Classification & Taxonomy
Carolus Linnaeus’ System
• Used ____________________ (form and structure) to categorize organisms
- based on physical and structural similarities
• Two-part name system: ____________________________________
• The species name has two parts: the ____________and the ___________ (sometimes called the
• A _____________ is a group of closely related _______________.
• The ____________ is always written first and is ______________ capitalized.
• A ______________ is a group of closely related organisms that can interbreed.
• The _____________ is always written second and is ________ capitalized.
• Both names are underlined or written in _____________.
• Uses ______________, because it is no longer a spoken language, so it will not change over time.
• The study of ________________________.
• All species are grouped into a series of categories called _____________, where each category is
larger than the previous one.
• ___________________ used morphology to classify organisms. He assumed that organisms with
shared ______________________ also had shared __________________. Although this isn’t always
true, much of Linnaeus’ work is still valid.
• But today taxonomists base their classifications on _________ evidence and the __________________
(evolutionary history) of organisms.
The 7 categories of classification
• _______________- most specific taxon in the system
• _______________- group of related species
• _______________ - group of closely related genera
• _______________ - group of related families
• _______________- group of related orders
• _______________ - group of related classes. (However in plants, you call a group of related classes a
• _______________ - group of related phyla. The most general of all the 7 ___________. The system
we use has _____ kingdoms, but there is also a ______ kingdom system.
The 5 Kingdoms The 6 Kingdoms
• Characteristics: prokaryotic, ___________; can be autotrophic (produce energy by chemosynthesis)
or heterotrophic; reproduce by _____________
• Interesting facts: their ancestors were probably the first living things on Earth; the Kingdom Bacteria
comprises the ___________ number of living things on Earth
• Example: ___________ and cyanobacteria
• Characteristics: __________, mostly unicellular; some are multi-cellular (giant kelp); multi-cellular
protists lack specialized tissues; lots of variety of species (plant-like, animal-like, and fungus-like)
• Interesting fact: the Euglena can feed on other organisms like an animal, but it can also perform
photosynthesis like a plant if light is available
• Examples: Euglena, amoeba, and kelp
• Characteristics: heterotrophic ___________ or multi-cellular ________; are decomposers (absorb
nutrients from decomposing, dead organisms or waste); plant-like, but lack _________, so they can’t
carry on photosynthesis
• Examples: molds, yeasts, mildew, mushrooms
• Characteristics: stationary, ________ _________; autotrophic (use photosynthesis as a source of
energy); tissues organized into ________ and organ ________; use meiosis in reproduction
• Over 350,000 species identified so far
• Include __________, ferns, __________, and flowering plants
• Characteristics: heterotrophic multi-cellular _________; have advanced tissues and complex organ
systems; ________ cell walls; movement by _________ contraction; quick response to stimuli with
specialized nervous tissue to coordinate responses; utilize meiosis in reproduction