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 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  due to maternal drinking.
 Lower birth weight children.

 $117 B cost to society.

 Tobacco--$70Billion.

                          Mayfield Publishing Company
        Binge Drinking
 44 % of you are binge drinkers.
 Binge drinking kills.

 22% of you binge each week-end.

 Legality makes no difference.

  It‘s a legal drug if you are 21 yr.
  of age.

                              Mayfield Publishing Company

              Cancer Basics
      The abnormal, uncontrolled
       growth of cells, which if left
       untreated, can ultimately cause
      85 million Americans will
       develop cancer at some time in
       their lives
                                  Mayfield Publishing Company
   1 in 2 males will develop cancer in their
    lifetime at the present rates.
   1 in 3 females can expect to develop
    cancer at the present rates.
   I would think tobacco is the major cause
    for this difference. However, I don‘t
    think your author says this.

                                      Mayfield Publishing Company

 Benign tumors: do not spread to
  neighboring tissues
 Malignant tumors: can invade

  surrounding structures and
  spread to distant sites

                            Mayfield Publishing Company

 Carcinomas-Epithelia tissues
 Sarcomas-Connective/fibrous

 Lymphomas-Lymph nodes

 Leukemia's-blood-forming cells

                           Mayfield Publishing Company

            Common Cancers
      Lung cancer
       – responsible for over 160,000
         deaths each year
       – 87% of cases involve tobacco
      Colon and rectal cancer

       – linked to diet and genetic
         predisposition          Mayfield Publishing Company

 Breast cancer
  – most common cancer in women
 Prostate cancer (PSA test)

  – most common cancer in men

                         Mayfield Publishing Company
              BREAST SELF-

Breast care is a very important part of a woman’s
healthcare regimen. Checking for changes in the way her
breasts look and feel should become a routine task for
any woman. The breast self-examination is not difficult or
time consuming. It takes only a few minutes to learn and
to do each month.

                                               Mayfield Publishing Company
   Standing in front of a mirror, look at
    how your breasts appear while you
    hold your arms at your side. If you
    notice dimpling or skin or nipple
    changes, call your doctor.

   While in front of the mirror, look at
    your breasts while you raise your
    arms to behind your head. If you
    notice dimpling or skin or nipple
    changes, call your doctor.
                                   Mayfield Publishing Company
• CHECK THE NIPPLES—Using your thumb and
  forefinger, squeeze your nipple as shown. Many
  women have a whitish-colored discharge, but if you
  notice a pus-like discharge or rust-colored fluid
  comes from a nipple, call your doctor.

• LIE DOWN—While lying on your back, raise one
  arm above your head. Examine the breast on that
  side. Thinking of it as divided into parallel “strips.”
  Check each strip with the pads of your fingertips,
  using small, circular movements. Change the
  pressure as you feel for changes, such as grains or
  lumps, throughout the breast. If you feel any
  changes, call your doctor.
                                             Mayfield Publishing Company

Men can increase their chances of early detection by
regularity doing a testicular self-examination (TSE).
The TSE should be performed once a month after a
warm bath or shower. Check each testicle separately.
Cancer will often feel like a small lump about the size of
a pen on the front or side of the testicle. It usually does
not hurt.

                                                Mayfield Publishing Company
• Stand naked in front of a mirror. Look for any
  swelling on the scrotal skin.

• Roll each testicle gently between thumb and
  forefinger. (Note: one testicle may be naturally
  larger or lower than the other.)

• Find the epididymis (a cordlike structure on the top
  and back of the testicle that stores and moves

• Examine the vas, the sperm-carrying tube coming
  up from your epididymis. It should feel firm,
  flexible and smooth.
                                           Mayfield Publishing Company

            Cancers of the Female
             Reproductive Tract
        Cervical cancer
         – more than 80/95% of cases are sexually
         – Pap test used for screening
        Uterine (endometrial) cancer
         – most often occurs after age 55
        Ovarian cancer (most often after age 60)
         – rare and difficult to detect

                                         Mayfield Publishing Company

               Skin Cancer
      Caused by excessive exposure to
       ultraviolet (UVB) radiation
      3 types of skin cancer( 1M/yr)

       – basal cell
       – squamous cell
       – melanoma/44,000/Yr
      Use sunscreen /SPF15 ^/clothing
                                 Mayfield Publishing Company

                Other Cancers
        Oral cancer
         – cancers of the lip, tongue,
           mouth, throat
         – primarily traced to smoking,
           spit tobacco, excess alcohol use
         – incidence is twice as great in
           men as in women
                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
   ABCD’s of Skin Cancer

        • Pg. 470 9th ed
 A-Asymmetry

 B-Border

 C-Color

 D-Diameter

                           Mayfield Publishing Company
          Cancers Cont.
 Melanomas are the # 1 cancer killer
   in women ages 25-29
 Testicular cancer
   – most common cancer in men age 29-35
 Bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer,
  leukemias, lymphomas, multiple
  myelomas, brain, kidney, ovarian,
  stomach & uterine just to name a few.

                                 Mayfield Publishing Company

           Cancer Risk Factors
      Tobacco
      Diet and obesity

      Alcohol

      Sedentary lifestyle/Exercise

      Family history of cancer

      Occupational factors

                                  Mayfield Publishing Company

 Viruses and other biological
 Environmental pollution

 Ultraviolet radiation

                          Mayfield Publishing Company

              Preventing Cancer

     •   Avoid tobacco
     •   Control diet and weight
     •   Exercise regularly

                                   Mayfield Publishing Company

 Protect skin from sun
 Avoid environmental and

  occupational carcinogens
 Be aware of early signs and

  undergo recommended
  screening tests
                          Mayfield Publishing Company
   C-Change in bowel or bladder habits
   A-A sore that won‘t heal
   U-Unusual bleeding or discharge
   T-Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
   I-Persistent indigestion
   O-Obvious change in a wart or mole
   N-Nagging Cough
                                               Mayfield Publishing Company
    New Cancer Treatments

 Genetic Therapy
 Signaling Therapy

 Starving The Cancer

                        Mayfield Publishing Company

   Educate to elevate
 Abstinence
 Monogamy

 Safer Sex

  –Latex Condoms w/spermicidal
                         Mayfield Publishing Company
         STD Causes

Direct sexual contact thru the
 mouth, open mucus linings,
 blood, rectum, penis and vagina.
 Parasites and HIV can be
 spread Asexually.

                            Mayfield Publishing Company

          Sexually Transmitted
      HIV infection-6000/day
       die in Africa-2002
      Chlamydia

      Gonorrhea

      Pelvic inflammatory


                                Mayfield Publishing Company

 Genital warts
 Genital herpes

 Hepatitis B

 Syphilis

                    Mayfield Publishing Company

 Parasites/Crabs/Pubic Lice
 Yeasts

 Fungi

 Trich

                               Mayfield Publishing Company
   Very Curable
   Blood test sure/chancre maybe
   3 mo. Incubation?/3 stages/death
   3rd stage mental
    instability,CVD,blindness, joint
    problems,hearing,tooth etc.
   Antibiotics

                                       Mayfield Publishing Company
   Very Curable
   Cause PID if untreated
   W/ maybe asymptomatic/vaginal
   M/watery discharge/testicular pain
   Antibiotics

                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
   Very Curable
   700,000 new cases each year
   PID/epididymitis
   W/asymptomatic/conjunctivitis/flourishes
    in mucous membranes-mouth,anus, etc.
   M/yellowish-white thick discharge/pain
   Newer antibiotics

                                    Mayfield Publishing Company
   Major catch-all phrase for STD
   Up to 40 % of W/infected with
    Chla/Gono develop infections, ectopic
    pregnancy, infertility, pelvic pain
   Smokers twice the risk
   Many become asymptomatic

                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
       Genital Herpes-HSV/2
   45 million people/1 million/yr
   HSV_1 50-80% antibodies indicating
    previous exposure
   Usually active lesions produce
    transmission/1% mother to fetus
   5-8 outbreaks/yr.---3 weeks:2/20 days inc
   No cure/Acyclovir medications are used
   Cervical/anal cancers

                                      Mayfield Publishing Company
          HPV-Genital Warts
   Condylomas
   20 Million now/5.5 million/yr
   Usually no visible warts, penis, urethra,
    labia, vulva, rectum etc.
   Pap may diagnose
   Cryosurgery/electrocautery, laser, salves
    and ointments
   No real cure
                                      Mayfield Publishing Company
   Trichomoniasis-trich protozoal STD, 5-28
    days. Can remain active outside the
    body, urine/3 hr/ seminal fluid 6 hr.
   Public :) lice—crabs, feed on human
    blood, 24 hr. separated from host,
    lotions, shampoos
   Scabies-burrowing parasite, arm pits and
    under breasts etc., medicated cream

                                    Mayfield Publishing Company

           Human Immunodeficiency
                Virus (HIV)
        Chronic disease that progressively
         damages the body‘s immune system
        Asymptomatic period ranges from 2 to 20
          – virus can be passed on to others during
            this time
        AIDS is diagnosed when number of CD4 T
         cells falls to certain level or marker
         conditions appear
                                           Mayfield Publishing Company
   467,910Deaths US-Cum. Stats Nov
   Cum. Cases US 816,149
   666,026 M/141,048 F
   9,074Children-Nov,2002
   White, Black, Hispanic, Asian,
    American Indian-order of ^ Inc
   Ck. CDC.Gov /HIV/stats Web site
                                 Mayfield Publishing Company
Exposure Category                                   Male       Female         Total*

Men who have sex with men                           368,971         -         368,971

Injecting Drug Use                                  145,750     55,576        201,326

Men who have sex with men and inject drugs          51,293          -          51,293

Hemophilia/coagulation disorder                      5,000        292           5,292

Heterosexual contact                                32,735      57,396         90,131

Recipient of blood transfusion, blood components,    5,057       3,914          8,971
or tissue

Risk not reported or identified                     57,220      23,870         81,091
                                                              Mayfield Publishing Company
AIDS Cases Reported in 2000 and Estimated 2000
   Population, by Race/ Ethnicity, United States
    AIDS Cases                                      Population
    N= 42,156*                                   N= 285,863,000

          32%                                             71%

                          < 1%                                                         1%
 47%                      1%

       White, not Hispanic                    Asian/ Pacific Islander
       Black, not Hispanic                    American Indian/
       Hispanic                                 Alaska Native
                *Includes 117 persons with unknown race/ ethnicity
                                                                Mayfield Publishing Company
  Adult/ Adolescent AIDS Rates p er 10 0,000 White Population
                       Reported in 2 000
                                1.9                                                                                3.7
                                                  *                                                          6.8
                   1.9                                                  2.7                                            NH   2.6
                                   2.5            *                                                  12.0              MA 12.9
                                                                                 4.0                                   RI   7.0
                                                  3.3             2.9                               5.7                CT  10.0
                                                                                       3.7                             NJ   8.1
                         7.3                                              6.4   5.4                                    DE  10.4
  14.5                                 7.2                                                   3.4
                                                      3.8                                           6.5                MD   7.3
                                                                  5.3             4.1                                  DC 113.1
                    10.6         8.7                    10.6       6.2                         7.5
                                                                                                           Ra te p er 10 0,00 0
                                                                          7.8   5.2      5.6                         5 -9.9
                                                                                                                    1 0+
                                                  10.7              7.0                      17.2
            3.1                                                                                                 * < 5 ca ses
                                                                                                           US ra te = 7.9
                               21 .5                                                                       N= 1 3,3 61*

*Includes cases with unknown state of residence
                                                                                                          Mayfield Publishing Company
 AIDS Cases in Adults and Adolescents by Exposure Category
  and Race/ Ethnicity, Reported through 2000, United States
                                                White                        Black
                                             not Hispanic                not Hispanic                      Hispanic
Exposure category                            Number %                     Number            %           Number            %
Men who have sex with
  men (MSM)                                  223,470 68                    78,651          27            48,287 35
Injection drug use (IDU)                       39,764 12                102,492            36            50,196 36
MSM and IDU                                    24,958           8          15,848            6              7,673              5
Heterosexual contact                           16,866           5          45,601          16            18,683 13
O ther/ not identified*                       24,551            7        44,699            16           14,823 11
Total                                        329,609                    287,291                        139,662
*Includes patients with hemophilia or transfusion-related exposures and those whose medical record review is
 pending; patients who died, were lost to follow-up, or declined interview; and those with other or undetermined
 modes of exposure

                                                                                                 Mayfield Publishing Company

            The Transmission of HIV
         HIV lives within cells and body fluids
          (blood and blood products, semen,
          vaginal and cervical secretions, breast
         Spread in three ways
           – certain sexual activities
           – direct contact with infected blood
           – from infected mother to fetus or
             through breastfeeding
                                             Mayfield Publishing Company

             Symptoms of HIV

       Persistent swollen glands
       Lumps, rashes, sores or growths

        on skin or membranes
       Persistent yeast infections

       Flu like symptoms

                                  Mayfield Publishing Company

 Unexplained weight loss
 Fever and drenching night

 Others

                              Mayfield Publishing Company
                       AIDS Cases by Age and Sex
                    Reported 198 1-2000, United States
   4 0 ,0 0 0

   3 5 ,0 0 0
s                                                      Ma le N= 64 0,022
e 3 0 ,0 0 0
a                                                      Female N= 13 4,441
C 2 5 ,0 0 0
r 2 0 ,0 0 0
m 1 5 ,0 0 0
   1 0 ,0 0 0

    5 ,0 0 0

                0   10   20   30    40       50   60   70   80     90      1 00
                                   Age at Dia gnosis
                                         3                       Mayfield Publishing Company
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       Previous slide explanation
   The first period of rapid increase coincides with,
    and probably reflects, the increasing use of
    prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    and the increasing use of antiretroviral therapy with
    reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as zidovudine.
    The second period of rapid increase probably
    reflects the increasing use of highly active
    combination antiretroviral therapy (HAART), such as
    with protease inhibitors, and perhaps the increasing
    use of prophylaxis for other opportunistic
    infections, such as Mycobacterium avium infection.

                                             Mayfield Publishing Company
Personality Behavior Types

 Type ―A‖ behaviors lead to CVD
  if anger, hostility, and cynical
  behaviors are exhibited.
 Type ―B‖ behaviors are not more
  prone to CVD
 Both behaviors can be altered.

                            Mayfield Publishing Company

     Major Sources of Student
                    Finances
                    Family/Peers
                    College
                    Job/Time
                    Interpersonal

                               Mayfield Publishing Company
         What is Stress?
 Stress is a disruption of one‘s
 Mr. K offers an equation:

Stress = The Stressor + Personality Traits
 Stressors can be physical, social, and
  psychological. Stressors are similar for
  each of us, PT‘s differ. This is the KEY.
 Personality traits are influenced by
  heredity, physical vitality and your social
                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
                It’s a Secret
   Running is one of the contexts I have created to
    put order in my life; after 28,000 miles, I‘ve
    changed to walking. The point is, it‘s not the
    miles or hours; it‘s the ability to refresh my
    center of attention, to create a make believe
    path and to find out who I really am.
    Mr. K

   What a great feeling I get each day .
                                           Mayfield Publishing Company

            Stress Basics
        Stressors are events that trigger
        Stress response is the physiological
         and psychological response to
        Nervous and endocrine systems
         produce physical reactions to
                                  Mayfield Publishing Company

        Two categories of stressors
         – eustress: stress triggered by
           pleasant stressor
         – distress: stress triggered by
           unpleasant stressor

                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
         Physical Responses to
      Autonomic nervous system

         – parasympathetic (relaxed state)
         – sympathetic (fight-or-flight reaction)
        Endocrine system
         – releases hormones: cortisol,
           epinephrine, norepinephrine

                                           Mayfield Publishing Company

   Predictable stages of the General
    Adaptation Syndrome. (G.A.S.)
    – alarm
    – resistance
    – exhaustion

                               Mayfield Publishing Company
            Stress Biology
   The Hypothalmus releases CRF
    (Cortiocotropin Releasing Factor)
   The Pituitary releases ACTH
   Cortisol is the fuel and long term it
    destroys the immune system,

                                    Mayfield Publishing Company

                Stress and Disease

        Long-term stress linked to
         –   increase in cardiovascular disease
         –   impairment of immune system
         –   digestive problems
         –   cancer

                                             Mayfield Publishing Company
–   tension headaches
–   insomnia and fatigue
–   injuries/osteoporosis
–   depression and other psychological
–   flu/colds/asthma

                                   Mayfield Publishing Company

         Tools for Managing Stress
      Social or professional support
      Regular exercise

      Good nutrition

      Life Management Skills (LMS)

                                 Mayfield Publishing Company
    Life Management Skills

 LMS‘s are learned behaviors.
 They must be a part of your ―bag

  of tricks‖
 They are different for each of us,
  but similar in importance.
 I use many. :)

                             Mayfield Publishing Company
    Mr. K’s Perfect Answers for
     Less than Perfect People
 Taking action, any action, may
  involve mistakes.
 Of course, there will be criticism,

  no one is mistake free.

                              Mayfield Publishing Company
     Perfect People Con’t.
 I will always set reasonable
  standards for myself as I know I
  can‘t be perfect.
 Yes, there is a possibility

  someone may think I‘m no good.
  Everyone has different values!

                            Mayfield Publishing Company
    Perfect People Con’t.

I accept myself
for who I am!

                       Mayfield Publishing Company
      Children Learn What They Live

   If a child lives with love, they learn love
   If a child learns with hate, they learn hate
   If a child lives with abuse, they learn to
   If a child learns with generosity, they
    learn to share
   If they live with beauty, they find beauty
    all around

                                        Mayfield Publishing Company
           Children Continued

   If they live with ugliness, they find
    the world ugly
   If a child lives with envy, they learn
   If with encouragement, they learn

                                    Mayfield Publishing Company
       Let‘s Look At
The Handwriting on The Wall

                       Mayfield Publishing Company
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• ―Cheese‖ is a symbol for whatever is
important to you—the way you do your
job, relationships with other people,
health, peace of mind, etc.
• The Maze is where you look for Cheese
— your life, job,
community, or family
• What is your Cheese
and where are you
looking for it?
                               Mayfield Publishing Company
Mayfield Publishing Company
 What are you holding on to?
• An old way of doing your job?
   • An old way of behaving?

                          Mayfield Publishing Company
 If You Do Not Change,
You Can Become Extinct!

                     Mayfield Publishing Company
Are you becoming extinct in the
 old way you are doing things?
What companies are now extinct
 because they did not change?

                          Mayfield Publishing Company
•   Pan Am
•   Woolworth‘s
•   Polaroid
•   who else?     Mayfield Publishing Company
It Is Safer To Search
     In The Maze
 Than Remain In A
Cheese-less Situation

                        Mayfield Publishing Company
 Do you realize there is always
   New Cheese in the Maze
– whether you believe it or not?

          It Is Safer To Search
               In The Maze
             Than to Remain
             In A Cheese-less

                                  Mayfield Publishing Company
Mayfield Publishing Company
    What are you afraid of?
   Why does this frighten you?

Discuss with the Person next to You
             3 Minutes Each

                              Mayfield Publishing Company
  What would you do differently
   – in the way you do your job
          or live your life –
if you were completely unafraid?

       How would this
    improve your situation?
                          Mayfield Publishing Company
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  How good do you think you will
   feel when you move beyond
your fear to find your New Cheese?

                           Mayfield Publishing Company
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  What changes are occurring in
     your industry or your life
that will help you see what you are
   doing is old and ineffective?

                            Mayfield Publishing Company
The Quicker You Let
 Go Of Old Cheese
     The Sooner
You Find New Cheese

                      Mayfield Publishing Company
Can you change quickly enough
    to succeed in a rapidly
       changing world?

         The Quicker You Let
          Go Of Old Cheese
              The Sooner
         You Find New Cheese

                               Mayfield Publishing Company
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   What new beliefs about change
– like ―I can gain from the change‖–
 could you adopt today that would
      work to your advantage?

                             Mayfield Publishing Company
     Who Are You
     In The Story?

  Which character most
  represents the way you
typically deal with change?
                        Mayfield Publishing Company
Who can smell change in the air.

                           Mayfield Publishing Company
Who goes into action immediately.

                           Mayfield Publishing Company
Who does not want to change.
     ―It‘s Not Fair!‖

                        Mayfield Publishing Company
 Who is startled by change, but then
laughs at himself, changes and moves
      on to enjoy New Cheese.

                             Mayfield Publishing Company
Who Are You
In The Story?

 Please Go To
 Your Corner
                Mayfield Publishing Company
• What excites Sniff about change?
• What scares Sniff about change?
                            Mayfield Publishing Company
• What excites Scurry about change?
• What scares Scurry about change?
                           Mayfield Publishing Company
• What excites Hem about change?
• What scares Hem about change?
                          Mayfield Publishing Company
• What excites Haw about change?
• What scares Haw about change?
                          Mayfield Publishing Company
End of Part One
15 minute break

                  Mayfield Publishing Company
  It is not the strongest
       who survive,
 nor the most intelligent,
    but those who are
most responsive to change.

                        Mayfield Publishing Company
  …in other words…
Move To The New Cheese
     And Enjoy It!

                     Mayfield Publishing Company
 An A-Mazing Way To
  Deal With Change
In Your Work and Life

      Part Two

              Mayfield Publishing Company
          My Angry Score

   Is it serious?
   Am I justified?
   Can I make a difference?
   If yes to all three, anger is a
    positive life management skill!

                               Mayfield Publishing Company

  Strategies for Conflict Resolution

         Win-Win
         Compromise
         Going to a 3rd party
         Win-Lose
         Avoidance

                                 Mayfield Publishing Company
         7 Characteristics of Good
   Care about the other pt. of view
   Assertive, not aggressive
   Honest & Accurate
   Express doubt and confusion if nec.
   Share, don‘t impose
   Listen
   Provide feedback

                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
    Ch. 23 Violence and Abuse
   Usually 3 main types:

   Sexual
     – Date rape (18-24) usually involves alcohol
   Physical
   Emotional
     – Verbal

                                           Mayfield Publishing Company

 Most behaviors are learned.
   Some Positive
   Some Negative
   In any case, it‘s about control and
    perpetrated by the male 90% and
    female 10%
   If the violence is on campus, 80% of
    the time it‘s by an athlete. By law the
    Ramstead Act makes us report crime.

                                     Mayfield Publishing Company
Major Influences of Violence
 Heredity
 Drugs and Alcohol
 Environmental
   Society
   Family
   Culture
                       Mayfield Publishing Company
     Breaking the Chain

 To break the chain of Negative
  learned violent behaviors, you
  must UNLEARN the action by
  any way possible.
    LMS-add to your bag of tricks.

                             Mayfield Publishing Company
    LMS for Behavior Change
   Professional Counseling
   Therapy-1/1, Group etc.
   Clergy/Religion/Physician
   Family Education
   Medical Rx
   LMS‘s as numerous as the people in
    this room.
                                Mayfield Publishing Company
     Mr. “k”’s Positive Notes
   I‘ve learned that making a ―living‖
    is not the same thing as making a
   I‘ve learned that regardless of your
    relationship with your parents,
    you‘ll miss them when they are gone.

                                 Mayfield Publishing Company
       Positive Notes Con’t.
   I‘ve learned to dangle more carrots
    and to give more ATTA-BOY/GIRL
   I‘ve learned that I can‘t remember
    what it was that I lost sleep over last

                                    Mayfield Publishing Company
       Positive Notes Con’t.

 I‘ve learned that even when you
  have pains, you don‘t have to be
 I‘ve learned that life sometimes

    gives you a second chance.

                                 Mayfield Publishing Company
       Positive Notes Con’t.
   I‘ve learned I still don‘t know what I
    want to be when I grow up.
   I‘ve learned that I still have a lot
    to learn.
   I learned that LIFE is what
    happens while you are spending
    time planning for life. 
                                   Mayfield Publishing Company

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