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CLEANTECH – ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

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					CLEANTECH – ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY
Like a glowing focal point, the question of how we should use our energy resources has gained an unquestioned place on the political agenda. CleanTech covers energy and environmentrelated development aimed at reducing consumption of natural resources. CleanTech is found in the sectors of energy, transport, agriculture, air and water quality. CleanTech companies work with energy, water treatment, waste management and materials recycling. Energy is the main component of CleanTech and the focus of this presentation.

SWEDISH KNOW-HOW
Preeminent Swedish technological development of renewable energy has garnered international attention. Investors in CleanTech are looking at Sweden, where longterm environmental research and technology development are the foundations of innovative energy technologies – and where the know-how required to efficiently integrate the technologies into society can be found. Decades of experience with goal-oriented, long-term initiatives have created expertise, experience and extraordinary networks. Unlike many other countries, the Swedish energy research programme has been distinctly oriented towards renewable energy and improved energy efficiency for a very long time. National political mechanisms, financial support for entrepreneurship, R&D and commitment to sustainable environmental policy are a few of the explanations. But the open and accepted climate of cooperation among industry organisations, politicians and scientists is another key contributor to Sweden’s considerable expertise in CleanTech

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN SWEDEN
Sweden is one of the countries in the world that invests the most per capita in research and development. CleanTech research is no exception. Sweden has been making long-term investments in renewable energy research and technological development since the oil crisis of the 1970s. Sweden has also made tremendous progress in energy efficiency, especially in the industrial sector. The unmistakable focus has helped make Sweden a world-leader in many energy and environment-related fields. Renewable sources of energy account for 37% of Sweden’s energy supply.

HEAT PUMPS
Geothermal heat is actually pure solar energy, and the principle is basically very simple. The technology is based on utilising the solar energy stored in the ground during the year. Even climates without a lot of sun suffice to store enough heat energy underground. A fluid-filled house is heated underground and collects the stored heat of the sun. After that, the heat pump’s job is to concentrate the stored heat energy so that it can heat water in the house – in the tap and the shower as well as radiators. Heat pumps run on electricity, but the pump returns several times more heat energy than it uses.

WHY ARE HEAT PUMPS A GOOD IDEA?
• It takes only one part electricity to produce three parts heat • New technology yields hotter water and faster heat for less money • Geothermal heat reduces annual electricity consumption by 50 to 75% compared to other types of heating • Remote monitoring and control can be managed over the Internet • The heat pump can serve as a climate control system and be used for both heating and air conditioning

DISTRICT HEATING
District heating is usually highly resourceefficient and eco-friendly. A central district heating plant heats water, which is transported in a pipeline under high pressure to a district heating system in each building. Heat exchangers in the building use the hot water to heat radiators and hot water tanks. District heating provides 12% of all heating in Sweden. District heating plants can be run on a wide variety of fuel types and take advantage of energy that would otherwise go to waste, such as waste heat from industrial processes, forestry waste and energy recovered from rubbish and waste. Large-scale combustion yields high environmental performance and district heating is very reliable. District heating can generate both heat and power.

WHY IS DISTRICT HEATING A GOOD IDEA?
•District heating is usually a resource-efficient alternative that utilises a wide variety of fuel types and takes advantage of energy that would otherwise go to waste. Running heating plants with renewable fuels (instead of fossil fuels) is a major and important environmental transition. • Efficient use of surplus industrial heat • Flexibility and options in fuel choice • Enables energy recovery from rubbish and residual waste • Cost-effective heating in towns and cities • Flue gas purification at a single site reduces environmental impact • Reduced carbon dioxide emissions improves air quality in towns and cities • Efficient use of resources through co-generation of heat and power • Extremely reliable

DISTRICT COOLING
District cooling is based on the same principles as district heating. Water is chilled and then distributed in a pipeline to homes, offices, industrial buildings and other spaces that need air conditioning. The cold water is pumped around in a closed system and used to cool the air circulating in the building’s ventilation system. The same water is then piped back to the production facility to be rechilled. The temperature of the water pumped to buildings is about 6° C and the return water about 16°. The return water is heated as much as possible as rooms and processes are cooled. Sweden is benefiting from system expertise in district heating as well as the expansive technology infrastructure.

WHY IS DISTRICT COOLING A GOOD IDEA?
•District cooling provides a consistent and comfortable indoor climate year-round, while reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. • Costs less than local cooling systems • Highly reliable • Consistently high comfort in commercial spaces and buildings • No noise from alternative cooling systems • Limited maintenance • No need to store or handle environmentally hazardous refrigerants and chemicals • Flexible adaptation for both comfort cooling and process cooling • Natural cold can be utilised in many cases, resulting in minimal energy consumption • District cooling and district heating production can be combined for more resourceefficient operation

SOLAR ENERGY
Sunlight can be used to produce heat or electricity. Solar cells (photovoltaics) are used to generate electricity. Silicon-based solar cells are currently the most widely used technology. There are metal contacts on both sides of the solar cell. When sunlight strikes the solar cell, a charge arises between the front and back sides. A solar cell produces a charge of about one half volt. The cell continues generating electricity as long as the light strikes it, but stops instantly in darkness. Solar cells are often assembled in solar modules that can be linked to produce higher voltage.

WHY IS SOLAR ENERGY A GOOD IDEA?
The sun’s energy is so abundant that once we have learned how to use it economically, energy supply will no longer be a problem. Sweden has been involved in developing various solar energy technologies for many years that can be successfully combined with other technologies. The results have been superb, since conditions vary from one environment to the next. For instance, there are now hybrid technologies that solve the problem of lighting in places where conventional infrastructure is unavailable, like forests, rural areas or mountainous areas. Integration of solar electricity and solar heating modules – a hybrid technoogy that supplies waste heat and enhances efficiency. Solar electricity and heat pump technology – a hybrid technology powerful enough to make single-family homes energy self-sufficient Solar cells, new battery technology and LED lighting – a hybrid technology for environments where there is no power line infrastructure. On-grid solar cells and solar heating systems connected to the district heating network – large hybrid systems that are a superb choice for heating in sunny countries.

WIND POWER
Wind power turbines utilise the energy in wind to generate power. Wind arises when the sun warms the atmosphere and creates temperature differences. This produces pressure differences that set air masses in motion. Modern wind turbines capture about one third of the power in the wind that passes through the rotor’s swept area. The blades on a wind turbine look something like a propeller and are linked to a generator that converts movement to energy. Wind is an almost infinite resource and creates no pollution.

WHY IS WIND POWER A GOOD IDEA?
•Wind power has many advantages from the environmental standpoint – the raw material is renewable and requires no permanent alterations to the environment. • Very limited environmental impact • Production causes no environmentally harmful emissions • There are no hazardous residual products and final storage is not required • There are no fuel costs involved in production • Production requires no transport of raw materials • A standard wind turbine produces more energy in less than six months than it took to manufacture it

LED LIGHTING
LED – Lighting Emitting Diode – is a young lighting technology that emerged in the 2000s, but is developing at warp speed. In another ten years or so, it is highly likely that most of our indoor and outdoor lighting will be powered by LED technology. LEDs can withstand major temperature variations, providing an enormous range of applications, since installations are not affected by the climate or the season LEDs are semiconductors that directly convert electric current to light. The diodes emit colored light – red, orange, yellow, green or blue. White light is created using a special LED technology and is becoming more common all the time.

WHY IS LED LIGHTING A GOOD IDEA?
•LED is an entirely new generation of lighting technology that is set to revolutionise the world in the next ten years. The technology has superior competitive advantages compared to low-energy light bulbs and incandescent bulbs.

• LEDs have a lifetime of about 100,000 hours, which is a hundred times longer than a conventional light bulb. • The diodes are extremely energy efficient. About 50% of the energy in an LED is expended as light. In an ordinary light bulb, about 95% of the energy is expended as heat and only 5% as light. • LED lamps do not get as hot as halogen lamps. That makes LED lighting ideal for bookshelves and other cramped spaces that should not be allowed to overheat. • LEDs contain no environmentally hazardous substances like lead or mercury.

CLEANTECH – AN INDUSTRY FOR THE FUTURE
Interest in environmental innovations is rising steadily as global climate problems become more urgent. CleanTech is considered one of the most important industries of the future. The OECD estimates that the world environmental technology market will be worth about €644 billion in 2010. The European Commission has proposed targets to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 20% and increase the share of energy consumption from renewable sources to 20% by 2020, in accordance with the agreement made by EU Heads of State in March 2007. The relatively large percentage of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system is an outstanding achievement. About one fourth of Swedish consumption comes from renewable sources of energy. One example is the transport sector in Stockholm, where 25% of bus traffic in runs on ethanol or biogas.

HEAT PUMPS

HEAT PUMPS USE THE FREE ENERGY NATURE PROVIDES
Geothermal heat is actually pure solar energy, and the principle is very simple. The technology is based on utilising the solar energy stored in the ground during the year. Even climates without a lot of sun suffice to store enough heat energy underground. A fluid-filled house is heated underground and collects the stored heat of the sun. After that, the heat pump’s job is to concentrate the stored heat energy so that it can heat water in the house – in the tap and the shower as well as radiators. Heat pumps run on electricity, but the pump returns two to four times more heat energy than it uses.

SWEDISH GEOTHERMAL HEAT IS A FORCE TO BE RECKONED WITH
We have tremendous experience with geothermal heat in Sweden and more heat pumps are installed here than anywhere else in the world. Thanks to all the residential and industrial installations, tried-and-true Swedish geothermal heat technology is ready for export. • Long-term research and development since the 1970s • Highly trained consultancies and certified installers • The large number of installations (500,000) has created a platform for independent researchers and developers • The Swedish Energy Agency in partnership with the SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden have carried out several independent tests of different heat pumps • Sweden has the highest number of installed geothermal heat pumps in the world

GEOTHERMAL HEAT – A BRILLIANT, EFFICIENT IDEA
Even climates without a lot of sun suffice to store enough heat energy underground. The heat pump can be used for both heating and air conditioning. • It takes only one part electricity to produce three parts heat • RPM control reduces energy consumption • New technology yields hotter water and faster heat for less money • Geothermal heat reduces annual electricity consumption by 50 to 75% • Remote monitoring and control can be managed over the Internet

THE TREND IS STILL MOVING UP
The fact that geothermal heat is financially advantageous has driven the installation rate for geothermal heat pumps in Sweden to new heights in the 2000s. A similar trend worldwide is highly likely.

Today’s market, characterised by high prices for oil and electricity and carbon dioxide taxes, is favourable and is hastening the technical development of heat pumps.
Mechanisms such as conversion grants and public/private partnerships have had a powerful impact on the positive development. Technology procurements have stimulated the development of new technology to get new products, systems and processes to market. The outcome of the 1994 technology procurement for heat pumps was an estimated potential savings of 5 to 6 TWh/year for the Nordic countries over 15 years.

GEOTHERMAL HEAT IS REPLACING OIL
The Johansson family of two adults and their teenage son live in a single-storey house with a basement in Torshälla, a small town in central Sweden. They heated their home with an electric oil and wood-fired boiler for 15 years. The house is 95 sq m, built of concrete with a wood facade. It took about 30 kWh/year to heat the house with the electric boiler. In spring 2005, the Johanssons installed a geothermal heat pump – and cut their electricity consumption in half. Now it takes only 14 kWh of electricity a year for heating and the Johanssons think their home has felt especially warm and cosy ever since. As an added bonus, the heat pump is much easier to maintain than the boiler.

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH GEOTHERMAL HEAT COMPANIES
• THERMIA • NIBE • IVT • CTC • EVIHeat • ClimateWell

THERMIA
Thermia Värme AB is one of the larger manufacturers of heat pumps in Europe. Thermia is part of Danfoss Heat Pumps. With especially powerful expansion in Germany and France, Thermia is also experiencing robust international growth in England, Ireland and Denmark. The company’s goal is to be the European market leader by 2009. Business direction Geothermal heat pumps with integrated high-temperature water heaters. RPM control of circulation pumps minimises energy consumption and maximises heat production. The heat pumps can be easily managed and monitored remotely via the Internet and text messaging. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 473 million (2005) Contact details: www.thermia.se

NIBE INDUSTRIER
NIBE Industrier is divided into three business units. NIBE Heating manufactures domestic heating products, including heat pumps. The company’s mission is to supply the market with high-quality and innovative heating products. NIBE Heating has 19 subsidiaries in Europe. NIBE Industrier is listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange (O list). Business direction Geothermal heat pumps with integrated water heaters that do not require auxiliary electric heater cartridges. This is accomplished through intelligent control of an RPM-controlled compressor and circulation pumps. The heat pumps can be easily managed and monitored remotely via the Internet and text messaging. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 2.5 billion (2006) Contact details: www.nibe.se

IVT
The IVT Group does business in the energy and environmental goods and services sector. Their business concept is to supply heat and cooling in a way that saves energy and conserves the environment more effectively than other energy solutions. IVT possesses system expertise in energy solutions where the solar energy stored in rock, soil water and outdoor air is used and the energy in exhaust air is recovered. IVT is a subsidiary of Division Thermotechnik, Bosch Group. Business direction IVT PremiumLine X15. Geothermal heat pump with RPM control. Provides unlimited heat, 4.5 – 17 kW. Auxiliary electricity not required. The patented scroll compressor yields high output, quiet operation and long service life. Savings up to 14% higher than equivalent heat pumps that do not have RPM control. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 1.3 million (2006) Contact details: www.ivt.se

CTC
CTC’s business philosophy is to develop, manufacture and market burners, boilers and heat pumps along with devices, equipment and components for heating systems and industrial applications. CTC is a division of Enertech AB Sweden, a subsidiary of Enertech Limited. The Enertech AB Sweden Group also includes Bentone and Osby Parca. Business direction Energy from the sun can be used to supplement the heat pump via an outdoor heat exchanger connected to the CTC EcoHeat pump or the EcoAir air/water pump together with the CTC EcoEl for a free addition of the most eco-friendly energy imaginable. At a glance Annual sales (Enertech AB): SEK 805 million (2006) Contact details: www.ctcvarme.se

EVI HEAT
Heat pumps from EVI Heat are developed and manufactured by SIPS AB, Sweden. The company has annual sales of SEK 50 million. SIPS AB was founded in 1991 and is part of the EVI Group, located in southern Sweden.

Business direction EviHeat manufactures solar heat pumps that are run in parallel with geothermal or other heat pumps. Augmenting the system with a solar heat pump usually covers the building’s entire heating and hot water requirement.
At a glance Annual sales: SEK 50 million Contact details: www.eviheat.se

CLIMATEWELL
ClimateWell develops solar-powered heat-pump climate systems that provide both heating and cooling. The company operates in Sweden, Finland, Madrid and Italy and exports to several countries including Spain, Italy and Germany. ClimateWell has a patent on TCA technology in about 30 countries, which applies to the entire solution. The company believes there will be several different markets for TCA, including large-scale applications, but first and foremost, the single-family home market. Business direction ClimateWell uses solar heating for air conditioning. The technology is called Thermo Chemical Accumulator, or TCA, which involves storing energy from solar panels in a “battery” of salt, which can be saved and extracted as either cold or heat. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 1 million (2006) Contact details: www.climatewell.se

HEAT PUMPS – A POWERFUL ALTERNATIVE
Heat pumps are an eco-friendly alternative that reduce the use of electric heat, oil and gas. The heat pump is especially eco-friendly when the electricity is produced using green methods like hydropower, wind power or biomass-fired co-generation. The fact that the heating principle is financially advantageous has driven the installation rate for geothermal heat pumps to new heights in the 2000s. Heat pumps collect both heat and cold from the soil, which is extremely useful in many countries with a warmer climate. This is also evident in the strong growth in the heat pump market in France, Germany and England. China has also begun using heat pumps.

DISTRICT HEATING

DISTRICT HEATING – A CLOSED SYSTEM THAT RECOVERS ENERGY
District heating is a highly resource-efficient and eco-friendly source of heat. A central district heating plant heats water, which is transported in a pipeline under high pressure to a district heating system in each building. Heat exchangers in the building use the hot water to heat radiators and hot water tanks.

DISTRICT HEATING – PRINCIPLE
District heating plants utilise a wide variety of fuel types and take advantage of energy that would otherwise go to waste, such as waste heat from industrial processes, forestry waste and energy recovered from rubbish and waste.

The technology is uncomplicated and very reliable.

SWEDEN IS THE WORLD LEADER IN DISTRICT HEATING
Sweden is the world leader in district heating. Consistent and relatively high environmental taxes on fossil fuels and openness to new solutions in the energy sector have driven technological progress and sharply reduced the use of fossil fuels. The transition from individual systems to large district heating plants has reduced emissions of nitric oxides, sulphur dioxide and particulates. Swedish carbon dioxide emissions have dropped by 20%. • A long history of building knowledge about how common systems should be built and maintained • Energy companies with tremendous financial endurance • Four-fifths of the heat used in Swedish district heating networks is based on energy that would otherwise have gone to waste

SWEDISH DISTRICT HEATING FROM A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
Swedish consultants have unique system expertise in relation to feasibility studies and planning district heating systems and are frequently called upon for projects run by organisations like European Bank and the World Bank. Several SWEHeat companies have been involved in recent years in the modernisation and expansion of district heating plants and networks in Eastern and Central Europe. Swedish experts have been used in North America for planning and operation of several district heating plants. China has used Swedish technology to manufacture insulated pipes and for a range of other district heating products.

Swedish district heating technology is solidly established in Europe.

DISTRICT HEATING – A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT ALTERNATIVE
District heating utilises a wide variety of fuel types and takes advantage of energy that would otherwise go to waste. Running heating plants with renewable fuels is a major and important environmental transition. • Efficient use of surplus industrial heat • Flexibility and options in fuel choice • Enables energy recovery from rubbish and residual waste • Cost-effective heating in towns and cities • Flue gas purification at a single site reduces environmental impact • Reduced carbon dioxide emissions and cleaner air in towns and cities • Efficient use of resources through co-generation of heat and power • The technology is uncomplicated and extremely reliable

STOCKHOLM – A GREEN LEADER AMONG WORLD CAPITALS
District heating produces about 75% of the heat required to keep Stockholm warm. The high percentage has made Stockholm a green leader among world capitals. Stockholm is growing and district heating is growing right along with it. Högdalenverket is one of the biggest district heating plants in Europe. The household waste produced by the people of Stockholm is burned here and converted to electricity and district heating. Over the years, this has contributed to sharp reductions in emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful substances. Every year, Högdalenverket takes in 500,000 tonnes of household waste and 200,000 tonnes of sorted industrial waste, which is converted to 450 GWh of electricity and 1,700 GWh of district heating for a quarter million Swedes.

REFERENCE SITES
District heating has been used in Sweden for more than fifty years, and today there are more than 200 district heating systems. They range in size, from the smallest, which sell about 5 GWh a year up to the biggest, which sell more than 7 TWh (7,000 GWh) a year.

Waste to CHP Completed in 2006, Jönköping Power: 100 GWh a year Heat: 350 GWh a year

Straw-fired hot water plant Sotenäs, Skaraborg Heat: 20 GWh a year

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH DISTRICT HEATING COMPANIES
Boiler Plant Equipment Petrokraft VEÅ Heat Exchangers Alfa Laval Armatec SWEP International Control and Automation Energy Opticon TAC Valves, Pipes and Fittings Powerpipe Systems Alvenius Industriarmatur ARI Mittel Fjärrvärme TAC Armatec (Pre)insulated Pipes Alstom Power FlowSystems Powerpipe Systems

Heat Metering Metrima

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH DISTRICT HEATING COMPANIES
Consultants FVB District Energy Göteborg Energi International SWECO International ÅF-Energi & Miljö Official Bodies Swedish District Heating Association Swedish Energy Agency Swedish Trade Council Management Support Energy Opticon FVB District Energy SWECO International ÅF-Energi & Miljö District Heating Operators Göteborg Energi International Mälarenergi Tekniska Verken in Linköping Umeå Energi Öresundskraft Substations Alfa Laval Armatec SWEP International

Research and Development Lund Institute of Technology

FVB DISTRICT ENERGY
Founded in 1970, the company has been expanding in the energy sector ever since. FVB District Energy is investing in research and has been providing training in district heating to the international market for many years.

Business direction Consultancy and turnkey projects related to heating, cogeneration and industrial processes. Also provides advanced services of a strategic nature - often at the management level.
At a glance Annual sales: SEK 82,7 million (2006) Contact details: www.fvb.com

SWECO INTERNATIONAL
SWECO International is the foremost consultancy firm in Scandinavia and possesses solid expertise in the fields of engineering, the environment and architecture.

Business direction SWECO’s consultants work in all areas of the energy supply chain from production to distribution and consumption. The objective is to help develop a cost-effective and sustainable energy supply system with long-term concern for the environment. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 163 million Contact details: www.sweco.se

ÅF-ENERGI & MILJÖ
ÅF is a leading engineering consultancy whose knowledge is based on a century of experience, with specialised and general expertise in process and civil engineering and technical estimates.

Business direction Combined with qualified project management, ÅF can take on any kind of civil engineering project - from planning buildings and entire industrial facilities, to specialised planning within the various disciplines. The company manages the full spectrum of supplying heat to people and industrial processes. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 3.1 billion (2006) Contact details: www.afconsult.com

RISING TO FUTURE CHALLENGES
District heating is a highly versatile system that can be produced using the technique and fuels that are optimal for the time and place.

International interest in district heating is rising fast and the potential benefit to the global climate may be enormous.
Simply by doubling the use of district heating in Europe, the EU could meet its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol by a wide margin. Opportunities to expand CHP in Europe are particularly favourable.

DISTRICT COOLING

DISTRICT COOLING – A TECHNOLOGY WITH MINIMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
District cooling is based on the same principles as district heating. Water is chilled and then distributed in a pipeline to homes, offices, industrial buildings and other spaces that need air conditioning. The cold water is pumped around in a closed system and used to cool the air circulating in the building’s ventilation system. The same water is then piped back to the production facility to be rechilled. The cooling may even consist of natural cold taken from cold water layers deep in lakes, rivers or the ocean. Snow stockpiles saved from the winter can also be used in district cooling systems. See principle 

DISTRICT COOLING – PRINCIPLE

SWEDEN IS A PIONEERING COUNTRY IN DISTRICT COOLING
Sweden’s first district cooling plant went operational in 1992. Today, there are about thirty plants producing district cooling in Sweden. Studies show that total demand for district cooling equals about 2000-5000 GWh. District cooling replaces used to run individual air conditioners, which goes handin-hand with lower operating costs and better environmental performance. Swedish district cooling companies have laid a strong foundation for building systems in the form of pipelines. The district cooling companies are turnkey contractors who supply the entire heating and air conditioning requirement.

THE SMART WAY TO PRODUCE COOLING
District cooling provides a consistent and comfortable indoor climate year-round, while reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. • Costs less than e.g. compressor-driven air conditioning • Highly reliable • Consistently high comfort in commercial spaces and buildings • No noise from alternative cooling systems • Limited maintenance • No need to store or handle environmentally hazardous refrigerants and chemicals • Flexible adaptation for both comfort cooling and process cooling

DISTRICT COOLING IS MAKING STRIDES
The growing numbers of computers in the workplace and the realisation that comfort cooling increases productivity have brought greater demands for a comfortable climate at work. As a result, the need for eco-friendly and costeffective comfort solutions is increasing every year and the market is growing rapidly. • 10% of global electricity production is used for cooling • 16% of US electricity production is used for cooling • More than 80% of buildings in the US and Japan are air-conditioned. The figure is less than 50% elsewhere in the world, but is rising fast • The EU expects district cooling to provide 25% of the requirement by 2020

THE HEATING PLANT IS COOLING LINKÖPING
The regional utility company, Tekniska Verken, supplies district cooling in two large networks in central Linköping. The absorption heat principle is used to produce the cooling in the large central plants that run on district heating.

Technological progress has now made it also profitable to build small local networks with compact air conditioning systems that run on district heating.
Tekniska Verken is now offering the solution to buildings that are not connected to the main district heating networks.

REFERENCES
Zuidas: 76 MW, project started 2003 and in operation July - 2006

Zuidoost lob: 60 MW, project started 2005 and scheduled to begin operation first half - 2008

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH DISTRICT COOLING COMPANIES
Consulting & Management Support FVB District Energy ÅF-Energi & Miljö Capital Cooling Europe AB Valves, Pipes and Fittings Powerpipe Systems Meters Metrima District Cooling Operators Fortum Göteborg Energi Norrenergi Mälarenergi Tekniska Verken i Linköping Öresundskraft Substations Alfa Laval Armatec SWEP International

Official Bodies Swedish District Heating Association Swedish Energy Agency Swedish Trade Council
Heat Exchangers Alfa Laval R&D Education Lund Institute of Technology KTH Chalmers

CAPITAL COOLING (CCE)
CCE focuses on the European market for District Cooling. The company sets up and implements business projects with robust, sustainable features. Including current projects, Capital Cooling Europe has developed about 20 projects with a corresponding investment volume of about 350 million euro. Business direction Total concept for BOT (Build Own Transfer), including financial solutions Management consulting Partner Strategy (Implement DC business units in local energy companies)

At a glance Annual sales: SEK 35 million References: Contact details: www.capitalcooling.se

FVB DISTRICT ENERGY
Founded in 1970, the company has been expanding in the energy sector ever since. FVB District Energy is investing in research and has been providing training in district heating to the international market for many years.

Business direction Consultancy and turnkey projects related to heating, cogeneration and industrial processes. Also provides advanced services of a strategic nature - often at the management level.
At a glance Annual sales: SEK 82,7 million (2006) Contact details: www.fvb.se

ÅF-ENERGI & MILJÖ
ÅF is a leading engineering consultancy whose knowledge is based on a century of experience, with specialised and general expertise in process and civil engineering and technical estimates.

Business direction Combined with qualified project management, ÅF can take on any kind of civil engineering project - from planning buildings and entire industrial facilities to specialised planning within the various disciplines. The company has special expertise in district cooling. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 3.1 billion (2006) Contact details: www.afconsult.com

RISING TO FUTURE CHALLENGES
Future climate changes combined with rising demands for personal comfort are continually increasing the need for air conditioning all over the world. Thanks to its superior system function and resource efficiency, district cooling has an excellent chance of becoming a key component of the energy system of the future.

SOLAR ENERGY

THE SUN – THE CLEANEST ENERGY SOURCE
The sun is a clean source of energy. Solar energy emits no toxic emissions or hazardous waste and demands no energy to produce energy. Solar energy can be used to generate both heat and electricity. The easiest way to generate solar heating is to let the sun heat water in a solar collector.

THE SUN – THE CLEANEST ENERGY SOURCE
Solar cells convert sunlight directly to electricity. The solar cell is made of a semiconductor material with metal contacts on both sides, front and back. When sunlight strikes the solar cell, electrons are knocked loose and are moved by a voltage difference between the front and back sides of the solar cell, creating electricity. The process continues as long as the light is striking the solar cell, but stops instantly in darkness.

OUTSTANDING SWEDISH RESEARCH IN PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY
Sweden has wide-ranging research expertise in photovoltaic (solar cell) energy. Several multinational owner-operated companies are using and further developing Swedish research findings. The Ångström Solar Center is supporting research. The national co-financed “SolEl” programme for PV systems and applications is the foundation of Swedish research and development in the field. SolEl is a joint effort of the energy, construction and manufacturing sectors. Government investment grants are providing a platform for developing on-grid PV systems in public buildings. Sweden also grants funding for installation of PV systems, in addition to the long-standing grant programme for installation of solar collectors. Grants are also available for PV systems integrated in new buildings.

HYBRIDS OF SOLAR AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
Sweden has been developing various types of hybrid technologies for many years. For instance, these solutions are being used successfully in environments where conventional power infrastructure is unavailable, such as forests, remote rural areas and mountainous areas. Integration of solar electricity and solar heating modules – a hybrid technoogy that supplies waste heat and enhances efficiency. Solar cells, new battery technology and LED lighting – a hybrid technology for environments where there is no power line infrastructure. Solar energy offers a good alternative in places that lack reliable energy supply, such as rural areas in developing countries. The need and the potential are huge, especially since sun conditions in these places are often ideal.

SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IS HUGE, ESPECIALLY IN SUNNY COUNTRIES
For a long time, it simply was not profitable to utilise solar energy except in places where there was no conventional power infrastructure. But the technology is advancing rapidly and vigorous support programmes have stimulated powerful market growth. • Solar energy accounted for less than one half-thousandth of world energy consumption in 2000. That figure is expected to increase to 20% by 2025. • The PV market has grown by about 40% a year in the 2000s. • EU target: 200 GW solar cells out of an estimated worldwide total of 1,000 GW by 2030. • Production costs are declining steadily as new technology is developed and production increases. • Consumer prices for solar energy are expected to drop by half in ten years. Estimated cost of solar energy in southern Europe: €0.15/kW in 2015, €0.06/kW in 2030. • Thin-film technology is lowering costs by about 80%. • Access to venture capital is abundant.

PV CELLS – AN ECO-FRIENDLY AND RELIABLE ALTERNATIVE
The sun’s resources are abundant and unlimited, which makes solar energy a very interesting alternative in the energy system of the future. • Sunlight is converted directly to electricity, with no moving parts and nothing consumed. • PV modules can fill multiple functions, such as replacing roof or facade materials or doing double duty as shades. • Maintenance costs are low. • Reliable technology, output guarantee on the modules (80% after 25 years). There are systems in Sweden still working beautifully after a quarter century. • The technology can be attractively integrated with the built environment. • Simple and modular, the technology can be adapted to preferred requirements.

VARIOUS TECHNOLOGIES IN DEVELOPMENT
Silicon-based solar cells are currently the most widely used technology for converting solar energy to electricity. The maximum efficiency of conversion is 15 to16%.

Although reliable solar cell systems are commercially available today, further research and development is needed to reduce the costs and make large-scale distribution of solar cells possible.
Research and development of several new solar cell technologies with the potential to improve efficiency and lower production costs are in progress all over the world. The development of thin-film PV cells (second-generation solar cells) has brought new technologies that are starting to break into the market. In parallel, development of third-generation solar cells, such as Grätzel cells, is in progress.

SOLAR ENERGY IS A VIABLE CHOICE

University Student Union, 25 kW, Aug 2006
Bjurslätt Senior Citizen Housing, 5 kW, Aug 2006

Allé School, Hallsberg, 40 kW, Dec 2005

Mellanhed School, 35 kW, Feb 2007

SOLAR CELLS AT MELLANHED SCHOOL
There are 251 m2 of solar cells installed at Mellanhed School in Malmö, with peak output of 31 kW. The PV modules are installed above the windows, meaning they also work as shades. The decision to install solar cells to protect students and teachers from the glare of the sun was taken in connection with an interior refurbishment. The system went operational in January 2007. Mellanhed School’s PV system won the Solar Energy Association of Sweden’s 2007 Solar Energy Award in 2007, with the following citation: “An architecturally well-integrated PV system of modules adapted to work as shades in connection with refurbishment. The system is designed for high energy efficiency while improving the indoor climate. The choice to install the system at a school also gives it high educational value.”

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH SOLAR CELL COMPANIES
• ArcticSolar AB • Gällivare Photovoltaic AB (GPV) • PV Enterprise Sweden AB • Solibro • n67solar

ARCTIC SOLAR
In Laponia, under the midnight sun and the polar sky, the sun plays a special part in our lives. Perhaps that is why we are so good at making solar modules, which provide eco-friendly energy to people all over the world.

Business direction Clean, eco-friendly energy from the land of the midnight sun!
At a glance Annual sales: SEK 30 million Contact details: www.arcticsolar.se

GÄLLIVARE PHOTOVOLTAIC AB
Gällivare Photovoltaic AB (GPV) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Solar World AG, a large German corporation with more than 1,350 employees in ten locations. GPV manufactures about 20 MW of PV panels a year, with 92% exported to Germany and the remainder sold in the Scandinavian market. Business direction GPV is the first and biggest producer of photovoltaic modules in Scandinavia. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 500 million Contact details: www.gpv-solar.com

PV ENTERPRISE SWEDEN
PV Enterprise is successfully competing in the rapidly growing international market for solar energy with innovative, high-quality products and highly automated production.

Business direction PV Enterprise is a Swedish company that specialises in developing and manufacturing photovoltaic panels.
At a glance Annual sales: SEK 70 million Contact details: www.pv-enterprise.com

SOLIBRO
Solibro is a spin-off of the Ångström Solar Center in Uppsala, Sweden, a centre of world-leading research on this type of solar cells for many years. Business direction Solibro develops thin-film solar cells, based on a compound semiconductor known as CIGS. Solibro supplies thin-film solar cell modules with a very high efficiency (16.6%), based on the research of the Ångström Solar Center. At a glance Annual sales: USD 0.5 million Contact details: www.solibro.se

N67 SOLAR
Our mission at n67solar is simple: To provide high-end crystalline photovoltaic modules of consistent quality, in large volumes and at fair prices, while meeting our obligations to our partners reliably and punctually, upstream and downstream.

Business direction n67solar manufactures large crystalline photovoltaic modules for on-grid systems, BIPV and stand-alone applications.
At a glance Employees: About 30 (2008) Contact details: www.n67solar.se

THE FUTURE OF SOLAR ENERGY
Solar energy is probably the most important alternative for the energy system of the future. Technology is developing very rapidly, thanks to successful research, tougher environmental policies worldwide and good access to venture capital. Far more than a billion people still have no access to electricity. In the future, solar energy is probably going to play a crucial role in their lives. New hybrid technologies are expanding the possibilities for using solar energy. Swedish research and technology are far and away the leaders in this area, with products and technologies that have a sterling reputation in the global market.

WIND POWER

WIND POWER – AN INFINITE ENERGY RESOURCE
A wind turbine is completely dependent on the wind. When the sun warms the atmosphere, it creates temperature differences. This in turn produces pressure differences that set air masses in motion – and the wind starts to blow.

WIND POWER – AN INFINITE ENERGY RESOURCE
Modern wind turbines capture about one third of the power in the wind that strikes the rotor. The blades on a wind turbine look something like a propeller and are linked to a generator that converts movement to energy. Wind is an almost infinite resource that costs nothing and creates no pollution. See principle 

WIND POWER – PRINCIPLE

FAIR WINDS FOR SWEDISH WIND POWER
There is considerable wind power potential in Sweden and the political message is to develop wind power in the country. Discussions are in progress about the expansion of groups of wind power farms. The planning will involve about 15 large wind power farms, each with about 100 wind turbines. Sweden’s large expanses of land, such as the inland areas in the north, are ideal sites for wind power. The environments are remote, far from recreational areas and communities and the sites are not classified as conservation areas. Sweden is currently running an extensive test project with the objective of running plug-in hybrid cars on wind turbine generated electricity. The Swedish automotive industry has demonstrated keen interest in the project.

WIND IS A CLEAN AND ECO-FRIENDLY ENERGY SOURCE
Wind power has many advantages from the environmental standpoint – the raw material is renewable and requires no alterations to the environment. • Very limited environmental impact • Production causes no environmentally harmful emissions • There are no hazardous residual products and final storage is not required • There are no fuel costs involved in production • Production requires no transport of raw materials • A standard wind turbine produces more energy in less than six months than it took to manufacture it

WIND POWER IS A RAPIDLY GROWING ENERGY RESOURCE
Total global production is still small, which gives wind power huge growth potential. Leading producers believe wind power will account for 10% of total world power production by 2015. Right now, Swedish wind power covers about 1% of the country’s total power consumption. Once the planned new production is operational, wind power will account for one third of Sweden’s electricity consumption. Wind power already covers 20% of electricity consumption in Denmark. In 30 years, an estimated half of all electricity will be generated by wind power turbines. Development is also advancing very rapidly in countries like Germany, Spain and the Netherlands.

LILLGRUND – THE WORLD’S THIRD-LARGEST OFFSHORE WIND PARK
Lillgrund is by far the biggest offshore wind power project in Sweden. The project, implemented by the Swedish energy company Vattenfall, is going to yield knowledge that large-scale offshore wind power works in purely technical and financial terms, which will pave the way for future projects. The farm consists of 48 turbines with total output of 110 MW. Total production in a normal year is estimated at 385 GWh.

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH WIND POWER COMPANIES
Technology Development • SW Vindkraft AB • DynaWind AB Components • VG Power • Roxtec • SKF • ABB • ESAB

SCANWIND
ScanWind Group AS designs, manufactures and sells large wind turbines with minimum output of 3 MW. ScanWind has developed a technique adapted to withstand very rough wind and weather conditions. The type of wind turbines currently in mass production are direct-drive turbines with installed output of 3.5-5 MW for both onshore and offshore applications. ScanWind Group AS is Norwegian-owned. The head office is in Trondheim, Norway and the R&D department is in Karlstad, Sweden. Business direction Developing wind power technology for rough wind conditions and large turbines. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 8 million (2005) Contact details: www.scanwind.com

DYNAWIND AB
DynaWind AB is a Swedish manufacturer of wind turbines adapted to our Nordic climate. DynaWind is part of the Swedish industrial group Morphic Technologies AB, an expansive Swedish company intent on becoming a leader in competitive, eco-friendly energy systems. A great deal of the wind power operations at the company are run in partnership with a Finnish company, WinWinD. The partnership agreement gives DynaWind exclusive rights to WinWinD’s unique turbine technology in the Swedish market. Business direction Manufacturing of wind turbine masts. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 33 million (2006) Contact details: www.dynawind.se

VG POWER AB
VG Power has developed a new Swedish direct-drive generator that cuts the price of wind power – a key factor in stimulating expansion. Conventional generators are heavy – which makes them costly. VG Power has solved the problem with a patented technology that reduces the weight by up to 70%, which could potentially cut the price of the generator in half. Business direction Direct-drive generators with no gearbox At a glance Annual sales: SEK 92 million (2006) Contact details: www.vgpower.com

ROXTEC
Roxtec is the world's single largest manufacturer of module based cable and pipe seals. The core of the product invention is the Multidiameter Technology. Founded in 1990, Roxtec became one of the most rapidly growing companies of its kind in less than a decade. Roxtec´s Multidiameter Technology makes it possible to seal cables and pipes in a wide range of diameters with only a few sizes of seals. Installations can always be finished on-site because the Multidiameter units compensate for any surprises or last-minute changes. Business direction Technical solution for safe laying of cables, pipes, etc. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 372 million (2005) Contact details: www.roxtec.com

SKF
SKF has become a major supplier to the wind power sector, having developed key elements of the turbine itself. Business direction One of the world’s foremost manufacturers of bearings. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 50 billion (2006) Contact details: www.skf.com/portal/skf_se/home

ABB
ABB is a world leader in power and automation technology. Business direction ABB does not make rotor blades. Or steel masts. But ABB does make almost everything else required to produce and transport wind-generated electricity into the power grid. With a long list of products, systems and services, ABB is the world’s largest supplier of wind power solutions. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 21.6 billion (2005) Contact details: www.abb.se

ESAB
ESAB develops welding and cutting equipment used to manufacture wind turbines. Business direction More than a century of steady research, development and sales has made ESAB a world leader in welding and cutting, as well as a multinational supplier of products, know-how and service. At a glance Annual sales: SEK 9 billion (2006) Contact details: www.esab.se

WIND POWER IS GROWING GLOBALLY
Wind power is the source of energy that is going to make the primary contribution to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Expansion is expected to increase by 25% a year for the next several years. There is tremendous potential for wind power in Sweden. The expansion rate is on par with the rest of the world, meaning that by 2015, about ten new wind turbines will be built every week. Offshore wind power will have to be exploited to accomplish a truly major expansion.

LIGHTING

LED – A LITTLE HIGH-TECH POWERHOUSE
LED – Lighting Emitting Diode – is a young lighting technology that emerged in the 2000s, but is developing at warp speed.

In another ten years or so, it is highly likely that most of our indoor and outdoor lighting will be powered by LED technology.

LED – A LITTLE HIGH-TECH POWERHOUSE
LEDs are semiconductors that directly convert electric current to light. The diodes emit colored light – red, orange, yellow, green or blue. White light is created using a special LED technology and is becoming more common all the time.

NORDIC LIGHT INSPIRES DEVELOPMENT
The Scandinavian winter is long and dark, and Scandinavians perhaps have a greater need than others for artificial light. It only makes sense that Sweden is a clear front-runner in the lighting segment, with regard to both research and manufacturing. • Swedish companies have developed a very useful technical platform for LED that is built into outdoor lighting fixtures. As an added bonus, the new LED fixtures costs less than conventional fixtures. • Jönköping University has been offering a degree in lighting design and planning for several years now. • Sweden has an abundant supply of professional lighting planners working as consultants in the lighting industry and large municipalities. • Quite a few Swedish manufacturers of lighting fixtures have a historic tradition of exporting good lighting solutions.

LED – SUPERIOR LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY
LED is an entirely new generation of lighting technology that is set to revolutionise the world in the next ten years. The technology has superior competitive advantages compared to low-energy light bulbs and incandescent bulbs.

• LEDs have a lifetime of about 100,000 hours – a hundred times longer than a conventional light bulb. • The diodes are extremely energy efficient. About 50% of the energy in an LED is expended as light. In an ordinary light bulb, about 95% of the energy is expended as heat and only 5% as light. • LED lamps do not get as hot as halogen lamps. That makes LED lighting ideal for bookshelves and other cramped spaces that should not be allowed to overheat. • LEDs can withstand major temperature variations, providing an enormous range of applications, since installations are not affected by the climate or the season. • LEDs contain no environmentally hazardous substances like lead or mercury.

LED – THE LIGHT SOURCE FOR THE FUTURE
The minimal size of only a few millimetres won’t stop LEDs from becoming the technological lighting revolution of tomorrow.

• LED technology has come a long way fast. Once used only in displays, it is now being used as a complete lighting alternative, indoors and out. • Within 10-15 years, a significant percentage of lighting around the world will be based on LED technology. • The technology is being continuously refined and LED lighting is getting better and more efficient all the time, in terms of both lighting and energy.

A SELECTION OF SWEDISH LIGHTING COMPANIES
• Olsson & Linder • Johnsson Lighting Technologies

OLSSON & LINDER
Olsson & Linder is a consulting company working within the lighting services area including design of armatures. Business direction Olsson & Linder also offers lectures, workshops and educations customized to each customer needs. A few examples of areas for lectures: • Lighting and room • Lighting in the city • Lighting within green areas (parks)

At a glance Contact details: www.olssonlinder.se

JOHNSSON LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES
Johnsson Lighting Technologies – design and planning offers total solutions within the lighting services area. Business direction JLT customize each lighting system, as well as the application, according to the requirements of the user. This process includes the analysis of the customer’s specific needs prior to the building and installation of a system. JLT has developed a unique platform for application of the new LED (Light Emitting Diode) technology: • JLT Quad LED System • JLT White LED System LED Systems are suitable for Shops, restaurants and hotel environments. At a glance Contact details: www.jltsweden.com

A REVOLUTION IN LIGHTING
LED is an entirely new generation of lighting technology that emerged in the 2000s and is set to revolutionise the world in the next ten years. LEDs pack a lot of power despite their minimal size and are making many novel applications possible. Development is swift and there are great expectations of a breakthrough in the near future, when LEDs are going to revolutionise the indoor lighting market.


				
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