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Palestine Oppression and Resistance

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					      Palestine:
Oppression and Resistance
Types of Oppression

                         Military and
                          Security Related

                         Legal and
                          Administrative
The Military Occupation

                     The occupation is enforced
                      by the Israeli Defence
                      Force; the Border Police
                      and the Civil Police.

                     Practices they use are
                      “might, force and beatings”
                      (Rabin);
                     Overwhelming and
                      disproportionate violence;
                     Administrative detention.
The Military Apparatus

                            500-700 Checkpoints

                            The security fence /
                             apartheid wall

                            The blockade of Gaza

                            Closed military zones

                            The protection of
                             colonists
Military Violence
                       Since 2000, 6,311 Palestinians,
                        including 1317 children, have been
                        killed by Israeli forces (31/10/10
                        B‟Tselem).

                       During the War on Gaza 431 children
                        were killed, (PCHR).

                       In the first few three weeks of the
                        Second Intifada the IDF fired 700,000
                        bullets and other projectiles in the
                        West Bank and about 300,000 in
                        Gaza. One wit in Central Command
                        quipped there was “a bullet for every
                        child,” (Maariv, 21/11/2002).

                       Tens of thousands of shells have been
                        fired into Gaza. Eg. 29/03/2006 -
                        12/04/2006 2,300 shells and 34
                        airstrikes; 27/06/2006 to August 2006
                        over 3,500 shells and 190 airstrikes.
Military Targets and the Goldstone Report
                    Hospitals, health workers, farmers, factories,
                     poultry farms, sewage works, schools and
                     universities, homes.

                    Israeli forces committed “willful killing, torture or
                     inhumane treatment, willfully causing great
                     suffering or serious injury to body or health, and
                     extensive destruction of property not justified by
                     military necessity and carried out unlawfully and
                     wantonly.”

                    Goldstone also accused Israel of depriving
                     Palestinians in Gaza of their right to
                     subsistence, and stated, that this “could lead a
                     competent court to find that the crime of
                     persecution, a crime against humanity, had
                     been committed.”

                    “the Mission considers the plan to have been
                     directed, at least in part… at the people of Gaza
                     as a whole.”
The Siege of Gaza
                       “The whole of Gaza's civilian population is
                        being punished for acts for which they bear no
                        responsibility. The closure therefore
                        constitutes a collective punishment imposed in
                        clear violation of Israel's obligations under
                        international humanitarian law,” (ICRC).

                       80% Food dependent: “Chronic malnutrition in
                        the Gaza Strip has risen over the past few
                        years and has now reached 10.2%,” (WHO).
                       No freedom of movement
                       No rebuilding
                       De-development
                       Collapsing education
                       95% of water undrinkable (Amnesty
                        International)
                       12% of child deaths caused by diarrhoea.
                       95% of children experience nightmares or
                        bedwetting symptomatic of post-traumatic
                        stress-disorder (February 2009, Care
                        International).
Administrative Oppression

                The West Bank occupation is
                 enforced jointly by the military
                 and the Civil Administration.

                In line with the Oslo Accords
                 the West Bank is divided into 3
                 Zones – A, B and C.

                Area C is 61% of the West
                 Bank and is under full Israeli
                 Civil and Military control.
Life in Area C
                    Palestinians live by permit:
                    45% of all West Bank land is designated as
                     Closed Military Zones, State Lands or
                     Nature Reserves, all of which are barred to
                     Palestinians.
                    94% of Palestinian building applications are
                     refused, successful building applications
                     are generally restricted to 1% of the
                     territory, (UNOCHA).
                    Amongst children aged 6 months to 5 years
                     living in herding communities 5.9% suffer
                     from acute malnutrition and 28% have
                     stunted growth, (UNOCHA).
                    Amnesty International reports that the Israeli
                     army shoots up Palestinian water cisterns, and
                     has prevented communities whose wells have
                     dried up from over use by the settlements
                     from collecting rain water.
                    "We are helping very poor families to build
                     new tanks on their roofs... unfortunately it's a
                     really good target for Israeli soldiers to shoot
                     at,“ (Oxfam).
Colonisation

                  There are over 200 illegal
                   Jewish only colonies /
                   settlements.
                  There are 500,000 illegal
                   colonists.
                  The colonies are built on
                   confiscated / stolen land.
                  Associated with the colonies
                   are Israeli only roads, cordon
                   sanataires, water theft,
                   harassment and checkpoints.
Colonists
               There are two types of colonist –
                economic and ideological.

               All colonists are armed.

               Colonists regularly attack
                Palestinians, destroy their crops
                and sometimes buildings.

               “I am appalled at acts of
                destruction of olive trees and
                farmlands, desecration of
                mosques and violence against
                civilians. Israel states its
                condemnation, which I welcome,
                but its record in imposing the rule
                of law on settlers is lamentable,”
                John Serry, UN Special Envoy.
The Rule of Law
                     Palestinians live under Israeli military
                      law.

                     Colonists live under Israeli civil law.

                     Colonists can vote, Palestinians
                      cannot.

                     Colonists have their own infrastructure,
                      including their own roads.

                     “When we have settled the land, all the
                      Arabs will be able to do about it will be
                      to scurry around like drugged
                      cockroaches in a bottle… We declare
                      openly that the Arabs have no right to
                      settle on even one centimeter of Eretz
                      Israel…” Rafael Eitan, Israeli Chief of
                      Staff, 1983.
The Seam Zone
              Approximately 260,000 Palestinians living in 81
               communities are trapped in the so called “Seam Zone,”
               (Save the Children).

              A further 98 communities comprising 312,810 people
               are surrounded by the wall, settlements or other illegal
               Israeli infrastructure, (Ma‟an Development Agency).

              In villages in the seam zone pregnant women usually
               leave their homes a month early as they may not be
               able to cross the checkpoints to hospitals (WHO).

              “Even in the weird reality of the occupation, some
               situations are particularly absurd. Every morning the
               Jadallah children cross the road on which their house
               is built. A road on which they are forbidden to travel or
               walk along, and go by foot about 3 kilometers to
               school in the nearby village of Faqiqs, along a path full
               of sharp ascents and descents difficult for even good
               walkers. The prohibited road, Route 3265, used to
               take them directly to school, a maximum of two
               minutes from their home.”
The Fence/Wall
                The wall is built mostly inside Palestinian
                 territory. It annexes up to 10.5% of the
                 West Bank, 80% of the illegal colonists and
                 the major water resources.

                The wall separates East Jerusalem from
                 the rest of Palestine.

                Some communities and towns are entirely
                 surrounded by the wall making their future
                 unviable, (World Bank).

                The Wall, “almost totally ignores the daily
                 needs of the Palestinian population” and is
                 “focused almost exclusively on the desire to
                 maintain the fabric of life of Israeli settlers,”
                 (Bimkom).
Hebron
            A city of 140,000 it is split in two.
             20% of the city is under direct
             military control because 500
             illegal colonists live there.

            Even by Israeli standards the
             behaviour of the colonists is
             “intolerable… The sight of Jews
             firing at innocent Palestinians
             has no other name than pogrom.
             I am ashamed that Jews could
             do such a thing," Ehud Olmert.

            Palestinians live under continue
             harassment, curfews and
             closure.
East Jerusalem
              Annexed by Israel it remains the capital of Palestine.

              Jewish residents have Israeli citizenship – Palestinians do not.

              Palestinian residency is temporary can be revoked for a variety of
               reasons.

              Palestinian areas lack infrastructure and have a much lower percentage
               of the budget spent on them.

              To build a Museum of Tolerance Israel has demolished an ancient
               Palestinian graveyard.

              Cut off from the West Bank only approximately 10% of West Bank
               Palestinians and no Gaza Palestinians have permits to travel there.

              The regime of house demolition applies but Palestinians find it almost
               impossible to gain planning permission.

              “Life in East Jerusalem can be described as a continuing cycle of
               neglect, discrimination, poverty, and shortages,” (ACRI).

              Israel‟s actions present “an extremely worrying pattern of Israeli efforts to
               drive Palestinians out of East Jerusalem - all of which are illegal under
               international law,“ Richard Falk UN Human Rights Raporteur.
The Rule of Law
                     House demolition

                     Residency and
                      Citizenship

                     Family unification

                     Curfews and
                      Closures

                     Property

                     Administrative
                      Detention
Equal Citizens
                    Palestinian citizens of Israel are
                     promised equal rights.

                    ACRI reports the reality is they
                     “face entrenched discrimination in
                     all fields of life.”

                    90,000 Palestinian Israelis live in
                     “unrecognised” villages. Denied
                     health care, water, education, post,
                     etc their homes are frequently
                     bulldozed.

                    The Hebrew University reports that
                     in education 3 times as much is
                     spent on a Jewish child as on a
                     Palestinian child.
Samud

           Samud –
            Steadfastness.

           A refusal to give up;
            a refusal to be
            humiliated, and a
            determination to
            maintain the dignity
            and routines of daily
            life is the main type
            of resistance.
Popular Committees
               Beginning in 2005 villagers in Bil‟in have held
                weekly protests against the illegal wall that
                confiscates their land.

               This model has been taken up by other villages who
                formed Popular Committees Against the Wall.

               In weekly protests Palestinians are joined by Israelis
                and International Volunteers.

               Israel‟s response has been violence and
                imprisonment. Abu Bassem Rahme (the young
                man in the photograph) was shot dead. Many
                others have been injured, and between June 2008
                and January 2009 32 of Bil‟in‟s residents arrested,
                in the neighbouring village of Ni‟lin, over a period of
                18 months 94 residents had been arrested.
Unrecognised
                  Many forms of Palestinian
                   resistance go
                   unrecognised.

                  In Gaza Palestinian farmers
                   and international volunteers
                   regularly challenge Israel‟s
                   buffer zone. Often they are
                   shot for doing so.

                  In 2009 the Arab League
                   declared Jerusalem a city
                   of Arab Culture – the
                   festival was banned and its
                   organisers imprisoned.
The Olive Tree

                    Over a million fruit trees and
                     500,000 olive trees have
                     been destroyed in the last
                     decade.

                    The YMCA Joint Advocacy
                     Initiative have replanted
                     over 50,000 new olive trees.

                    The YMCA works with
                     international volunteers and
                     is supported by Trocaire.
The Palestinian Authority

                       The PA is actively trying to
                        break links between the
                        illegal colonies and the
                        Palestinian territories.

                       Colony goods are banned.

                       From next year it will be
                        illegal for any Palestinian to
                        work in a colony.
The Return

                As guaranteed in
                 international law (UDHR
                 Article 13) the 7.2 million
                 Palestinian refugees (4.7
                 million registered) remain
                 committed to their right of
                 return.

                Refugee organisation
                 Badil puts it this way: “It‟s
                 either return… or return.”
Solidarity

                Numerous organisations
                 attempt to alleviate injustice.
                ICHAD rebuilds houses
                Gush Shalom and Rabbis for
                 Human Rights protest against
                 family evictions in East
                 Jerusalem.
                Israeli artists have called for a
                 cultural boycott of the illegal
                 colonies.
                B‟Tselem, Bimkom, Hamoked,
                 Gisha and Physicians for
                 Human Rights all campaign
                 for Human Rights standards.
Civil Society
                   In 2005 170 Palestinian civil
                    organisations called for Boycott,
                    Divestment and Sanctions in order
                    to “besiege the siege.”

                   Since then ICTU, STUC, COSATU
                    and other Trade Unions have either
                    entirely or partially endorsed this
                    call.

                   In 2009 the Palestinian Churches
                    added their endorsement calling the
                    occupation “a sin against God.”

                   Israel is considering making support
                    for BDS a criminal offence.
Over to you
                 “The right of self-determination
                  is of particular importance
                  because its realization is an
                  essential condition for the
                  effective guarantee and
                  observance of individual human
                  rights... It is for that reason that
                  States set forth the right of self-
                  determination… apart from and
                  before all of the other rights...”
                  High Commissioner for Human
                  Rights, 1984

                 Israel‟s actions daily violate this
                  fundamental right. States have
                  failed to fulfil their obligation to
                  act so it is over to you.
    Index to Photos
   1. The Israeli army occupy a Palestinian home – they can stay for up to a month and use the home as a base for military operations.
   2. The entrance to Bethlehem, 2006. Note the sign from the Israeli Ministry of Tourism – “Peace be with you.”
   3. Israeli soldier threatens two Palestinian women.
   4. Blindfolded Palestinian kneels beside a checkpoint.
   5. Israeli airman‟s photograph of an air strike on Gaza during Operation Cast Lead, 2008-09.
   6. Al Quds Hospital Gaza after having been shelled with white phosphorus during Operation Cast Lead, 2008-09.
   7. Children in Gaza demonstrate following the destruction of their school, 2009.
   8. Map of Israeli settlements and areas A, B and C in the West Bank.
   9. Palestinian family in Area C, note the water containers as they are not connected to the water supply.
   10. Palestinian Shepherd with Israeli settlement in the backgound.
   11. Armed Israeli settlers approaching Palestinian farmers in south Hebron hills, June 2008.
   12. Palestinian school children rush through a security gate in the West Bank.
   13. An Israeli only road in the West Bank.
   14. The separation wall.
   15. School children in Hebron blocked from going to school.
   16. Ariel Sharon‟s house in East Jerusalem. Note the huge flags and menorah.
   17. A Syrian bride in the Occupied Golan Heights preparing to cross the ceasefire line to get married – once she has crossed she
    cannot return.
   18. An Israeli Palestinian citizen sits on the ruins of her demolished home in an „unrecognised‟ village in the Israeli Negev, 2010.
   19. Palestinian children on Hebron have lessons beside a checkpoint having been refused access to school.
   20. Israeli politician and peace activist Uri Avnery walks beside Palestinian campaigner Bassem Abu Rahma at a protest against the
    wall in Bil‟in. Subsequently Bassem was shot and killed by the Israeli army whilst peacefully protesting in April 2009.
   21. Palestinians performing the traditional Dabkeh dance.
   22. A field of cut down olive trees outside Bethlehem in October 2006, (John Levanz) and Palestinian farmers are water cannoned
    for protesting against the wall that confiscates their lands.
   23. Palestinian prime minister Salaam Fayyad burns settlement goods to enforce a boycott, 2009.
   24. Palestinian children commemorate Nakba Day sending balloons into the sky. The balloons can travel where they can not.
   25. Tent of the Palestinian family al –Gawi outside the home they were evicted from in East Jerusalem, 2008. Israeli and
    international volunteers work with the Israeli Committee Against House Demolition (ICAHD) to rebuild demolished Palestinian
    homes.
   26. Consumer boycott poster.
   27. Palestinian boy in Jayyous market, the West Bank.

				
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