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E26000P11558501a0ESMP0GBMIS0Project Powered By Docstoc


The Gambia Biodiversity Management & Institutional Strengthening
                        (GBMIS) Project

                         The Gambia
                       November 24, 2010


The search of a sound management plan is a tedious work that involves money, time and
expertise. Despite all these precious inputs it is not straight forth to fall on the appropriately
efficient indicators which guide to a perfect road map document. This is more so true when at
the same time is added the constantly changing nature of the physical as well as living
component of the environment. But a lucky chance can relief all major obstacles to a well
adapted management plan if, one happen to team up with expert personnel worn out by the
work in concern.Fortunately, it was my case for having associated with knowledgeable
personnel of the Parks and Wildlife Management.

First of all, I will start to thank Mr. Ousainou Touray, Senior Conservation Officer for Marine
and Coastal PAs of the above mentioned department who, all along the long visits conducted in
Tanji and Kiang West National Park and their surrounding communities never spared any
effort to reach our goal. My thanks to him do not stop just at saying thank you; but instead, I
would add to commend his high sense of responsibility in the job. Mr. Touray is that type of
personnel who loves what he is doing; his physical commitment in the field always outdoes the
pertinence of his ideas during our discussions. It is a delight experience that I got with him.

I am not leaving aside his colleague Mr. Momodou Lamin Kassama head of policy and
programs of the same department. It could be definitely too tough for me to jot down our
findings considering the long distances and difficult roads we had to board; but thanks to his
dynamism, this part of the work was currently achieved without delay. His concept of time
reflects his great commitment to the job. Never had he failed timing and his participation in the
discussions with the local communities was of capital importance. I definitely enjoyed working
with him for both his wide experience and ability to mainstream crucial debates like those we
had with the communities.

My thanks go to the Director of the Parks and Wildlife, Mr. Alpha O. Jallow who had the
amiability to solicit my expertise on the subject. I bet to not deceive the expectations. It’s not
the first time that I was engaged by Mr. Jallow on environment related issues; but, what is new
this time is the magnitude of the challenge as far as GEF/WB is the financial operator behind.
Far from omitting this important sponsoring body of the project, instead, I tend to bestow great
thanks to its generous action toward the perpetuation and development of these two valuable
protected areas. The contribution made is not simply financial but also technical along clearly
set road map.

I commend the government of the Gambia through its able Ministry of forestry and the
environment to care for a Gambia in line with both the current world standard and locally
sound measures in conservation and management matters.

Finally, my thanks to the Tanji and Kiang west communities who willingly had spent long
hours with us to debate on critical issues in order to find the best ways and means to perpetuate
their respective parks. For many occasions we had disagreed on concept over given items but
all too we had always ended in each case in consensus thanks to their pragmatism and sense of
responsibility. Big thanks to everybody in the DPMW, direct as well as indirect contributors to
the realization of this important work.




GBMISP- Gambia Biodiversity Management Institutional Strengthening Project
KWNP- Kiang West National Park
TBR- Tanji Bird Reserve
DPWM- Department of Parks and Wildlife Management
NEMA- National Environment Management Act
GEAP- Gambia Environmental Action Plan
NEA- National Environment Agency
EIA- Environmental Impact Assessment
ESMP- Environment and Social Management Plan
CBD- Convention of Biological Diversity
CMS- Convention of Migratory Species
CITIES- Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species
NBSAP- National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
LBWC- Local Biodiversity Ward Committees
PSC- Project Steering Committee
UNCBD- United Nation Convention on Biological Diversity
DCC- Divisional Coordinating Committee
PMU- Project Management Unit
NGO- Non-Governmental Organization
VDC- Village Development Committee
WDC- Ward Development Committee
CBO- Community Based Organization
CCC- Climate Change Committee
CMEWG- Coastal and Marine Environment Working Group
MDFT- Multi-Disciplinary Facilitating Team
AEWA- African Eurasian Water bird Agreement
NEMC- National Environment Management Council
GEF- Global Environment Facility
MSP- Medium Size Project
TAC- Technical Advisory Committee
TOR- Terms Of Reference


The protected area network (7 under the DPWM and 1 community owned Reserve) is
representative of the principal habitats and ecosystems found in the country, and houses several
habitats and rare and endangered species of global importance. There is also evidence of
significant pressure on species of global and regional concern such as nesting and migratory
birds and marine turtles, the eggs of which are frequently collected; sharks, harvested for their
fins; and manatees, hunted for meat. The coast also is the primary tourism attraction of The
Gambia, which alongside other economic development initiatives is increasing development
pressure on the Biodiversity.

The DPWM, being the responsible governmental institution mandated to manage and conserve
Biodiversity, is expected to take the lead in ensuring application of existing policies and
legislation and to promote initiatives on the ground leading to sustainable management and use
of biodiversity resources. Unfortunately, the Department’s capacity to capitalize on the
opportunities provided by this broader framework and to leverage resources (both human and
financial) for the promotion of biodiversity development is severely constrained by the
Department’s internal structural and functional challenges, weak staff capacity and
implementation experience as well as by limited scientific and technical knowledge and
insufficient funding.

The recently approved GEF MSP (Gambia Biodiversity Management and Institutional
Strengthening) would complement the Government of The Gambia’s efforts in its struggle to
manage the remaining fauna and flora of the country. This project will provide the enabling
condition for a rational management of the country’s biodiversity and especially in two pilot
sites (the Tanji Bird Reserve and Kiang West National) for the longer term sustainable
management of the protected area system.

As the most important component of this project aims to:
     construct an offices block in Tanji Bird Reserve
     rehabilitate the existing and dilapidated headquarters of the Kiang West National Park,
     Improve visitation and related infrastructures in the park and reserve,
     Organise mangrove regeneration in die back areas in the two pilot sites
     Ecotourism development ventures with the participation of local communities

This study is an important step towards assessing the potential impacts of the said project
activities on the ecological and social environment of the two pilot sites. It will contribute
meaningfully to propose mitigation measures on potential impacts of developments to take
place during the project. Its recommendations should be incorporated in the project
implementation manual for project execution purposes.

The report shall provide its objective, a description of the study, the available national
environment framework and its legal, policy and administrative framework. The study report
will also revisit the relevant World Bank policy, the institutional arrangement in place. It shall
contain the screening process, the assessment and the potential identified impacts. It will

propose mitigation measures and elaborate a genuine monitoring and reporting plan for its

The objective of the consultancy is to prepare an Environmental and Social Management Plan
(ESMP) building upon existing project and Park documentations, including the existing
Process Framework prepared for the project by an international consultant, as well as World
Bank policy OP 4.01 principles and guidelines.

The Consultant will work and be closely supported by the DPWM staff members (especially
staff at Kiang West National Park and Tanji Bird Reserve) and the Task Team Leader at World
Bank to provide information and necessary background documentation as required. The project
focal point and the Directorate of the DPWM will facilitate contact between the Consultant and
the staff on pilot sites.
The consultant’s main focus shall be on integration of existing materials and preparing an
implementable ESMP. The consultant shall be responsible for ensuring that data and
information presented in the ESMP is accurate and reliable.
Four tasks as outlined below are envisaged:
Task 1: The consultant shall familiarize himself/herself with all the available material provided
by the DPWM right after signing the contract and visit both Tanji Bird Reserve and Kiang
West National Park in order to (i) discuss with relevant stakeholders to determine
infrastructural development plans to be implemented by the incoming project, (ii) assess the
potential social and environmental impacts of the project development in each protected area
(iii) assess the adequacy of the mitigation measures and environmental and social management
plans to be proposed in the ESMP.
Task 2: Following the approval of the outline by the DPWM, the Consultant will proceed with
the drafting of the ESMP. The Consultant shall provide the draft within four weeks of approval
of the outline by the Department.
Task 3: Upon the presentation of the draft document, the Consultant presents it during a
validation workshop to be organized at Abuko Headquarters, with participation of some
representatives of the consulted communities/stakeholders at an agreed date.
Task 4: Within two weeks of receiving comments from participants of the validation
workshop, the consultant shall finalize the ESMP. It is expected that the finalization will take
into account the comments received from the DPWM staff and workshop consultation with
affected people in the project area, and other stakeholders


The Gambia lies 15 º longitudes at equal distances from the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer.
It has area of 11,300 km2 and is bounded by Senegal to the North, South and East and by the
Atlantic Ocean to the West. The Country is widest at its westerly end towards the ocean about
48km across and narrows to about half this width at its eastern tip, 480 km inland. The country
is bisected by the River Gambia forming the North and South Banks, with the former being
less developed than the latter. Banjul, the administrative capital, is situated on an island at the
The Gambia lies in the Sahelian belt with a soudano-sahelian type of climate characterized by a
long dry season from October to early June and a short rainy season from mid-June to late
October. Rainfall in most parts of the country is about 1020mm ranging from 800mm in the
East to 1700mm at the western end of the country. A slight warming and a decrease in rainfall
have been realized in time series climate data covering the past 40 years.

Between the 1983 and 1993 censuses, population growth rate was 4.2 percent per annum.
Natural growth was 2.9 percent, and inward migration 1.3 percent resulting from the influx of
refugees. At present, population growth is estimated between 3 and 4 percent per annum. The
population is expected to double again in the next 15 years. Therefore, economic growth has to
increase to about 8.0 percent per annum for per capita GDP to double in by a rural exodus and
internal migratory flows into Western Region and Greater Banjul Area.

Rapid population growth is a threat to the environment and puts pressure on the limited natural
resources. About 45 percent of the population is less than 15 years old, increasing the burden
of providing adequate health and education service as well as gainful employment
opportunities. The incidence of malnutrition is quite high with children being the most affected
group, while under-five mortality estimates at 192 per thousand and is one of the highest in the
sub-region. Life expectancy at birth is compared to 55 years for the average for Africa. Malaria
remains the biggest public health disease

.In the Gambia 88% of the population has access to sanitary means of excreta disposal. The
percentage represents 96% in urban areas and 83% in rural areas. These figures include pit
latrines, which are not regarded as ideal means of excreta disposal. If this facility is excluded,
then the total population with sanitary means of excreta disposal will be 23%. In most regions,
it is even less than 10% still with the exclusion of pit latrines as a sanitary means of excreta
disposal the figure for those with ideal means in urban become 48% and 9% rural areas
(Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey-MICS 2000).
The Increasing demand for forest products particularly fuel wood for household energy is
alarming. About 6.50, 000m3 of fuel wood is consumed annually in the country. It is estimated
that 97.8% of all household energy in the country depends on wood energy for boiling heating
or fish smoking. Furthermore 73% of the fuel wood consumers use the traditional three-stone
cooking stove: This system looses over 50% of wood energy and is regarded as highly
The past three decades have witness the ecosystem biological diversity resources being
subjected to misuse and over exploitation by man. The demand by this seemingly large
population on the natural resource base in terms of fuel wood supplies, construction materials,
food production and other needs, put Gambia’s natural resources under great strain. The main
causes of a vicious cycle of forest destruction are the annual uncontrolled bush fires in
combination with other human activities in particular the practice of shifting cultivation,
commercial exploitation of fuel wood and clearing of wetland catchments.

The Banjul declaration in 1977, called loudly for actions address to environmental and natural
resources management issues. The Ministry’s Environment units were then establishment in
1982 to coordinate environmental matters and monitor the impact of various projects and to
provide advice to Government and Non-Government Organizations. The enactment of the
National Environmental Management l Act (NEMA) by Government in1987and the
establishment of the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) providing both

the legal framework for environmental planning , management and decision- making. These
arrangements led to very intensive and highly-participatory approach in the preparation of the
GEAP, thus providing a national framework to address environmental and natural resources
management concerns.

The phase I of the GEAP, from 1992 to 2001 adopted in 1992, with the creation of the National
Environmental Agency (NEA) in 1993, was of pivotal importance in its commitment to a
sustainable management of the country’s environment. The GEAP was now set to improve
economic performance and quality of human life and restore, maintain and enhance ecological
processes natural resource, and culture heritage.
The whole machinery was evaluated in 1996 and a second for phase II was carried out in 2001.
The GEAP remain a viable and functional approach to sustainable development.


    A. Kiang West National Park
Established in1987, kiang west national park (KWNP) is approximately 11,526ha (115 square
km) and one of the most important reservoirs of wildlife in The Gambia. Although the major
part of the park is dry deciduous woodland and guinea savannah, there are extensive stretches
of mangrove creeks and tidal flats. In the mangrove creeks, the West African Manatee and Nile
and Dwarf Crocodiles occur. In the mangrove fringes and tidal flats the tracks of various
animals such as the African Clawless Otter, Mongoose and Sitatunga are found. The park has
become a park of regional distinction possessing an impressive range of fauna and avifauna
(over 250 bird species check listed to date). All the major wild animals known to be
permanently resident in the Gambia, in the present time, has been recorded in the park (see
annex for the checklist of animal and bird species of the park), making it the foremost wildlife
reserve in the country.

The park headquarter site is located in the buffer zone and eight kilometers (8km) from the
nearest mangrove creeks and there will not be affected by the rehabilitation works.

    B. Tanji Bird Reserve
Established in 1993, Tanji Bird Reserve together with Bijol islands is situated along the
Atlantic coast, in the West Coast Region of the country, about 30 minutes drive from the
tourist development area. It encompasses the Tanji River and its estuary, incorporating
mangrove, dry woodland and coastal dune scrub woodland. It has a total area of 612ha
(6.12square km). Along the seashore there are series of lagoons, and off shore Bijol islands
which are important sites for breeding marine turtles and roosting birds. Within the reserve
there are wide variety of habitat types including marine, estuarine, freshwater, coastal scrub
woodland and dry woodland savannah.

Tanji Bird Reserve was established primarily for its ornithological importance which is evident
from its current species list which is over 259 species from 61 different families, making it a
paradise for birdwatchers. This large diversity of birds results from the range of habitats
present combined with location of Tanji on the coast of West Africa. For European migrants,
Tanji bird reserve is one of the first stops offshore and offers both a safe haven as well as good
feeding opportunities. The offshore Bijol islands are used as a roosting site by large numbers of
gulls, terns, waders and pelicans, and the shallow surrounding reef offers good feeding
opportunities as well.

The headquarter is located along the Kombo Coastal road and adjacent to the newly
constructed eco-tourism camp built under the UNDP project in order to enhance community
participation in natural resource management and benefit sharing. The construction of the new
office block will be located in the present site where the dilapidated building serving as an
office is located.


Environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources has continuously been
contributing to poverty, poor health and retarded development in the Gambia, and one of the
Government’s intervention was the development of the Gambia Environmental Action Plan
(GEAP) to control environmental problems in a coordinated manner. Amongst the programmes
implemented to achieve the GEAP objectives is Environmental Impacts Assessment (EIA).
EIA seeks to ensure projects are successful by conserving natural resources, reducing delays
and costs by anticipating potential problems for timely actions, and preventing or minimizing
potential adverse and harmful environmental impacts.

The legal basis for EIA/ ESMP in the Gambia falls under Part V of the National Environmental
Management Act (NEMA, 1994), and provide for the EIA or ESMP procedures, requirements
for environmental impact statements, auditing, monitoring of existing projects and impacts
from natural phenomena. Other parts of the Act provide for accompanying arrangements
necessary for EIA enforcement such as administration, actions for offences, environmental
inspections, standards and pollution control (GOTG, 1994)

The schedule for NEMA lists of projects and issues that must be considered for EIA including
projects related to hydrocarbon handling, mining, urban development, transportation, tourism,
manufacturing and large scale agriculture amongst others.

The National Environmental Agency (NEA) coordinates, administers and supervises the EIA
process with participation from government departments, the public, non-governmental
organizations, technical experts and the developers’ teams. NEA advises on the EIA
procedures, specific issues to consider, classifies projects and organises working groups to
determine scope of studies. It also leads the review process and arranges public consultations.

An objective of EIA /ESMP in the Gambia is to aid decision-making and form integral part of
information used for that purpose. EIA is important in this respect as it looks into interrelated
issues which are necessary to compliment the economic, technical and social issues.
Environmental protection and quality has improved as a result of EIA/ESMP which aims at
preventing or controlling negative impacts, particularly irreversible ones. In the broader sense ,
EIA/ESMP outcomes are aimed at contributing to long-term environmental management in the
Gambia in its efforts to gain sustainable development (NEA and AHT 1999a). It was
introduced with the notion that “it will help conserve and protect the environment for the
benefit of the present and future generations in a manner consistent with the overall goal of
sustainable development”(ROTG, 1996, p 14).
This notion is shred by many researchers who argued that EIA/ESMP outcome could play a
major role in attaining sustainability. It was argued that this is possible as it reflects social,
economic, environmental, political and scientific factors considered in development processes.

In its principle, the African Development Bank emphasized that “environmental assessment
would remain one of the most important instruments for ensuring environmental sustainability
and social equity at operational levels” (ADB, 2004, p V).

The Gambia is a signatory to a number of international environmental conventions, agreements
and treaties, inter alia: the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), the Convention on
Wetlands (Ramsar), the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), African Eurasian Migratory
Water bird Agreement (AEWA) Convention on International Treaty of Endangered Species
(CITIES) and African Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (Algiers

The Government of the Gambia’s commitment to protect and manage the country’s natural
resources and environment dates back to the Banjul Declaration and the Wildlife Conservation
Act of 1977, which laid down the basis for conservation and sustainable use of biological
resources. The National Mission Statement, The Gambia Incorporated Vision 2020, sees “a
well balanced ecosystem” as fundamental to achieving the national goal of Middle Income
Country status by 2020.

The Biodiversity and Wildlife Bill (2003) establishes the procedures for the creation and
management of protected areas, and is key legislation governing BMISP.
For areas that have already been gazette, such as Tanji Bird Reserve (TBR) and Kiang West
National Park (KWNP), the Bill provides the framework for co-management of the reserve
area by DPWM and the local population. The protected area itself is managed by a
management committee whose head is appointed by the Director, DPWM (Part IV, par.33).

At the same time, the Director, DPWM, “shall encourage community participation in the form
of a Local Biodiversity and Wildlife Committee in the area and its immediate surrounding”(
Part IV, Para 34.1). The LBWC is empowered to (para.35) :
  (a) Protect the area from fire;
  (b) Decide, in collaboration with the Department of Parks and Wildlife Management, the
      type and number of licenses and permits to be issued Monitor the activities of license and
      permit holders in the area
  (c) Prevent any illegal act in the area
  (d) Administer the revenues collected from the area in accordance with this Act.

The Bill also authorized the National Biodiversity and Wildlife Fund (Part V). The Fund
consists of (para.44): (i) the proceeds from the sale of biological produce extracted from the
reserve area; (ii) fifty percent of all fees and royalties received under this Act; (iii) monies
earned from projects financed from the Fund; and (iv) grants, donations and endowments
received from sources within and outside The Gambia. The Director, DPWM, submits to the
Honorable Minister, his or her estimate of the income and expenditure from the fund for each
reserve area.


The World Bank requires environmental assessment (EA) of projects proposed for Bank
financing to help ensure that they are environmentally sound and sustainable, and thus to
improve decision making.

 Environmental Assessment is a process whose breadth, depth, and type of analysis depend on
the nature, scale, and potential environmental impact of the proposed project. Environmental
Assessment evaluates a project's potential environmental risks and impacts in its area of
influence; examines project alternatives; identifies ways of improving project selection, siting,
planning, design, and implementation by preventing, minimizing, mitigating, or compensating
for adverse environmental impacts and enhancing positive impacts; and includes the process of
mitigating and managing adverse environmental impacts throughout project
implementation. The World Bank favors preventive measures over mitigatory or
compensatory measures, whenever feasible.

Environmental Assessment takes into account: the natural environment (air, water and land);
human health and safety; social aspects (involuntary resettlement, indigenous peoples and
physical     cultural    resources); and     transboundary       and      global    environmental
aspects. Environmental Assessment considers natural and social aspects in an integrated
way. It also takes into account the variations in project and country conditions; the findings of
country environmental studies; national environmental action plans; the country's overall
policy framework, national legislation, and institutional capabilities related to the environment
and social aspects; and obligations of the country, pertaining to project activities, under
relevant international environmental treaties and agreements. The Bank does not finance
project activities that would contravene such country obligations, as identified during the
Environmental Assessment. It is initiated as early as possible in project processing and is
integrated closely with the economic, financial, institutional, social, and technical analyses of a
proposed project.

The Bank advises the borrower on the Bank's Environmental Assessment requirements. The
Bank reviews the findings and recommendations of the Environmental Assessment to
determine whether they provide an adequate basis for processing the project for Bank
financing. When the borrower has completed or partially completed Environmental
Assessment work prior to the Bank's involvement in a project, the Bank reviews the EA to
ensure its consistency with this policy. The Bank may, if appropriate, require additional EA
work, including public consultation and disclosure.

Environmental and Social Assessment Instruments
 Depending on the project, a range of instruments can be used to satisfy the Bank's EA
requirement: environmental and social impact assessment (EIA), regional or sectoral EA,
environmental and social audit, hazard or risk assessment, and environmental and social
management plan (ESMP).

This project after screening was ranked as category B. It was then agreed to conduct an
ESMP to suit the need for Environmental and social Assessment prior to the implementation of
the Gambia Biodiversity Management & Institutional Strengthening Project.

Environmental Screening
 The Bank undertakes environmental and social screening of each proposed project to
determine the appropriate extent and type of Environmental and Social Assessment. The Bank
classifies the proposed project into one of four categories, depending on the type, location,
sensitivity, and scale of the project and the nature and magnitude of its potential social and
environmental impacts. The Gambia Biodiversity Management & Institutional Strengthening
(GBMIS) proposed project is designed to have significant positive environmental and social
impacts, through Strengthened field effectiveness of biodiversity and protected areas
management; promoting long term sustainable financing vision; and strengthening institutional
capacity for PAs and biodiversity management. It is classified as Category B, because
investments in construction and/or rehabilitation of physical structures (i.e., offices,
information enters in Kiang West and Tanji, waterholes, trails etc) and provision of matching
grants for community sub-projects in and around these two protected areas may pose negative
impacts. These impacts are expected to minimal, site-specific and easily manageable.

Institutional Capacity
The Government of the Gambia has adequate legal or technical capacity to carry out
key Environmental and Social Assessment -related functions (such as review of
ESIA, environmental and social monitoring, inspections, or management of mitigatory
measures) for the proposed project; the proposed project in its operational Manual, has
included components to meaningfully implement the recommendations herein found and

Public Consultation
The ESMP was prepared following a broad-based consultation framework, involving all
relevant stakeholders. During the Environmental and Social Management planning (ESMP)
process, the Department of Parks and Wildlife Management together with the consultant
consulted the project-affected groups and relevant partners – including Ministry of
Environment, in particular the National Environmental Agency, Representatives from the
Coastal and Marine Environment Working Group - about the project's social and
environmental aspects and their views form an integral part of the document. Consultations are
expected to continue during and after implementation for better monitoring of project activities
and impacts.

After approval by the Safeguard Specialists on the project team, the ESMP will be disclosed
in-country and at World Bank InfoShop, prior to appraisal.
During project implementation, the implementing agency (DPWM) will report on:
 (a) Compliance with measures agreed with the Bank on the basis of the findings and results of
the ESMP as set out in the project documents; (b) The status of mitigatory measures; and (c)
The findings of monitoring programs.
The Bank bases supervision of the project's social and environmental aspects on the findings
and recommendations of the ESMP, including measures set out in the legal agreements and
other project documents.


The project as a priority intervention of the government to improve the effectiveness and
sustainability of biodiversity and protected areas management in The Gambia falls within the
mandate of the line Ministry of Forestry and the Environment (MOFEN) and will be
implemented through the existing institutional arrangements for the implementation of the
national environment and social management and development programmes.

The overall coordination and execution of the Project will be the responsibility of DPWM, as
the focal point for biodiversity. DPWM will set up a Project Management Unit (PMU)
comprised of a Project Coordinator (Government staff, unless otherwise), Procurement Officer,
Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, Accountant, Admin Assistant and some field support staff.
The PMU together with the protected areas unit of DPWM will coordinate and oversee the
implementation of sub-projects in villages around pilot sites. Activities will be executed in
collaboration with local government partners, NGOs, and beneficiaries, largely through
existing institutional coordination forums including DDC, VDC, MDFT, CBOs, TACs and
other relevant stakeholders.

The PMU will have overall responsibility for the operational implementation of the project. In
specific terms this will, inter alias include:
   (i)      Designing the TOR’s and the Request for quotation for the construction and
            renovation consultancy taking into consideration the findings of this study.
   (ii)     Recruiting construction firm eligible to build the offices IN TBR and renovate
            premises in KWNP and advice the builder on the findings and recommendations of
            this study.
   (iii)Assisting local communities adjacent to pilot sites in the identification, elaboration and
            implementation of Sub projects for community livelihood.
   (iv) Organizing, assisting and building capacity of stakeholders in addressing issues
            highlighted in this study that may have negative impacts on community livelihood.
   (v)      Liaising with other relevant stakeholders in the monitoring of Works and sub-
            projects implementation and evaluate their impacts and mitigation as identified in
            this study.
   (vi) Developing a strong marketing strategy for eco-tourism development in and around
            pilot sites which takes into consideration the recommendations of this study in
            mitigating potential impacts of tourism development in Pilot sites.
   (vii) Preparing annual work plan and budget including procurement schedule,
   (viii) Implementing monitoring and evaluation plan of this study and use evaluation
            findings to adopt corrective measures if necessary,

Internal Review: The PSC will ensure that the monitoring and evaluation plan of this study is
implemented and recommendations adhered to.

                      Country The Gambia
                   Project title The Gambia Biodiversity Management and Institutional Strengthening
 Scope of project and activity This is Medium Size Project and its scope entails strengthening of
                                 DPWM, construction and rehabilitation of infrastructures of two PA and
                                 community sustainable livelihood sub-projects
   Institutional arrangements           WB         Project Management          Local Counterpart and/or
         (Name and contacts)       (Project Team                                      Recipient
                                      Leader)      Permanent Secretary,
                                  Liba Feldblyum   Ministry of Forestry        Department of Parks and
                                                      & Environment             Wildlife Management

            Implementation         Safeguard        Local Counterpart        Local         Contactor
              arrangements        Supervision         Supervision         Inspectorate
        (Name and contacts)                                               Supervision

Name of site                   Tanji Bird Reserve and Kiang West National Park
Describe site location         Located in the Gambia and part of the Attachment 1: Site Map [ ]Y [
                               protected areas network system of the ] N (see annex 3)
                               government under the management of
                               the DPWM.
Who owns the land?             The state/ Government and managed by the DPWM
Geographic description
Identify national & local      EIA/ ESMP - Procedures of the NEMA act of the National
legislation & permits that     Environment Agency
apply to project activity
Identify when / where the  The identification, planning, management consultations started during the
public consultation processdesign of the project proposal. The consultant together with senior staff of
took place                 the DPWM went on site visits in Tanji and Dumbuto to meet and discuss
                           with stakeholders. (list of meeting participants attached as annex 2.)
Will there be any capacity [` X ] N or [ ]Y if Yes, Attachment 2 includes the capacity building
building?                  program


Will the site    Activity and potential issues and/or impacts                                   Status               Additional references
activity         1. Building rehabilitation                                        [x ] Yes [ ] No                   See Section B below
include/involve       Site specific vehicular traffic
any of the            Increase in dust and noise from demolition and/or
following                 construction
potential issues
                      Construction waste
and/or impacts:
                 2. New construction                                               [x ] Yes [ ] No                   See Section B below
                      Excavation impacts and soil erosion
                      Increase sediment loads in receiving waters
                      Site specific vehicular traffic
                      Increase in dust and noise from demolition and/or
                      Construction waste
                 3. Individual wastewater treatment system                         [ ] Yes [x ] No                   See Section C below
                      Effluent and / or discharges into receiving waters
                 4. Historic building(s) and districts                             [ ] Yes [x ] No                   See Section D below
                      Risk of damage to known/unknown historical or
                          archaeological sites
                 5. Acquisition of land1                                           [ ] Yes [x ] No                   See Section E below
                      Encroachment on private property
                      Relocation of project affected persons
                      Involuntary resettlement
                      Impacts on livelihood incomes
                 6. Hazardous or toxic materials2                                  [ ] Yes [x ] No                   See Section F below
                      Removal and disposal of toxic and/or hazardous
                          demolition and / or construction waste
                      Storage of machine oils and lubricants

    Land acquisitions includes displacement of people, change of livelihood encroachment on private property this is to land that is purchased/transferred and
  affects people who are living and/or squatters and/or operate a business (kiosks) on land that is being acquired.
    Toxic / hazardous material includes and is not limited to asbestos, toxic paints, removal of lead paint, etc.

                 7. Impacts on forests and/or protected areas                  [ ] Yes [x ] No                   See Section G below
                      Encroachment on designated forests, buffer and /or
                        protected areas
                      Disturbance of locally protected animal habitat

                 8. Handling / management of medical waste                       [ ] Yes [x ] No                     See Section H below
                      Clinical waste, sharps, pharmaceutical products
                          (cytoxic and hazardous chemical waste),
                          radioactive waste, organic domestic waste, non-
                          organic domestic waste
                      On site or off-site disposal of medical waste
                 9. Traffic and Pedestrian Safety                                [ ] Yes [ x] No                     See Section I below
                      Site specific vehicular traffic
                      Site is in a populated area
A. General        Notification and Worker Safety (a) The local construction and environment inspectorates and communities have been notified of upcoming
Conditions                                               activities
                                                     (b) The public has been notified of the works through appropriate notification in the media and/or at publicly
                                                         accessible sites (including the site of the works)
                                                     (c) All legally required permits (to include not limited to land use, resource use, dumping, sanitary inspection
                                                         permit) have been acquired for construction and/or rehabilitation
                                                     (d) All work will be carried out in a safe and disciplined manner designed to minimize impacts on neighboring
                                                         residents and environment.
                                                     (e) Workers’ PPE will comply with international good practice (always hardhats, as needed masks and safety
                                                         glasses, harnesses and safety boots)
                                                     (f) Appropriate signposting of the sites will inform workers of key rules and regulations to follow.
B. General                  Air Quality              (a) During interior demolition use debris-chutes above the first floor
Rehabilitation                                       (b) Keep demolition debris in controlled area and spray with water mist to reduce debris dust
and /or                                              (c) Suppress dust during pneumatic drilling/wall destruction by ongoing water spraying and/or installing dust
Construction                                             screen enclosures at site
Activities                                           (d) Keep surrounding environment (side walks, roads) free of debris to minimize dust
                                                     (e) There will be no open burning of construction / waste material at the site
                                                     (f) There will be no excessive idling of construction vehicles at sites
                               Noise                 (a) Construction noise will be limited to restricted times agreed to in the permit
                                                     (b) During operations the engine covers of generators, air compressors and other powered mechanical equipment
                                                         should be closed, and equipment placed as far away from residential areas as possible

                        Water Quality         (a) The site will establish appropriate erosion and sediment control measures such as e.g. hay bales and / or silt
                                                  fences to prevent sediment from moving off site and causing excessive turbidity in nearby streams and rivers.
                      Waste management        (a) Waste collection and disposal pathways and sites will be identified for all major waste types expected from
                                                  demolition and construction activities.
                                              (b) Mineral construction and demolition wastes will be separated from general refuse, organic, liquid and
                                                  chemical wastes by on-site sorting and stored in appropriate containers.
                                              (c) Construction waste will be collected and disposed properly by licensed collectors
                                              (d) The records of waste disposal will be maintained as proof for proper management as designed.
                                              (e) Whenever feasible the contractor will reuse and recycle appropriate and viable materials (except asbestos)

C. Individual           Water Quality         (a) The approach to handling sanitary wastes and wastewater from building sites (installation or reconstruction)
wastewater                                        must be approved by the local authorities
treatment system                              (b) Before being discharged into receiving waters, effluents from individual wastewater systems must be treated
                                                  in order to meet the minimal quality criteria set out by national guidelines on effluent quality and wastewater
                                              (c) Monitoring of new wastewater systems (before/after) will be carried out
D. Historic            Cultural Heritage      (a) If the building is a designated historic structure, very close to such a structure, or located in a designated
building(s)                                       historic district, notify and obtain approval/permits from local authorities and address all construction
                                                  activities in line with local and national legislation
                                              (b) Ensure that provisions are put in place so that artifacts or other possible “chance finds” encountered in
                                                  excavation or construction are noted, officials contacted, and works activities delayed or modified to account
                                                  for such finds.
E. Acquisition of      Land Acquisition       (a) If expropriation of land was not expected and is required, or if loss of access to income of legal or illegal
land                   Plan/Framework             users of land was not expected but may occur, that the bank task Team Leader is consulted.
                                              (b) The approved Land Acquisition Plan/Framework (if required by the project) will be implemented
F. Toxic            Asbestos management       (a) If asbestos is located on the project site, mark clearly as hazardous material
Materials                                     (b) When possible the asbestos will be appropriately contained and sealed to minimize exposure
                                              (c) The asbestos prior to removal (if removal is necessary) will be treated with a wetting agent to minimize
                                                  asbestos dust
                                              (d) Asbestos will be handled and disposed by skilled & experienced professionals
                                              (e) If asbestos material is be stored temporarily, the wastes should be securely enclosed inside closed
                                                  containments and marked appropriately
                                              (f) The removed asbestos will not be reused
                    Toxic / hazardous waste   (a) Temporarily storage on site of all hazardous or toxic substances will be in safe containers labeled with details
                         management               of composition, properties and handling information
                                              (b) The containers of hazardous substances should be placed in an leak-proof container to prevent spillage and

                                                         (c) The wastes are transported by specially licensed carriers and disposed in a licensed facility.
                                                         (d) Paints with toxic ingredients or solvents or lead-based paints will not be used
G. Affects forests              Protection               (a) All recognized natural habitats and protected areas in the immediate vicinity of the activity will not be
and/or protected                                             damaged or exploited, all staff will be strictly prohibited from hunting, foraging, logging or other damaging
areas                                                        activities.
                                                         (b) For large trees in the vicinity of the activity, mark and cordon off with a fence large tress and protect root
                                                             system and avoid any damage to the trees
                                                         (c) Adjacent wetlands and streams will be protected, from construction site run-off, with appropriate erosion
                                                             and sediment control feature to include by not limited to hay bales, silt fences
                                                         (d) There will be no unlicensed borrow pits, quarries or waste dumps in adjacent areas, especially not in
                                                             protected areas.
H. Disposal of       Infrastructure for medical waste    (a) In compliance with national regulations the contractor will insure that newly constructed and/or rehabilitated
medical waste                  management                    health care facilities include sufficient infrastructure for medical waste handling and disposal; this includes
                                                             and not limited to:
                                                              Special facilities for segregated healthcare waste (including soiled instruments “sharps”, and human
                                                                  tissue or fluids) from other waste disposal:
                                                                       a. Clinical waste: yellow bags and containers
                                                                       b. Sharps – Special puncture resistant containers/boxes
                                                                       c. Domestic waste (non-organic): black bags and containers
                                                              Appropriate storage facilities for medical waste are in place; and
                                                              If the activity includes facility-based treatment, appropriate disposal options are in place and operational
I Traffic and          Direct or indirect hazards to     (b) In compliance with national regulations the contractor will insure that the construction site is properly
Pedestrian Safety    public traffic and pedestrians by       secured and construction related traffic regulated. This includes but is not limited to
                          construction activities             Signposting, warning signs, barriers and traffic diversions: site will be clearly visible and the public
                                                                  warned of all potential hazards
                                                              Traffic management system and staff training, especially for site access and near-site heavy traffic.
                                                                  Provision of safe passages and crossings for pedestrians where construction traffic interferes.
                                                              Adjustment of working hours to local traffic patterns, e.g. avoiding major transport activities during rush
                                                                  hours or times of livestock movement
                                                              Active traffic management by trained and visible staff at the site, if required for safe and convenient
                                                                  passage for the public.
                                                              Ensuring safe and continuous access to office facilities, shops and residences during renovation
                                                                  activities, if the buildings stay open for the public.

Infrastructural development activity generally implies impact on the environment
especially physical infrastructural development in an ecologically important area like a
protected area may generate some potential impact(s) on the landscape and the ecology of
the species there-in. However, on the basis of our findings in the ESMP, there will be no
construction/rehabilitation on either biotic communities or the natural landscape.

Construction/Rehabilitation Impacts
It is imperative to clear vegetation to expand the current headquarter site in Tanji Bird
Reserve. The following minor impacts are identified:
     The number of office space needed, if not planned properly can bear serious impact
        on the vegetation. An area should be cleared for accommodation purposes.
     Waste disposal (solid debris of construction and the branches of the shrubs and
        young trees) might be an issue if not coordinated accordingly by the project
        proponent and or the beneficiaries. The disposal of branches and shrubs should be
        well coordinated to avoid illegal fuelwood collection in Tanji Bird Reserve.
     The replaced construction materials for rehabilitation in the Kiang West National
        Park should be disposed accordingly or re-used in other development initiatives
        elsewhere in the park.
     The use of machinery in clearing and construction may have impact on the natural
        landscape by bringing dust and noise.
     Ecotourism infrastructures development: noise and visual pollution, overcrowding
        can be serious challenges to protected area managers especially in Tanji Bird
        Reserve because of its rather small size compared to KWNP.
     Tourism marketing is expected to attract lot of visitors and thereby increase
        pollution and disturbances to wildlife in the park and reserve. Looking at the
        fragility of the Bijol Islands, this can be a serious concern.

Sub-Projects Impacts
From the discussions with the local communities in Tanji as well as in Kiang West, some
kinds of sub-projects are already identified during project document preparation. Bee
keeping and eco-tourism were identified as potential sub-projects in and around Tanji Bird
Reserve whilst Bee keeping and gardening were proposed for communities living around
the Kiang West National Park.
Even though the threats anticipated in both areas were minor, solid mitigation measures
were considered against any eventuality. The traditional use of fire for honey harvesting
can have potential impacts on the vegetation. For gardening activities, the use of fertilizer,
pesticides, lands clearing are the most likely activities that can impact on the biodiversity
around the Protected Area.

Ecotourism Development Impacts
The project is envisaging developing the tourist attraction in the two pilot sites. A strong
marketing strategy will be devised, and Tanji may not only benefit because of its proximity
to the hotel industry but also with the two offshore Bijol Islands. These two areas are

important breeding, wintering and feeding grounds for numerous migratory species of birds
as well as marine turtles. The project envisages to build on the existing boat trip and to
organise regular sightseeing activities from Brufut Beach to the Bijol Islands. The potential
increase in number of the visiting tourists should be well managed in order to discourage
overcrowding and littering, especially during the breeding season on Bijol Islands in Tanji
Bird Reserve.

 Beekeeping Development Impacts
The issue of beekeeping within the protected area and the surrounding is as well an income
generating source and like the eco tourism sub-project, it helps job creation with a
commensurable benefit in the pollination of flowers by the bee workers. This sub-project in
the case of Tanji is supposed to go along with a demarcating acajou tree strand around the
protected area as buffer zone enrichment. The traditional method of harvesting that requires
the use of fire is to be prohibited.

Gardening Development Impacts
As a routine specificity in Kiang West, no major impact was mentioned in the concern of
this activity. The field is flat which limits run-off and there is no need for tree felling to
acquire space.

As some form of environmental damage may occur possibly by contractors during
construction/rehabilitation activities since both will be done in a protected area. The
process may involve vegetation clearing, dust, waste disposal, vehicular movement in
transportation of materials and workers etc, necessary mitigation measures would constitute
an integral part of the design and implementation including the contracts binding the
contractors to carry out the environmental obligations in management of both the
construction and rehabilitation projects.

Mitigation Measures during Construction/Rehabilitation
    The area required for construction of an office space in Tanji Bird Reserve is agreed
       to cover 35meters x 15meters and the shape should be in semi-circular so as to
       minimize damage on the vegetation. The visitor /resources center is planned to be in
       front of the offices and the design should be considered during the preparation of
       the works and construction RFP document.
    Planting of same or related species of trees and shrubs cleared/felled at building site
       to other areas of the PA to compensate for the lost of those species and/ or to off-set
       carbon sink
    All cleared/felled trees and shrubs in Trail and Guard/Ranger post constructions
       will be compensated else where in the Protected areas.
    The cleared plants and shrubs will be given to Site Management Committee which
       will be sold at a reasonable price to the community for fuelwood and the proceeds
       will be safe in their account for future management purposes.
    In KWNP, the removed construction materials will be re-used in other development
       initiatives by the staff of the reserve.

      The general colour choice is green on all exterior walls and decorations while
       brown/cream will be used for the interior
      No soil erosion is anticipated at both sites
      The contractor should strictly follow the guidelines of National Environmental
       Management Council’s guidelines on waste disposal and recycling with minimal or
       no impact on the ecology of the sites.
      No incident of fires during constructions/ rehabilitation. Fire safety measures will
       be put in place at both sites.
      Both sites are (i.e. construction and rehabilitation) are not on a migratory
       route/corridor, nesting sites, sacred site and/ or does not involve eviction or housing
       issues. The project will not proceed beyond the existing Process Framework.
      Use of machinery and other equipment in the construction process would be
       minimized as possible to avoid any potential negative impact on the natural
       landscape and the ecology of the associated species

Mitigations of Social Impacts
Important mitigating measures against the eventual social impacts have been highlighted
during the gathering with the communities over the mentioned sub-projects.

   1- The design of the marketing strategy to be implemented during the project will
      highlight procedures to be used to increase potential visitors in the PA’s. In the
      eventuality to avoid overcrowding on the sites, the tourism development must
      consider option in controlling entry numbers by increasing fees, early booking and
      other means to discourage large number of visitors in the areas at any giving time.
   2- During breeding period on the Bijol Islands, the number of visits will be minimized
      in order to avoid possible and frequent human disturbances.
   3- As an island with protection measures, it is suggested the demarcation of its limits
      to enhance quietude which is conducive to wildlife proliferation
   4- Eco-guides will frequently liaise with park managers to adequately satisfy the
      visitors need but also efficiently safeguard the resources.

   1- The project is expected to provide bee-keeping equipments to discourage traditional
      method of honey harvesting which tend to use fire during operations.
   2- Smoking sites will be identified to prevent or limit fire usage in the area
   1- The use of fertilizer, pesticides and other relevant chemicals will be discouraged
      and farmers will be trained in the framework of the sub-project implementation to
      use organic fertilizers.
   2- Environmentally and socially friendly products are given priority in the treatment of
      the trials during the implementation of sub-projects on community gardening.
   3- It will be strictly prohibited to use chemicals on the already harvested products

   Phase               What                  Where                      How                     When                         Why               Cost                       Who
                       (Is the        (Is the parameter to      (Is the parameter to    (Define the frequency /    (Is the parameter being          (if not        (Is responsible for
                  parameter to be       be monitored?)             be monitored?)          or continuous?)               monitored?)             included in          monitoring?)
                    monitored?)                                                                                                                project budget)
During activity   Clearing of         At the                   Visual verification at   As required and            To ensure compliance                          M&E officer of the
preparation       vegetation          construction/rehabil     site                     defined by                 with safety standards           $ 250         GBMIS
                                      itation site                                      PMU/Directorate
                  Allocated space     At the HQ site of        Measuring the            At the start of the        To control unnecessary      Same activity     M&E officer
                  for office          TBR                      cleared area for         foundation preparation     expansion of allocated      budgeted
                  construction                                 construction                                        area                        above
                  Carbon off-set      A selected site in       Visual verification      Twice a year during        To ensure the success                         M&E, PMU, DPWM
                                      the reserve where        and species              life time of GBMIS         of the carbon off-set          $ 1,200
                                      trees are planted        assessment               project                    program
                  Dust and Noise      At                       Visual- no significant   Periodically during        For Health and Safety                         M&E and Directorate-
                                      construction/rehabil     incidence of dust is     construction/rehabilitat   reason (H&S)                    $ 400         DPWM
                                      itation site             anticipated              ion
During activity   Waste               In the pilot sites       Visual observation       Twice a year during                                       $ 1,200        PMU/PSC/Directorate-
implementation    management                                   and field assessments    life time of GBMIS         To minimize pollution                         DPWM
                  Human               In PAs especially        Visual observation       Four times a year          To control over                               M&E, PMU
                  disturbance         on Bijol islands         and field assessments    during the life time of    crowding & pollution             $800
                  Use of                                       Field assessments,       As required                To discourage to use of                       PMU/PSC/
                  fertilizers and        At KWNP               community meetings                                  chemicals                      $ 1,200s       Directorate-DPWM
                  pesticides in                                and proposal for sub-
                  gardening                                    projects
During activity   Overall             At TBR, KWNP             Visiting all project     During the final           To ensure compliance
supervision       implementation      and community            sites and reviewing      evaluation of the          with safe guard issues                        PMU, PSC/Ministry/
                  progress/activity   sub-project sites        reports                  GBMIS project              related to the overall         $ 1,800        Directorate-DPWM
                                                                                        completion                 GBMIS project
Mangrove          Regeneration        Die back areas in        Visual observation       Once a year during the     Safe regeneration                             PMU, PSC/Ministry/
regeneration      areas               the two pilot sites      and field assessments    life time of GBMIS         conditions                     $ 1,800        Directorate-OPWM

                                      In the two pilot sites                                                       To control number of
Ecotourism        Number of           and specially on         field assessments and    Once a year                tourists on the site at a       $ 500         PMU, PSC/Ministry/
development       visitors            Bijol Islands            entry monitoring                                    given time                                    Directorate-OPWM

Annex 1: Bibliographical references

Agriculture and Natural Resources Working Group, National Environmental Agency 1999,
Biodiversity/ Wildlife Policy and Legislation Study

Coastal Zone and Marine Resources Working Group, National Environmental Agency 1996,
Integrated Coastal Management Plan (ICAM).

Department of State for Finance and economic Affairs 1994, Strategy for Poverty Alleviation

Environmental Department, The World Bank, March 1996, Environmental Assessment
Sourcebook UPDATE; International Agreements on Environment and Natural Resources:
Relevance and Application in Environmental Assessment

The Government of The Gambia 1995, Social Development Priorities0A country paper, -
Contribution to a UNESCO- hosted conference on Africa’s Social Development Priorities in

National Environmental Agency 1994, National Environmental Management Act

National Environmental Agency 1997, the State of the Environment Report, The Gambia

National Environmental Agency 2008, the State of the Environment Report, The Gambia

National Environmental Agency 1999, Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation (Draft)

Department of Parks and Wildlife Management 1999, National Biodiversity Strategy and
Action Plan, The Gambia

Department of Parks and Wildlife Management 2001, The Gambia Wildlife and Biodiversity

Department of Parks and Wildlife Management 2003, The Biodiversity / Wildlife Act , The

Annex 2: List of community members during the consultation meetings

Name                                   Community/Inst.
Masaneh Camara                         Kiang West Nat.Park
Lamin Bajo                             Kiang West Nat.Park
Pa Musa Darbo                          Kiang West Nat.Park
Gibril Darboe                          Kiang West Nat.Park
Ebrima Signateh                        Kiang West Nat.Park
Fa Bakary Sora                         Kiang West Nat.Park
Baba Touray                            Kiang West Nat.Park
Saikou Bajo                            Kiang West Nat.Park
Lamin Njie                             Kiang West Nat.Park
Sukutou Darboe                         Kiang West Nat.Park
Masaneh Njie                           Kiang West Nat.Park
Sutay Njie                             Kuly Kunda
Khady Sanyang                          Batelling
Oulaymata Sanyang                      Batelling
Molifa Touray                          Bajana
Fa Kebba Drammeh                       Jally
Siyabatou Samateh                      Jally
Bafoday Moji Njie                      Kully Kunda
Nyanko Manjang                         Dumbutu
Jarra Darboe                           Dumbutu
Modou Jallow                           Kully Kunda VDC
Fatou Bajo                             Bajana
Biray Drammeh                          Jally
Buramanding Samateh                    Jally
Suteh Sanneh                           Tanji Bird Reserve
Nima Njie                              Tanji Bird Reserve
Fatou Cissey                           Tanji Bird Reserve
Jerreh Njie                            Tanji Bird Reserve
Lamin Manneh                           Tanji Bird Reserve
Jamanty Badjie                         Tanji Bird Reserve
Wandifa Jaiteh                         Tanji Councilor of Elders
Malamin Bojang                         Tanji SMC Chairman
Binta Darboe                           Madyana SMC
Ismaila Jarju                          G/Town
Fakebba Kolley                         Tanji village rep.
Amaranding Gaye                        Brufut
Buba M. Manneh                         Brufut /SMC
Bajamba Bojang                         Brufut
Ousman Sanneh                          Brufut
Marian Narkwah                         G/Town.
Sara Dugan                             Ghana Town

Great white egret – Pelecanus onocrtalus Pink backed pelican- Pelecanus
Hammer kop – Scopus umbretta                              Geeat cormorent – Phalacrocorax
Lag tailed cormorat – Phalacrocorax africanus              African darter- Anhinga rufa
Black crowned night hero – nycticorax nycticorax           Cattle egret – Bubulcus lbis
Squacca heron – Ardeola ralloides                            Striated heron – Butorides striatus
Black egret – egretta ardesiaca                             Intermediate egret – egretta
Western eeef heron – egretta gularies                      Little egret – egtellagarzetta
Great white egret – egretta alba                       Black headed hero n– Ardea
Grey heron – Ardea cinerea                             Goliath heron – Ardea goliath
Purple heron – Ardea pururea                           Woolly necked storic – ciconia
Yellow billed stork – mycteria lbis                      African spoon bill – platalea alba
European spoon bill – Platalealeucorodia               Greater flamingo – Phoenicopterus ruber
Knob billed duck – sarkidiornis melanotos              Spur winged goose – Plectropterus
White faced whistling duck – Dendrocygna viduata            Sacred lbis – Threkiornis
Osprey – Pandion haliaetus                                African harrier hawk – Polyboroides
Palmnut vulture – Gypohierax angolensis                   Pied crow – corvus albus
Hooded vulture – necrosyretes monachus                  Ruppell’s griffon vulture – gyps
White backed vulture – Gyps africanus                White headed vulture – Trigonoceps
Martial eagle – Polemaetes bellicosus                 Crowned eagle – Stephanoaetes coronates
African fish eagle – Haliaeetus vocifer              Tawny eagle – Aquita rapax

Wahlberg’s eagle – Aquila wahlbergi                   African hawk eagle – Hieraaetus
Booted eagle – Hieraaetus pennatus                    Long crested eagle – Lophaetus occipitalis
Bateleur eagle – Terathopius ecoudatus           Brown snake eagle – circaetus cinereus
Western banded snake eagle – Circaetus cineraseens     Short toed eagle – Circaetus
Black kite – milvus migrans                                  Bat hawk – mackeiramphus alcinus
Grass hopper buzzard – Butastur rufipennis               Black shouldered kite – eklanus
African swallow tailed kite – chelictinia riocourii        Montagu’s harrier – Circus pygargus
Pallid harier – Circus macrourus                         Eurasian marsh harrier – Circus
Dark chonting gos hawk – melierax metabates                     Gabargoshawk-micronisusgabar
Shikra -     accipter badius                               Lizard buzzard-kaupifal
Peregrinefalcon –falcon peregrinus                               Lanner falcon-falcon
African hobby – falcon cuvierii                                   Euresian hobby -falcon
Red necked falcon -falcon chicquera                              Grey kestrel –falcon
Double spurred francolin –francolinus bicakaratus          Stone partindge –ptilopechus
Helneted guinea fowl –numide meleagris                        Common quail –coturnix coturnix
Four banded sand grouse –pterocles quadricinctus               Black creke –amaurornis
African jacana –actophilornis africanus                           African fin foot podica
Black bellied bustard –eupodotis melanogaster         Bronze winged courser –rhinoptilus
Temminck’s courser –cursonus temminckii                        Spotted thick –knee burhinus

Senegal thick knee burhinus senegalensis          Black headed plover       -vanellus
Spurwinged plover –vanellus spenosus              Wattle polver     -vanellus
Greny plover –pluvialis squatarole                 Little ringed plover -charadrus
Ringed plover -charadrius hiaticule                Kittli ts’s plover –charabrius
Whimbrel –numenius phaeopus                        Black tailed godwit –limosa
Bar tailed godwit –limosa lapponica                Common green shank –tringa
Marsh sand piper –tringa stagnatilis              Common sand piper –actilis
Wood sand piper –tringa glareola                   Commno red hank –tringa
Pied avocet –recurvirostra avosetta               Black winged stilt –himaltopus
Ruddy turnstone –arenaria interpress              Little stint –calidris minuta
Sanderhing –calidris alba                            Curlew sand piper –calidris
Grey headed gull – larus cirrocephalus                 Sleender billed gull - larus
Lesser black back gull – larus fuscus                   Caspian tern – sterna
Royal tern – sterna maxima                              crested tern – sterna
Sandwich tern – sterna sandvicensis                    Gull billed tern –
gellochelidon nilotica
White wingedblack – childonias leucopterus              Black tern – Chlidonias
Little tern – Sterna albifrons                            Laughing dove –
streptopelia sengalenise

Back billed wood dove – turtur abyssinicus                   Speckled pigeon –
columba guinea
Bruece’s green pigeon- Treron waalia                          Namaqua dove - oena
Red eyed dove- Streptopelia semitorquata            African mourning dove-
streptopelia decipiens


Great white egret – Pelecanus onocrtalus            Pink backed pelican- Pelecanus
Hammer kop – Scopus umbretta                         Great cormorant – Phalacrocorax
Long tailed cormorant – Phalacrocorax africanus      African darter- Anhinga rufa
Black crowned night hero n– nycticorax nycticorax     Cattle egret – Bubulcus lbis
Squacca heron – Ardeola ralloides                       Striated heron – Butorides
Black egret – egretta ardesiaca                         Intermediate egret – egretta
Western reeef heron – egretta gularies                 Little egret – egtellagarzetta
Great white egret – egretta alba                     Black headed hero n– Ardea
Grey heron – Ardea cinerea                              Osprey - pandion haliaetus
Wilson’s sorn peterl – oceanites                      British storm petrel – hydrobates
Great cormorant- phalacrocorax carbo                 Kentish plover –charadrius
White fronted plover – charadrius marginatus          Eurasian curlew – numenius
Eurasian oyster catcher – hedmatopus ostrelegus             Ruff – philomachus pugnax
Red knot – calidris canutus                                  Dunlin – calidris alpina
Artic skua – strecorarius parasiticus                       Audouin’s gull – largs

Kelp gull – larus dominicanus                                    Yellow legged gull – larus
Bridle tern

Animal checklist in Kiang West National Park

COMMON NAME                       SCIENTIFC NAME
  1. Leopard                                  Panthera pardus
   2. Spotted Hyena                       Crouta crocuta
   3. Bush Buck Antelope                  Tragelaphus s. S criputs
   4. Guienea Baboon                      Papio papio
   5. Patas Monkey                        Erythrocebus badius temminckii
   6. Gambian Mongoose                    Mugos gambians
   7. Senegal bushbaby                    Galago senegalensis
   8. Common Warthog                      Phacochoerus africanus
   9. Maxwell’s Duker                     Cephalopus maxwellii
   10. Callithix Monkey                           Chloro cebus sabaeus
   11. Cape clawles otler                 Anoyx capenses
   12. West African manatee               Trichechus senegalensis
   13. Nile crocodile                     Varanus n. niloticus
   14. Nile crocodile                     Crocodylus niloticus
   15. Common Genet                               Genetta genetta
   16. African Civet                      Civetticitis civetla
   17. Roan Antelope          `                   Hippotragus equinus
   18. Sitatunga                          Tragelaphus spekii
   19. Common Bottlenose Dolphin                  Tursiops truncatus
   20. Forest Genet                       Genetta Parduna
   21. Spotled genet
   22. Ardvaak                                    olgeteropus afer
   23. Hedgehog                           Ecinaceus alliventus

   24. Red colobus Monkey               Piliocolobus badieus temminckii
   25. Banded mongoose          Mungos mongo
   26. Hare                     lebus saxatilis
   27. Striped grond squirrel   Euxeruserythropus
   28. Gambia sun squirrel      Heliosciurus gambianus
   29. Striped grond squirrel   Euvenis erythropus
   30. Gambia sun squirrel      Heliosciurus gambianus

Annex 4: site maps