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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY PRESENTATION WASTE TO ENERGY PROJECT SAN JOSE COSTA RICA GASIFICATION TO ENERGY Reasonable, Responsible & Recycling Waste to Energy Project Essentials Adequate tipping fees for all work Definitions of work to be performed Processing versus End Point. Regulatory approvals Import & Tax Waivers or Tip Fee offset Permitting guarranteed Location guarranteed Offtake contract for power –”P.P.A.” Project Delivery Risk Risk on Public Partner Risk Sharing with Private Partner Traditional Non-traditional Courtesy: Epcor Biosphere Gasifier Rendering Ecology Wet Cell Front End Recycling We tend to prefer projects which remove recyclable materials, and non recyclable materials. We can’t gasify stone and glass, and we should recycle aluminum cans, etc. Front End Recycling, Single Stream. Waste Transfer can be clean Transfer to Waste Processing can be direct or by trans shipment. Baling systems can produce wrapped waste with NO odor and NO negative image. Fully enclosed waste transfer Visually neutral. Bales weigh approximately 3,500 pounds each. Compressed approximately 14:1 ratio. Can be stacked deeply, and held in high temperatures without problems Refuse Derived Fuel Municipal solid waste (MSW) is processed into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in a MRF – i.e., in a Material Recycling Facility The RDF can be gasified in an Biosphere Gasifier The RDF can also be mixed with 82% moisture content “belt pressed” Municipal sewage sludge and gasified in an Biosphere Gasifier Prototype 15 Million Btu/h Unit Direct-fired lumber kilns Indirectly fired dryer in Pulp mill Firing lime kiln Proven Commercial Performance Two units (45,000,000 Btu x 2) have been running continuously for 27 years. The machine has lasted longer than most of the ten forestry product companies who installed units. Reliable, robust, solid and proven fluidized bed updraft gasification that can project finance. Miscellaneous Wastes Municipal Solid Waste Refuse derived fuel Bio Solids or Sludge from waste water Used Railway Ties & Telephone Poles Construction and Demolition Debris Land Clearing Debris Poultry litter Cow Manure Pig Manure Mixtures of the above Diagram of 3 - 90 Million Btu/h Biosphere Gasifiers “Externally” Cofiring an existing boiler Firing of Steam Turbine Biomass is gasified in separate units built alongside of steam turbine. o o Gasifiers 2,000 F ± 200 F products of combustion are ducted to Heat Exchangers which drive steam into the Turbine. Products of combustion from Heat Exchanger goes into our special bag houses. Biomass moisture content up to 65% is “OK” for our gasifiers. Significant Features, 1 Four air sources: Underfire air gasifies biomass in the 1st stage Overfire air preheats 1st stage producer gas to ensure ignition in the 2nd stage Primary combustion air ignites the preheated producer gas at the bottom of the 2nd stage Secondary combustion air completes combustion of producer gas in the 2nd stage Significant Features, 2 Very large 1st stage grate area Hence grate temperature ≤ 1,200oF Hence essentially zero slag Ash can be reclaimed as valuable products Very low underfire air flow (only need sufficient air to gasify biomass) Hence very low particulate elutriation off pile Significant Features, 3 The Biosphere Gasifier can burn biomass with moisture contents up to 65% (wet basis) and ash contents up to 35% 5:1 turndown ratio is standard; 9:1 is not uncommon 15 second response time to step change in Btu Demand signal Abort valve permits rapid dumping of products of combustion in an emergency Refuse Derived Fuel Municipal solid waste (MSW) is processed into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) in a MRF – i.e., in a Material Recycling Facility The RDF can be gasified in an Biosphere Gasifier The RDF can also be mixed with 82% moisture content “belt pressed” Municipal sewage sludge and gasified in an Biosphere Gasifier WILL OR WON’T, VERSUS, CAN’T! Physical Plant Construction CONSTRUCTION Estimated direct workforce will be 35 to 40 men for approximately fourteen months. Additional jobs will likely be in transportation and supply. Construction Major Trades Heavy Equipment operators Electrical, Major and sub-systems Machinists, Welders and fitters Power Equipment, Cranes, Concrete Refractory Environmental Compliance KYOTO PROTOCOL TO THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION; CLIMATE CHANGE Reducing the greenhouse gas effects of the combustion of fossil fuels is exactly the value produced by a biomass and refuse derived fuel based power plant. ZERO “new” CO2 production cycle. Biosphere Gasifier 1st Stage: gentle updraft gasification on very large grate 2nd Stage: vigorous, double vortex, cyclonic combustion Emissions (untreated): CO < 1 ppm, NOx< 15 ppm, particulate < 100 mg/Nm3 (< 0.125 lb/106 Btu; < 0.04 gr/dscf) Emissions listed are prior to treatment, Bag House @ PM2.5 and Wet Tubular Electrostatic Precipitators are planned for projects. Units in continuous operation for 25+ years Significant Features, 4 Staged combustion permits operating with excess air levels as low as 15% The lime kiln test unit burned 55% moisture content hog fuel and supplied 2,200oF flue gas to the kiln @ = 15% Staged combustion and low temperatures (due to wet fuels) combine to produce virtually zero thermal NOx Significant Features, 5 Dioxins and Furans Destroyed, viz., Chlorine can react with cellulose to form dioxins and furans in the 1st stage However, these gases are destroyed in the 2nd stage with its 1,800oF plus brick walls No black waterwalls are present to chill and lock in - dioxins or furans in the 2nd stage Dioxins & Furans M.A.C.T. M.A.C.T. is maximum available control technology. (Also sometimes known as B.A.C.T. or Best Available Control Technology). While we should not have any issue with this on our gasification, we include special bag houses that would automatically catch any dioxins or furans at 40% below the current A7 Ontario Standards. Very, very clean. Natural Exposure is Forest Fire SWEDISH EXPERIENCE 29 Waste to Energy plants operating at this time. GUESS: What is their total output of dioxins, all 29 plants, annually? Catalytic Filter System Metals, Sulphur etc. Hazardous Waste Incineration Southwestern United States Test Burn Emission Summary: (Limit) *Average Condi tion I **Average Condi tion II ***Average Condi tion III Gas Flow, Wet, ACFM - 58,55 57,60 60,79 0 0 0 99.999995 99.999919 99.999988 99.999943 99.999918 99.999983 99.999994 99.999969 99.999978 DRE % PCB MCB HCE (99.9999) (99.9999) (99.9999) Metals removed Metals Removal % (Limit) *Average Condition I Antimony (not supposed to be there…) **Average Condition II ***Average Condition III - 99.9914 99.7464 99.8274 Arsenic 99.9973 99.9943 99.9781 Barium (0.02) 99.9939 99.9961 99.9974 Beryllium 99.9912 99.9960 99.9966 Cadmium 99.9971 99.3688 99.5516 Chromium 99.9967 99.9684 99.9822 Lead 99.9985 99.9716 99.9971 Mercury 95.676 91.3541 98.1065 Silver *Maximum liquid and direct burn ** Maximum sludge burn *** Maximum bulk solids burn Thallium 99.9803 98.9819 99.7859 99.9087 99.7334 99.6372 Particulate gr/DSCF 0.0006 0.0009 0.0003 Dioxins & Furans Ontario A7 to Project 2 1 A7 G M.A.C.T. DIOXIN DIOXIN 0 A7 M.A.C.T. EXCEEDS ALL REQUIREMENTS (0.14 A7 VS 0.049) PARTICULATE ONTARIO A7 TO PROJECT 100 80 60 40 20 0 A7 A7 G M.A.C.T. M.A.C.T. P G P FAR EXCEEDS REQUIREMENTS NOx ONTARIO A7 LIMIT TO PROJECT 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 A7 G G M.A.C.T. M.A.C.T. Nox A7 Nox "G" IS = M.A.C.T. NOx M.A.C.T. The Idaho National Laboratory has come up with a way to insert a “re-burn” chamber for NOx on the exit ducting of our gasification unit. Given the low proteins in municipal waste product and very low thermal NOx this would be a very conservative move that we would do more for “PR” than any need –but this is a test we are interested in and will pursue. Agricultural Wastes With a grate temperature of 1,200 F, potassium (potash) and sodium (soda) in agricultural and animal waste do not vaporize to form alkali deposits on boiler tubes Potassium vaporizes at 1,400oF and sodium vaporizes at 1,616oF The potash and soda remain in the 1st stage, from which they are removed by the built-in ash removal system and sold to farmers depending on what else is present o Economics, Job Benefits Biosphere Gasifier Rendering Ecology Wet Cell What would we like? Letter of intent for projects from the Government, waiver of import duties. Waste contracts for all of the Various cities waste at $40+/ton; PPA of $0.099 PPP of some kind on the recycling portion of the project. Political support in complying with all of the appropriate requirements. Letter of Commitment question, funding: The short answer is "YES", we can obtain commitment letters "subject to", but, make no mistake, we would not take this to our funding groups at this juncture because we have not done ANY of our homework. We don't even have the MOU signed and returned. 1. We have no waste composition or proximate or ultimate analysis on which to base our engineering opinions to our own funders and partners. We have no assurances that the waste which would be characterized will be maintained within normal variance. We have no moisture content and inert contents review done. We have had no discussions on the disposal of inerts which will prove to be critical to this project in a "no landfills" mandate. 2. We have no letters of intent from any of the Cities we are going to be working with to provide us with take or pay contracts which underpin our deals both on the Waste Off take contracts and on the Power Purchase agreement. We have no economic basis for even basic deal economic evaluation. No tipping fees outline with escalators, no PPA rates and acceptance terms, no nothing! 3. We have no site or location selected with a logistics and permitting study, even a basic one, done. 4. We have no property tax deal, no governmental guarantee on the waste contracts and the land purchase and no waiver of import duties in place. Thank you. We look forward to answering any of your questions on all of the topics covered in this presentation. You can reach Paul Finestone at 818-9956706, or on email: email@example.com Thank you.
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