Classification _ Taxonomy – Chapter 18

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Classification _ Taxonomy – Chapter 18 Powered By Docstoc
					                                        Classification & Taxonomy

Carolus Linnaeus’ System

•   Used ____________________ (form and structure) to categorize organisms
         - based on physical and structural similarities

•   Two-part name system: ____________________________________

•   The species name has two parts: the ____________and the ___________ (sometimes called the
    species identifier).

Binomial Nomenclature

•   A _____________ is a group of closely related _______________.

•   The ____________ is always written first and is ______________ capitalized.

•   A ______________ is a group of closely related organisms that can interbreed.

•   The _____________ is always written second and is ________ capitalized.

•   Both names are underlined or written in _____________.

•   Uses ______________, because it is no longer a spoken language, so it will not change over time.


•   The study of ________________________.

•   All species are grouped into a series of categories called _____________, where each category is
    larger than the previous one.

•   ___________________ used morphology to classify organisms. He assumed that organisms with
    shared ______________________ also had shared __________________. Although this isn’t always
    true, much of Linnaeus’ work is still valid.

•   But today taxonomists base their classifications on _________ evidence and the __________________
    (evolutionary history) of organisms.
The 7 categories of classification

•   _______________- most specific taxon in the system

•   _______________- group of related species

•   _______________ - group of closely related genera

•   _______________ - group of related families

•   _______________- group of related orders

•   _______________ - group of related classes. (However in plants, you call a group of related classes a

•   _______________ - group of related phyla. The most general of all the 7 ___________. The system
    we use has _____ kingdoms, but there is also a ______ kingdom system.

The 5 Kingdoms                   The 6 Kingdoms
_____________                    ______________
_____________                    ______________
_____________                    ______________
_____________                    ______________
_____________                    ______________

•   Characteristics: prokaryotic, ___________; can be autotrophic (produce energy by chemosynthesis)
    or heterotrophic; reproduce by _____________

•   Interesting facts: their ancestors were probably the first living things on Earth; the Kingdom Bacteria
    comprises the ___________ number of living things on Earth

•   Example: ___________ and cyanobacteria


•   Characteristics: __________, mostly unicellular; some are multi-cellular (giant kelp); multi-cellular
    protists lack specialized tissues; lots of variety of species (plant-like, animal-like, and fungus-like)

•   Interesting fact: the Euglena can feed on other organisms like an animal, but it can also perform
    photosynthesis like a plant if light is available

•   Examples: Euglena, amoeba, and kelp


•   Characteristics: heterotrophic ___________ or multi-cellular ________; are decomposers (absorb
    nutrients from decomposing, dead organisms or waste); plant-like, but lack _________, so they can’t
    carry on photosynthesis

•   Examples: molds, yeasts, mildew, mushrooms


•   Characteristics: stationary, ________ _________; autotrophic (use photosynthesis as a source of
    energy); tissues organized into ________ and organ ________; use meiosis in reproduction

•   Over 350,000 species identified so far

•   Include __________, ferns, __________, and flowering plants

•   Characteristics: heterotrophic multi-cellular _________; have advanced tissues and complex organ
    systems; ________ cell walls; movement by _________ contraction; quick response to stimuli with
    specialized nervous tissue to coordinate responses; utilize meiosis in reproduction

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