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									     The Australian and New Zealand
       Grocery Industry Guidelines

     for Numbering and Bar Coding of

Trade Items Not Sold at Retail Point of Sale




                 July 2001
Contacts
The principle contacts with regard to the contents of this document are:

EAN Australia Ltd                                                EAN New Zealand
2 Kingston Town Close                                            Level 2 Mainzeal House
Oakleigh Vic 3166                                                181 Vivian Street
Australia                                                        Wellington, New Zealand
Telephone:           1300 366 033                                64 4 801 0833
Facsimile:           (03) 9569-1525                              64 4 801 0830
Internet Web Site:   www.ean.com.au                              www.ean.co.nz
E-mail address:      technical@ean.com.au                        ean.nz@ean.co.nz

These guidelines should be read in conjunction with the EAN Australia & EAN New Zealand User Manuals.




Disclaimer
Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information and specifications in this document are
correct, however EAN Australia. EAN New Zealand and members of ECR Australasia expressly disclaim
liability for any errors. In addition, no warranty or representation is made that this document will not require
modification due to developments in technology or changes or additions to the EAN•UCC system.




                          The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines
Contents


INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW                                                                          1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY                                                                                  2

     New Zealand Grocery Industry Suppliers                                                         2

     Differences Between This and Previous Versions of the AGI Guidelines                           3

1.   BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION                                                                    4

2.   AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND GROCERY INDUSTRY REQUIREMENTS                                      5

3.   DEFINITIONS                                                                                   7

     3.1    Trade Items - Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)                                           7

     3.2    Trade Items Sold at Retail Point of Sale (POS)                                          7

     3.3    Trade Items NOT sold at Retail Point of Sale (POS)                                      8

     3.4    Attributes of Trade Items                                                               9

     3.5    Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)                                                  10

4.   HOW TO NUMBER AND BAR CODE TRADE ITEMS NOT SOLD AT RETAIL POINT OF SALE11

     4.1    Creating a GTIN by Allocating an EAN/UCC-13 Number                                     11

     4.2    Creating a GTIN by allocating an EAN/UCC-13 number with a filler zero (leading zero)   12

     4.3    Creating a GTIN by allocating an EAN/UCC-14 number.                                    13

5.   HOW TO NUMBER AND BAR CODE LOGISTIC UNITS                                                     14

     5.1    Using the SSCC in the Supply Chain                                                     15

     5.2    Structure of the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)                                 17

     5.3    EAN•UCC Logistics Label                                                                18

6.   APPLYING ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION TO TRADE ITEMS                                                 26

     6.1    Numbering and Bar Coding of Variable Measure Trade Items                               28

     6.2    Trade Items Carrying Promotional Lines                                                 29

     6.3    Human Readable Information                                                             29

     6.4    Location of the Bar code on Trade Items                                                29




July 2001               The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                  i
7.   PRINTING SPECIFICATIONS                                                               34

     7.1    Common Recommendations Applicable for all Three Bar Code Types                 34

8.   SUMMARY OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR PRINTING TRADE ITEM                               35

     8.1    Producing EAN-13 and UPC-A Bar Codes for Trade Items                           36

     8.2    Producing ITF-14 Bar codes for Trade Items                                     38

     8.3    Producing UCC/EAN-128 Bar codes for Trade Items                                40

9.   BAR CODE QUALITY CHECK LIST                                                           41

10. GLOBAL LOCATION NUMBERS (GLN)                                                          43

     10.1   Introduction                                                                   43

     10.2   Definition of the Global Location Number (GLN)                                 43

11. NUMBERING AND BAR CODING OF ASSETS                                                     45

     11.1   Introduction                                                                   45

     11.2   Allocating Asset Identifiers                                                   45

12. ACERT                                                                                  47




ii                      The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines   July 2001
Introduction and Overview
The following information contains guidelines on how to number and bar code trade items using the EAN•UCC
system. A trade item is defined as any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve
pre-defined information that may be priced or ordered or invoiced at any point in any supply chain. This
includes individual items as well as their different configurations in different types of packaging, such as outers,
inners, shippers and other storage and distribution type packages.

The intention of this document is to give guidance on the implementation of the EAN•UCC system of numbering
and bar coding of trade items not sold at retail point of sale, and supersedes all previous versions.

The following, in order of priority, reflect industry agreement on the marking of trade items not sold at retail
point of sale and logistical units.

1.   Suppliers should strive for 100% scannable EAN•UCC bar codes at all times.

2.   Whilst there is “in principle”, agreement by The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industries to support
     the printing of bar coded dynamic data on trade items in the longer term, it has been decided to allow
     suppliers to decide at their discretion when they will implement bar coded dynamic data on trade items.
     However, dynamic data is required for items that have a shelf life of under 90 days. This does not include
     chilled and frozen products in Australia but some New Zealand retailers are asking for the provision of
     dynamic data for chilled and frozen products with a shelf life of under 90 days.

3.   Labels carrying Serial Shipping Container Codes (SSCC) and bar coded dynamic data, such as use by date
     and batch number should be applied as soon as possible to pallets and logistic units when this information is
     applicable to the product.

4.   The recommended size, colour, contrast, height and magnification have been set for the three different types
     of EAN•UCC endorsed bar codes. All are within international standards.

5.   For non-EAN accredited companies verification reports from either EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand are
     required for all trade items not sold at retail point of sale, checking:
     -   scan rate
     -   bar code specifications
     -   location guidelines
     -   industry requirements as per this document

     For information on the ACERT Program see Section 12, page 47.

This guideline is applicable to all products that are NOT intended for retail point of sale in the grocery industry.
This includes perishables, general merchandise, liquor and all non-retail consumables.

The EAN•UCC system is a voluntary standard maintained and administered in Australia by EAN Australia and
in New Zealand by EAN New Zealand. The versatility of the EAN•UCC system provides users with various
numbering and bar coding options. It is left to the discretion of manufacturers and suppliers to decide which
option is suitable to their business needs and those of their trading partners.




July 2001            The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                                        1
Executive Summary
As the Grocery Industry in Australia and New Zealand adopts the key principles of ECR, there is increased
demand for improved data capture at all points of the supply chain. This should be a key objective for all trading
partners if they are to effectively meet their company needs and exceed customers’ expectations. To achieve this,
it is essential that all EAN•UCC numbers and bar codes, which provide the fundamental information for trading
processes within the grocery industry, meet the required standards to ensure a first scan every time.

Despite the increasing use of EAN•UCC numbering and bar coding there are still problems associated with poor
quality bar codes and related communications. This is impacting on the effective management of the
replenishment and information process.

Efficient replenishment is the process of filling store shelves with the right products, right quantity, right price,
right quality, right time and place and with a minimum waste of effort. The essential difference between
replenishment and efficient replenishment is the avoidance of wasted effort, measured in terms of low costs and
high levels of customer service.

Achieving efficiency in the management of the supply chain relies on having fast, accurate and timely
information about production, distribution and consumption. The need for a highly responsive supply chain is
driving forward the development of communication techniques. Bar codes and EDI are the technologies for this
communication. Any company serious about exploiting the concepts and practices of supply chain management
must be bar code and EDI competent. Nothing is more central to the effectiveness of a supply chain than the
ability to transmit accurate, relevant, understandable and timely information among its participants.

With the development of automated scanning processes throughout the distribution chain, it is increasingly
important that bar codes are printed in accordance with International standards. It is essential, therefore, that
suppliers ensure 100% scannability of all codes, which will bring mutual benefits to all trading partners. Printing
a good quality bar code that complies to these standards and which is scannable at all points through the supply
chain, costs no more than printing a bar code that is unscannable.

Bar codes are used throughout the supply chain for a variety of functions. Failure to scan at any point of this
chain will disrupt an efficient process, ultimately impacting on the consumer.

These recommendations for best practice encompass the main requirements of the Australian and New Zealand
Grocery Industry. These recommendations do not aim to encompass all aspects of EAN•UCC numbering and
bar coding, nor are they a substitute for the more detailed User Manuals available from EAN Australia & EAN
New Zealand. Clearly, it is essential to continue to discuss any problems in meeting these recommendations with
trading partners. Adoption of these recommendations should bring improved business efficiency and your
effectiveness for all companies within the supply chain.


New Zealand Grocery Industry Suppliers
Due to the close nature of the Australian and New Zealand grocery industries it has been decided that these
guidelines will be published jointly covering both markets with the same requirements. While Australia has had
the guidelines in place for some time, they have not previously been adopted formally in New Zealand. While a
target date for compliance has not been set, the guidelines are consistent with international guidelines and New
Zealand companies are likely to already be compliant with a large proportion of the guidelines. Where New
Zealand companies are not compliant they are encouraged to become compliant at the earliest opportunity and
should consider how that is done in conjunction with trading partners (e.g. next packaging change or next artwork
design/print run).




2                          The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                        July 2001
   Differences Between This and Previous Versions of the
                     AGI Guidelines
       This table identifies the additions and changes between this and previous versons of this document


                          Previous Version                                                       This Version
                                                          Terminology Changes
       Terminology retail item/consumer unit                             Trade item sold at point of sale
       Terminology non-retail item/trade unit                            Trade item not sold at point of sale
       Terminology for general EAN item identification numbers           Now referred to generally as Global Trade Item Numbers (GTIN)

       Bar code/symbology                                                Whilst terminology in parts still exists, the term Data Carrier has
                                                                         been introduced in line with international standards
       Terminology Use By Date                                           Maximum Durability Date
       Terminology Best Before Date                                      Minimum Durability Date
                                                           Dimension Changes
       ITF-14 magnification 90%-120%                                   ITF-14 magnification 50%-100% with note relating to high speed
                                                                       scanning environments
       UCC/EAN-128 magnification 40%-120%                              UCC/EAN-128 magnification 50%-100% with note relating to high
                                                                       speed scanning environments
       ITF-14 height was variable depending on the magnification       ITF-14 height is now 32mm regardless of the magnification.
       The entire magnification range of all the EAN.UCC bar codes was Both the recommended range for conveyorised scanning and the
       not included                                                    overall magnification range have been included for all bar codes

       SSCC magnification 50%-84%                                        SSCC magnification 50%-94%
                                                           References Changes
       No references to New Zealand Grocery Industry                     References to the New Zealand Grocery Industry
       Only EAN Australia verification reports accepted by the grocery   Addition of the acceptance of EAN New Zealand verification
       industry                                                          reports.
       No reference to dynamic data for chilled and frozen foods         Reference that some NZ retailers may request the marking of
                                                                         dynamic data on chilled and frozen products in addition to the for
                                                                         products with a shelf life of less than 90 days.
                                                             Location Changes
       No specific references to shallow trays                         Addition of more specific recommendations of location of bar
                                                                       codes on shallow trays
       No specific references to heavy bulky bags                      Addition of more specific recommendations of location of bar
                                                                       codes on bulky, heavy item
       Minimum recommendation of four bar codes on all four side, then Minimum recommendation is now 2 adjacent sides, one side (or
       two adjacent (two opposite also accepted) and where physically top for shallow trays) as an absolute last resort
       impossible one side.
       Minimum recommendation of one label on a logistic unit          Minimum recommendation is now 2 adjacent sides of the logistic
                                                                       unit to carry a logistics label.
                                                                  Additions
       No reference to asset identification                              Addition of a section on asset identification using the EAN.UCC
                                                                         system
       No reference to ACERT Program                                     Addition of a section on the ACERT Program




July 2001          The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                                                                  3
1. Benefits of Implementation
Using a standard common approach to the numbering and bar coding of trade items and logistic units will deliver
benefits of speed, accuracy and labour savings in the handling and distribution of goods throughout the entire
supply chain. Some of the specific identified benefits are:
•     More accurate information
•     Better stock rotation
•     Real-time information
•     Reduced manual entry
•     Improved traceability (including for product recalls/withdrawals)
•     Common identification across Industry
•     Improved stock handling
•     Improved stocktaking
•     Reduced turnaround and improve first in first out
•     Reduced picking errors

The numbering and bar coding of trade items supports the following supply chain functions:


                    Diagram 1: Numbering and Bar Coding Benefits along the Supply Chain




 Raw Materials
 Shipment Processing                                                                       Consumer
 Production Planning                                                                       Assortment
 Inventory Management                                                                      Freshness
 Material Tracking                                                                         Value
 Forecasting




                                            Distributor and Carrier                 Point of Sale/Use
    Manufacturing
                                            Sorting and Routing                     Product Specification
    Shipment Processing
                                            Receiving                               Pricing
    Production Planning
                                            Transport                               Promotions
    Inventory Management
                                            Shipment Processing                     Order Generation/Processing
    Material Tracking
                                            Inventory Processing                    Replenishment
    Forecasting
                                            Replenishment Planning                  Inventory Management




4                             The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                July 2001
2. Australian and New Zealand Grocery
   Industry Requirements
This is a practical guideline for companies who are intending to implement the numbering and bar coding of
trade items not intended for retail point of sale (including inner packs) or who are considering the re-design or re-
printing of existing trade item packaging to include EAN•UCC numbering and bar coding.

Summarised below are the current Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry requirements for both data that
is required in a Human Readable format only and data that is required to be bar coded on trade items not sold at
retail point of sale.

Human Readable Data Only
    •    Attribute information, Maximum durability date (Use by date) and Batch number where applicable, is
         required in a human readable form only on ALL levels of trade items not sold at retail point of sale.

Bar Coded Information
    •    All levels of trade items, (including inners if the inner is an item which at any point in the supply chain
         may be priced, ordered, invoiced or upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information), not
         sold at retail point of sale are to be allocated a Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) and bar coded with
         either an ITF-14, UCC/EAN-128, EAN-13 or UPC-A. Refer to Section 4 on page 11.
    •    Attribute data, such as maximum durability date (use by date) & batch number, is required on the
         highest level of trade item not sold at retail point of sale if the item has a shelf life of under 90 days.
         Refer to Section 6 on page 26
    •    EAN•UCC logistics label including the SSCC, item identification and (if applicable to the product),
         maximum durability date (use by date), and batch number should be applied to all pallets and logistic
         units. Refer to Section 5 on page 14. This data is represented with AI’s and is represented in the
         UCC/EAN-128 bar code.



Global Location Numbers (GLNs)
    •    GLNs are used for the purpose of Electronic Commerce. All companies should be identified by a GLN
         in all Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages.
    •    All locations (warehouse, stores, manufacturing plants, etc.) in EDI messages should be identified by
         GLNs.
    •    During a migration period GLNs and current internal numbers can be used at the discretion of the
         trading partners for identifying locations.



Time Frame For Adoption
    •    Companies are encouraged to become compliant at the earliest opportunity & should consider how that
         is done, e.g. next packaging change, next artwork re-design, etc.
    •    It is recommended that companies become compliant with this guideline as soon as practical. No future
         date has been set for the adoption of these guidelines as some trading partners in the supply chain can
         already make use of all aspects of this standard including the level of packaging known as “inners”.
    •    Companies wishing to plan out a timescale for their individual adoption or compliance with the
         guidelines should seek to do so by agreement with trading partners.




July 2001         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                                       5
Diagram 2:


                  EAN•UCC Identification Across the Supply Chain
                                               PHYSICAL GOODS FLOW


                                                                                                                            END
             SUPPLIER   ITEM   INNER     OUTER        PALLET         TRUCK        PALLET         OUTER      INNER    ITEM   USER




                 EAN/UCC-8             EAN/UCC-14                                              EAN/UCC-14           EAN/UCC-8
                                                                     SSCC
                 EAN/UCC-13            EAN/UCC-13                                              EAN/UCC-13           EAN/UCC-13
                                     Attribute data for
                                   products with a shelf
                                    life under 90 days
                                                                    SSCC
                                                                      +
                                                             Product Identification
                                                                      +
                                                                 Attribute Data

                                        ELECTRONIC INFORMATION FLOW



6                                                     Australian Grocery Industry Guidelines                                       July 2001
3. Definitions
3.1 Trade Items - Global Trade Item Number (GTIN)
A trade item is any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information and
that may be priced or ordered or invoiced at any point in any supply chain. This definition covers raw materials
through to the end user products and also includes service, all of them having pre-defined characteristics.

A trade item may be a single, non-breakable unit. It may also be a standard and stable grouping of a series of
single items. Such a unit may be presented in a wide variety of physical forms: a fibreboard carton, a covered or
banded pallet, a film wrapped tray, a crate with bottles, etc. Trade items consisting of single units are identified
with a unique Global Trade Item Number (GTIN); standard groupings of identical or different units are identified
with separate unique GTINs.

The identification and bar coding of trade items enables the automation of the retail point of sale, of product
receiving, inventory management, automatic re-orderings, sales analysis and a wide range of other business
application.



3.2 Trade Items Sold at Retail Point of Sale (POS)
Any trade item which is intended to be sold to the final consumer through retail point of sale is more commonly
known as a RETAIL ITEM or CONSUMER UNIT.

Any trade item that could be sold at the retail point of sale as well as traded through the distribution supply chain
is numbered and the type of bar code selected according to the rules applicable to trade items sold at POS.
However, the size & location of the bar codes on these trade items are determined by the rules applicable to trade
items not sold at POS.

3.2.1 Data Carriers (Bar codes)
A trade item sold at retail point of sale must be bar coded with either an EAN-13, EAN-8, UPC-A or UPC-E
bar code.
Figure 1:                  EAN-13 Bar Code                            UPC-A Bar Code




                           EAN-8 Bar Code                             UPC-E Bar Code




For printing of EAN/UPC bar codes on trade items sold at retail point of sale the standards as specified in the
EAN Australia and EAN New Zealand User Manuals are applicable.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                               7
3.3 Trade Items NOT sold at Retail Point of Sale (POS)
More commonly referred to as NON-RETAIL ITEMS OR TRADE UNITS, these trade items are any item or
standard grouping of items made up to facilitate the operations of handling, storing, order preparation, shipments
etc.

A trade item may be a single, non-breakable unit. It may also be a standard and stable grouping of a series of
single items. Such a unit may be presented in a wide variety of physical forms: a fibreboard carton, a covered or
banded pallet, a film wrapped tray, a crate with bottles, etc. Trade items consisting of single units are identified
with a unique Global Trade Item Number (GTIN); standard groupings of identical or different units are identified
with separate unique GTINs.

It is recognised that beyond the trade item sold at retail point of sale, there can be many different levels of
packaging of trade items. The first level of packaging, which is not likely to be sold at retail point of sale, is
considered to be the lowest level trade item (these are normally referred to as INNERS OR INTERMEDIATE
packs). The last level of packaging (the outer most) is considered to be the highest level; this is up to but not
including the pallet. However, this does not preclude suppliers from issuing GTINs to pallets if they desire to
identify the pallet itself as a trade item.

NOTE:
EACH INDIVIDUAL LEVEL OF TRADE ITEM MUST BE UNIQUELY IDENTIFIED WITH A DIFFERENT
GTIN.

                            Table 1: GTIN and Data Carrier Options for Trade Items


                                                 DATA CARRIER (BAR CODE) OPTIONS
         Global Trade Item               UCC/EAN-              ITF-14           EAN-13             UPC-A
             Numbers                       128
                (GTIN)

    EAN/UCC-14                                 ü                  ü
    EAN/UCC-13 with filler 0                   ü                  ü
    EAN/UCC-13 *                                                                    ü
    UCC-12 *                                                                                          ü



* Mandatory when the trade items are likely to be sold at retail POS.




8                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                      July 2001
3.3.1 Global Trade Item Numbering and Bar Code Options for Trade Items not
                              Sold At Retail POS
A trade item not sold at retail POS can be numbered and bar coded with any one of the following options:

                  EAN-13 Bar Code                                           UPC-A Bar Code




                                           UCC/EAN-128 Bar Code




                                        (01)09312345678907


                                               ITF-14 Bar Code




3.4 Attributes of Trade Items
Attributes of trade items are any variable information required over and above the product identification, such as
Maximum durability date (Use by date), Batch numbers, Serial numbers, etc. Attributes of trade items are always
represented with Application Identifier’s (AI’s) in the UCC/EAN-128 bar code symbology. See appendix A for a
complete list of AI’s.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                           9
3.5 Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)
The SSCC is used to uniquely identify goods on the way from sender to final recipient, and can be used by all
participants in the transport and distribution chain. Each shipping container or logistic unit, at the time of its
creation is uniquely identified by the sender with an SSCC. A label encoding the SSCC is applied to the logistic
unit using the appropriate AI and the UCC/EAN-128 bar code.

The SSCC uniquely identifies the entity (i.e. the shipping container or logistic unit to which the SSCC is applied)
for the lifetime of that unit.

The SSCC can be used by all parties in the supply chain as a reference number or license plate to extract all the
relevant shipping container information held in computer files within the receiver’s information systems. The
SSCC acts as a “reference key” which unlocks the information in the computer systems.

Diagram 3:



                   The SSCC in the Supply Chain


         Supplier         Transporter             Distributor            Transporter          Customer




          Applies          Uses SSCC           Receives SSCC.              Uses SSCC            Receives
          original         for internal         Uses SSCC for              for internal          original
          SSCC              controls &         internal controls             controls            SSCC
                             tracing           and for outbound
                                                   shipment




10                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                     July 2001
4. How to Number and Bar Code Trade
   Items not Sold at Retail Point of Sale
The following section describes the method by which a GTIN can be assigned to trade items not sold at retail
point of sale.

Under the EAN•UCC specifications all of the options given below are available for numbering and bar coding of
standard trade items. However, it is recommended that a migration plan to UCC/EAN-128 bar codes be
considered IF intending to apply dynamic data in the future.

The options available for creating the GTINs for trade items not sold at retail point of sale are: -

    •    Allocate a unique EAN/UCC-13 number represented in an EAN-13 bar code
    •    Allocate a unique EAN/UCC-13 number with a filler zero (leading zero) represented in either the ITF-
         14 or UCC/EAN-128 bar code
    •    Allocate an EAN/UCC-14 number with an indicator (logistical variant, 1-8) represented in either the
         ITF-14 or UCC/EAN-128 bar code


4.1 Creating a GTIN by Allocating an EAN/UCC-13
     Number
An EAN/UCC-13 number represented in an EAN-13 bar code (always applies when the trade item is likely to
also be sold at a retail point of sale).




   •
EAN•UCC company prefix:               The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations
                                      or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New
                                      Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
Item reference:                       A unique non-significant number for each individual trade item.
Check digit:                          Validates the accuracy of the entire number by mathematical formula




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                         11
4.2 Creating a GTIN by allocating an EAN/UCC-13
     number with a filler zero (leading zero)
An EAN/UCC-13 number with a filler zero (leading zero) is created by allocating a unique EAN/UCC-13
number, which is then preceded with a filler zero (leading zero). When a GTIN is formed with a filler zero
(leading zero), the 13 characters must be unique, that is, you must not repeat the GTIN allocated to any other
trade item.


       Figure 2: EAN/UCC-13 with a filler zero represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code




                                          ( 01) 09312345678907




Application Identifier:              AI 01 identifies that the following number is a GTIN with a fixed length of
                                     14 digits
Filler zero (Leading zero):          Precedes a unique EAN/UCC-13 number. This MUST NOT be the same as
                                     the GTIN on the trade items sold at retail POS.
   •
EAN•UCC company prefix:              The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations
                                     or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New
                                     Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
Item reference:                      A unique non-significant number for each individual trade item.
Check digit:                         Validates the accuracy of the entire number by mathematical formula

An EAN/UCC-13 number with a filler zero represented in an ITF-14 bar code.




Filler zero (Leading zero):          Precedes a unique EAN/UCC-13 number. This MUST NOT be the same as
                                     the GTIN on the trade items sold at retail POS.
   •
EAN•UCC company prefix:              The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations
                                     or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New
                                     Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
Item reference:                      A unique non-significant number for each individual item.
Check digit:                         Validates the accuracy of the entire number by mathematical formula




12                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                    July 2001
4.3 Creating a GTIN by allocating an EAN/UCC-14
     number.
The EAN/UCC-14 number is created by prefixing the existing GTIN of the retail/consumer trade item with an
indicator (logistical variant), which is a number between 1 and 8 and recalculating the check digit. Different
indicators are used to identify different levels of trade items not sold at retail point of sale. Indicators should be
non meaningful and are used only to create additional unique 14 digit EAN/UCC numbers.

Note:    For information on creating an EAN/UCC-14 number where the GTIN of the retail/consumer item
         within the trade item carries an EAN/UCC-8 number please refer to the EAN Australia and EAN New
         Zealand User Manuals for further information

        Figure 3: EAN/UCC-14 with an indicator represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code




                                          (01)19312345678904

Application Identifier:                AI 01 identifies that the following number is GTIN with a fixed length of 14
                                       digits.
Indicator (logistical variant 1-8)     Precedes the existing GTIN on the trade item sold at retail point of sale
     •
EAN•UCC company prefix:                The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations
                                       or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New
                                       Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
Item reference:                        The item reference of the GTIN allocated to the trade item sold at retail
                                       point of sale
Check digit:                           Validates the accuracy of the entire number by mathematical formula

An EAN/UCC-14 number with an Indicator represented in an ITF-14 bar code.




Indicator (logistical variant 1-8)     Precedes the existing GTIN on the trade item sold at retail point of sale
     •
EAN•UCC company prefix:                The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations
                                       or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New
                                       Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
Item reference:                        The item reference of the GTIN allocated to the trade item sold at retail
                                       point of sale
Check digit:                           Validates the accuracy of the entire number by mathematical formula




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                               13
5. How to Number and Bar code
   Logistic Units
The use of the SSCC by all parties in the supply chain, from manufacturers to transporters, distributors and
retailers, for the tracking of product distribution is seen to be inevitable. Suppliers are encouraged to consider
the implementation of the SSCC within the time frame identified by this document.

Use of the SSCC as an entity identifier means it can be used in multiple transactions by all companies across a
supply chain. All companies can benefit from the implementation of one common and unique shipping container
reference number.

It is essential that the recipient, either the transport company, distributor or customer, of the transport unit with
the SSCC attached, receives prior advice about the details of the transport unit and the SSCC. This advice is
usually communicated via Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), which is the computer-to-computer exchange of
business messages in a standard format.

There may be instances where all parties relevant to a particular shipment are not fully EDI capable and where
only some EDI messages are being exchanged. Alternatively the whole supply chain may be fully EDI capable
and the whole suite of shipping messages are being exchanged.

Supply chains can take a number of forms involving the following. Please note that these definitions may differ
from international definitions meaning the same processes.
•    Delivery to Distribution Centre. The supplier delivers to the customer’s distribution centres, where the stock
     is stored and later distributed within the customer’s own store ordering and distribution systems. The
     transport carrier can either be the supplier’s own or a third party.
•    Flow Through. A procedure whereby stock is received from the supplier then picked and processed
     immediately into store despatch lanes, bypassing PUT AWAY to warehouse storage and usually involving
     conveyor and automatic sortation technologies.
•    Cross Docking. A procedure whereby supplier prepared pallets/containers of homogeneous products and/or
     pallets/containers of mixed products has been identified for specific end destinations. Here each
     pallet/container is assigned a unique identification tag i.e. SSCC, which is attached by the supplier before
     delivery, normally to a consolidation centre for delivery to the customer’s stores. Some level of conveyor
     and automatic sortation technologies are involved.
•    Freight Forwarding Centres. Where there could be one or many third party consolidators between the
     supplier and the final customer, and where the configuration of the supplier’s shipments is re-configured.
•    Direct to Locations. Where the supplier delivers goods directly to the customer’s store/s, usually involving
     the supplier’s own transport fleet, bypassing a distribution centre.




14                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                         July 2001
5.1 Using the SSCC in the Supply Chain
The following bar coded information is required on pallets or logistic units.

1.   At Shipment Level
     Although not currently used, there is an ability to bar code at shipment level and individual pallet level by
     applying an SSCC to the shipment manifest - this provides the link between the shipment level SSCC and
     pallet level SSCC. These are represented by AI 00 and bar coded in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code. All other
     shipment manifest related information as required by suppliers, customers and consolidators may also appear
     on the manifest/shipment list.

2.   At Pallet Level

     a)   An EAN•UCC logistics label carrying an SSCC. This is represented by AI 00 and bar coded in a
          UCC/EAN-128 bar code.
     b) The GTIN of the individual cartons on the pallet with the relevant quantity. This is represented with
         AI 02 and AI 37 and bar coded in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code. This can be applied only when this
        information is required for logistical purposes for homogeneous pallets. AI 02 and AI 37 are always
        applied as additional logistical information together with the SSCC. (See pallet label sample A on
        page 24)
     OR
          A unique GTIN allocated to the entire pallet to identify the pallet as a trade item. This is represented by
          AI 01 and bar coded in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code.
          Note:    Advice on GTINs must be given to retailers in advance of the receipt of the goods.
     c)   Batch number on a pallet carrying one batch only. This is represented with AI 10 represented in a
          UCC/EAN-128 bar code. Mixed batches on a pallet cannot be identified in bar coded form.
     d) Maximum durability date (previously known as Use by date). If pallets contain mixed maximum
        durability dates, it is recommended that the oldest date be chosen for bar coding purposes. This is
        represented with one of the relevant AI’s for date and represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code.




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             15
3.   At Carton Level
     a)    When a single standard carton is also the transport unit (eg. the delivery from a supplier is made up of a
           single carton and when this carton is the total shipment) then it can be allocated a unique SSCC. This
           can be bar coded onto an EAN•UCC logistics label, which is applied to the carton or on the shipment
           manifest or as a separate label which is not itself attached to anything. This is represented with AI 00
           and represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code.
     b) If applying an EAN•UCC logistics label you can also:
           • If one has not already been allocated, then allocate a GTIN identifying the product at carton level
             represented with AI 01 and bar coded in the UCC/EAN-128 bar code.
           • If the carton is already carrying a GTIN and bar code, this number should be repeated on the
             logistics label using AI 02 and AI 37. This data is represented in the UCC/EAN-128 bar code.
           • Apply the maximum durability date (use by date) and batch number (if applicable to product)
             represented with the relevant AI for date and AI 10 for batch number, represented in the
             UCC/EAN-128 bar code.

All other information contained on the EAN•UCC logistics label is negotiable between suppliers, customers and
transporters/consolidators. The guidelines are in no way limiting on the other information which may be required
by each party in logistics/goods management trading.

As an absolute minimum all bar coded information should also be shown in human readable form. Any
requirement for additional human readable information is left to the discretion of the manufacturer.

In some instances, retailers may have specific requirements which would be negotiated between supplier and
customer and which may involve the transport company.


                                      Diagram 4: Bar Code Information Flow


     SHIPMENT                  PALLET                 CARTON                    INNER              RETAIL ITEM



                      è                       è                        è                      è

                                                                                GTIN                    GTIN
          SSCC                 SSCC                     GTIN
                                  +
                                GTIN
                                                  If also a logistic
                                  +
                                                    unit then add
                              Maximum
                                                         SSCC
                            durability date
                                                           +
                            (Use by date)
                                                       Maximum
                                  +
                                                   durability date
                            Batch number
                                                 (Use by date) and
                                                   Batch number
                                                    (if applicable)




16                          The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                      July 2001
5.2 Structure of the Serial Shipping Container Code
     (SSCC)
The SSCC should be handled as an 18-digit non-significant number uniquely identifying the unit to which it is
attached. To ensure worldwide uniqueness, the following general code structure has been defined by EAN
International:

                           Figure 4: Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)




                                     (00)393123451234567891



• Application Identifier (00)
  Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC).

• Extension Digit
  A digit (0-9) used to increase the capacity of the item reference within the SSCC. It is assigned by the
  company that constructs the SSCC.

• EAN•UCC company prefix
  The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations or the UCC. In Australia & New
  Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.

• Item reference
  A serial number comprises either nine or seven digits and uniquely identifies each transport package. The
  method used to allocate a unique number is at the discretion of the company coding the package.

• Check digit
  The check digit is calculated using a mathematical formula.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                           17
5.3 EAN•UCC Logistics Label
The various trading partners involved in a distribution channel have different information needs. The
information flow which accompanies the physical flow of goods is communicated between trading partners by
various means. Electronic Commerce or EDI is the way to transmit information along the supply chain.

In practice, however, fully automated communication channels which make it possible to rely exclusively on
electronic files for retrieving information on the movements of the goods are not always available.

For this reason, there is a need to indicate relevant information on the goods themselves, in addition to their
identification. The various fields of information need to be organised in a standard way in order to facilitate their
interpretation and processing by all trading partners in the supply chain.

The purpose of the EAN•UCC logistics label is to provide information about the unit to which it is fixed, clearly
and concisely. The core information on the label should be represented both in machine (bar code) and human
readable form. There may be other information which is represented in human readable form only.

This EAN•UCC logistics label can be applied to a single item, or a grouping of several items made up to
facilitate the operation of handling, storing and shipping. This can be:
•    A carton
•    A pallet
•    A group of shrink wrapped units
•    A tray
•    A container
•    Or any other similar type of packaging created for the purpose of handling, storing or shipping.

The information provided is a reference for the design of logistics labels. This application is supported and
complimented by Application Identifiers and the UCC/EAN-128 symbology. These are important components of
the logistics label and apply to all of the specifications relating to the logistics label.

The structure and layout for logistics labels is explained, however, emphasis is given to the basic requirements
for practical application in an open trade environment. The major areas include:
• the unambiguous identification of logistics units
• the efficient presentation of text and machine readable data (bar codes)
• the information requirements of key partners in the supply chain– suppliers, customers and carriers
• technical parameters to ensure systematic and stable interpretation of the labels.

This is applicable to any type of logistic unit marked with a Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC), which is
used in logistic and transport applications where there is a need to track and trace individual units or a grouping
of units being a part of the same transport transaction.

5.3.1 Components of the EAN•UCC Logistics Label
Information represented on EAN•UCC logistics labels has two basic forms:
• Information required to be utilised by people–usually comprising of text and graphics, e.g. to and from
  addresses
• Bar codes (machine readable form)–a secure and efficient method of conveying structured data

The human readable text allows general access to basic information at any point in the supply chain. However,
both methods of information representation provide value to the EAN•UCC logistics label and often co-exist on
the same label.




18                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                       July 2001
Specific Bar code Structures
The standard bar code adopted for use on the logistics label is the UCC/EAN-128 bar code.

Identification of a Logistic Unit
The mandatory field for all logistics labels is the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC), AI 00. The SSCC is a
unique identification number assigned to each specific logistics unit. In principle the SSCC is sufficient for all
logistic applications.

In an environment where Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is used to transmit the detailed information
pertaining to each logistic unit, or where the information is already within a database, the SSCC acts as the
reference point to information.

However, when EDI is not available at each point in the supply chain, or when redundancy is desired, certain
additional elements of information are desirable. Each of these is also represented through the use of Application
Identifiers (AI’s).

5.3.2 Label design
The design of the logistics label accounts for the supply chain process by grouping information into three logical
sections.

A section is a logical grouping of information that is generally known at a particular time.

•   Supplier section
•   Customer section
•   Carrier section

Each label section may be applied at a different point in time, as the relevant information becomes known.

Within each section bar coded information is separated from text information to facilitate separate processing by
automatic data capture and people. Bar codes are represented in the lower part of each section, while human
readable information is shown in the upper part of the section. This facilitates access to each component as
required.

The organisation responsible for the printing and application of the label, determines the content format and
dimensions of the label.

Further information regarding the type of data included in these sections can be obtained from the EAN Australia
or EAN New Zealand User Manuals.

5.3.3 Label Dimensions
The physical dimensions of the label are determined by the company applying the label to the logistic unit.
However, the size of the label should be consistent with the information required in all sections of the label.

The A6 format (105mm x 148mm) is sufficient for most requirements and is the predominant label size used.
Other sizes are usually variations that result from other information requirements or the logistic unit size. A
recommended guide is that the width of the label should remain constant at 105mm, while the height of the label
varies depending on information requirements.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             19
5.3.4 Technical Specifications
Bar codes
The UCC/EAN-128 bar code shall be used for all information on the EAN•UCC logistics label.

The number of UCC/EAN-128 bar codes may be minimised by using the concatenation facility wherever
possible. When not possible due to constraint of label size, data can be represented in multiple bar codes. The
sequence of the bar coded data elements is irrelevant in terms of interpretation.

Note:    The exception is the SSCC, which is the identifier for the logistics unit and the most fundamental
         element of the label. Due to the larger magnification recommended for the SSCC, concatenation is not
         feasible on a standard width label.

Magnification Factor
The recommended magnification factor range for the SSCC is between 50% to 94%. The minimum
magnification for the SSCC is 50%.

The reliability of scanning will always be enhanced by selecting a magnification factor at the higher end of the
specified range. However, for other UCC/EAN-128 bar codes on the logistics label, if the information required
cannot be accommodated in the space available, a lower magnification factor may be used. In any case, the
magnification factor shall not be lower than 25%. Quality of the printed bar codes should be carefully checked,
especially at lower magnification factors. If a magnification factor of less than 50% is used it is likely that the
reading distance is reduced.

Bar code Height
For other UCC/EAN-128 bar codes on the EAN•UCC logistics label the recommended bar code height is at least
27mm, with a height of at least 32mm preferred for the SSCC. Space constraints may not allow a bar code to be
printed at the recommended height, but in no case shall the bar code be less than 13mm high.

Light Margin Areas
Bar codes should be printed with the leading and trailing light margin areas of at least 10 modules in width. (A
module width is also referred to as the X dimension, refer to the EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand User
Manuals for further information).

Bar Code Interpretation
This is the human readable interpretation of the information represented in the bar code and should be
represented either above or below the bar code, with below being the preference. It includes Application
Identifiers and data content but no representation of special symbol characters or symbol check digits (but
includes data check digits). It is used as a diagnostic check or, as a last resort, as back up in the event of the bar
code failing to scan.

To facilitate key entry AI’s should be clearly recognisable, separation of AI’s with the use of parenthesis is the
convention chosen to accomplish this.

This interpretation shall be no less than 3mm high and clearly legible, and preferably below the bar code.

Bar code Orientation and Placement
Bar codes shall be in picket fence orientation on logistics unit. The bars and spaces shall be perpendicular to the
base on which the logistic unit stands. In all cases, the SSCC shall be placed in the lowest portion of the label.




20                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                        July 2001
Text
Text is data that is not represented within any bar code formats on the logistics label.

There are three types of text information which can appear on a logistics label:
• Plain text
• Human translation
• Data titles

Further details can be found in the EAN Australian and EAN New Zealand User Manuals.

5.3.5 Label Location on Logistic Units
The label should ideally be located on a minimum of two adjacent vertical sides of the logistic unit, one on the
short side and one on the long side to the right.

Note:    However, if only one label is applied, the side chosen needs to take into consideration the way the pallet
         will be picked. In this instance the label should be applied to the “pick side” of the pallet. Before
         taking this option, consultation with all trading partners is advised.

Units less than 1 metre in height
For cartons and other units less than 1 metre in height, pallets excluded, labels should be placed so that the lowest
edge of the SSCC is 32mm from the base of the unit. Including light margins, the bar code should be at least
19mm from both vertical edges.




                Figure 5: Location of the EAN•UCC logistics label on a carton or unit
                                          less than 1 metre in height




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             21
If the unit is already marked with an EAN-13, UPC-A, ITF-14 or UCC/EAN-128 bar code for trade item
identification purposes, the label should be placed so as not to obscure the pre-existing bar code. The preferred
location of the label in this case is to the side of the pre-existing bar code, so that a consistent horizontal location
is maintained.




              Figure 6: Location of the EAN•UCC logistics label on a carton or unit
                                  less than 1 metre in height with the unit already
                                         marked with pre-existing bar code

Pallets less than 1 metre in height
For pallets less than 1 metre in height, the logistic label should be placed as high as possible but not more than
800mm from the base of the unit.




22                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                         July 2001
Pallets & other units greater than 1 metre in height
For pallets and other units greater than 1 metre in height, labels should be placed so that all the bar codes are at a
height between 400mm and 800mm from the surface on which the pallet stands and no closer than 50mm from
the vertical edge.

                            Figure 7: Location of the EAN•UCC logistics label




                              h < 800 mm




                                h>
                              400 mm




                                                            x> 50 mm
                                             x                                  x




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                              23
                               Figure 8: The EAN•UCC Logistics Label Format (A)



                                            EAN BEAN FACTORY

                               SSCC

                                              393123450000000013
                               EAN•UCC Trade Item No. of
                               CONTENT                                        COUNT (Quantity)

                               09312345000005                                 20 Cases
                               USE BY (ddmmyy)                                BATCH

                               11.12.99                                       246813




                                   (02)09312345000005(37)20(17)991211(10)246813




                                               (00)393123450000000013



                                     • AI 02         Content (Repeat the GTIN of the product on the
                                       pallet)
                                     • AI 37         Count (Quantity)
                                     • AI 17         Use By (Maximum durability date)
                                     • AI 10         Batch/Lot (Batch number)



Data can also be represented in multiple bar codes



                        • AI 00     Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)




        24                     The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines             July 2001
                            Figure 9: The EAN•UCC Logistics Label Format (B)



                                         EAN BEAN FACTORY

                            SSCC

                                          393123450000000013
                            EAN•UCC Trade Item Number                       QUANTITY

                            09312345000012                                  20 Cases
                            USE BY (ddmmyy)                                 BATCH

                            11.12.99                                        246813




                                   (01)09312345000012(17)991211(10)246813




                                           (00)393123450000000013




                                • AI 01  GTIN (A unique GTIN for the pallet. For
                                  homogeneous pallets only.)
                                • AI 17         Use By (Maximum Durability Date)
                                • AI 10         Batch/Lot (Batch number)


Data can also be represented in multiple bar codes


                     • AI 00      Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC)




     July 2001               The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines   25
6. Applying Attribute Information to
   Trade Items
Suppliers, at their discretion, can apply to trade units any of the AI’s available to them under the EAN•UCC
specifications (see Appendix A). In “principle” the Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry supports the
use of variable data in the long term. Individual companies need to make their own assessment on the
implementation and use of variable data in their business. However, variable data on trade items (other than
chilled or frozen) with a shelf life of under 90 days is required on the highest level of trade item (outer most).
Some retailers in New Zealand are also asking for the provision of variable data on chilled and frozen products
with a shelf life of under 90 days.

Examples of Attribute Information that may be applied by suppliers.
1.       Batch Number

            Figure 10: Batch number (AI 10) represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code




                                                   (10)246813




                                              AI         Batch number


2.       ONE of the following chosen at the discretion of the supplier:

         AI 15    Minimum durability date (YYMMDD) (Previously known as best before date)
         AI 17    Maximum durability date (Safety) (YYMMDD) (Previously known as use by date)

Figure 11: Maximum durability date (Safety) (AI 17) represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code




                                                   (17)991211



                                              AI         Max Durability Date (YYMMDD)




26                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                      July 2001
     All attribute information must be represented in a UCC/EAN-128 bar code and is recommended to be
     concatenated (linked together) with the GTIN, in one single UCC/EAN-128 bar code as shown below.


                          Figure 12: Concatenated UCC/EAN-128 bar code




                              (01)09312345678907(17)991012(10)1234


                            (01) GTIN(17) Max Durability Date (10) Batch number


Important Notes:

•   Attribute information cannot stand alone, it must always be accompanied with a GTIN.

•   Attribute information can be added as an additional bar code to either an existing EAN-13, UPC-A, ITF-14
    or a UCC/EAN-128 bar code which is representing a GTIN.

•   Attribute information can be applied to either a standard GTIN or to variable measure GTIN.

                                    Diagram 5: Typical Shipping Carton




For items packed in bags, on trays, or in other irregularly shaped packages, refer to the EAN Australia and EAN
New Zealand User Manuals. For additional advice contact EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand.




July 2001                 The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                         27
6.1 Numbering and Bar Coding of Variable Measure
    Trade Items

The format for variable measure trade items is as follows:

            Figure 13: Variable measure trade item number with a net weight of 3.25kg




                                   (01)99312345678900(3102)000325



Number Format:

•    Application Identifier (01)
     EAN•UCC Global Trade Item Number (GTIN).

•    Indicator “9”
     Indicating that the item is of variable measure.

•    EAN•UCC company prefix
     The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member organisations or the UCC. In Australia &
     New Zealand, EAN Australia and EAN New Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
•    Item reference
     Item reference allocated by the company to each different item.
•    Check digit
     Calculated using a mathematical formula.
•    Application Identifier (3102)
     Net weight, kilograms.
•    Format
     6 fixed numeric characters.

This information is represented in a concatenated UCC/EAN-128 bar code.




28                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines         July 2001
6.2 Trade Items Carrying Promotional Lines
All trade items carrying promotional, seasonal or bonus packs must be allocated a separate unique GTIN,
differentiating the promotional trade item from the non-promotional trade item.

When under the current EAN•UCC rules it is not required to allocate a separate GTIN to the promotional trade
item but necessary for the supplier to distinguish between trade items carrying promotional items and those that
carry the non-promotional item, it is possible to allocate AI 20 (Product variant) together with the GTIN to make
this distinction. It must be noted that this information is designed for manufacturer use only.

(For rules on when to change a number for retail items, see Appendix B.)



6.3 Human Readable Information
Any requirement for additional human readable information not previously specified in this document is left to
the discretion of the manufacturer. However, as an absolute minimum all bar coded information should also be
shown in human readable form.

In some instances, retailers may have specific requirements which would be negotiated between supplier and
customer.



6.4 Location of the Bar code on Trade Items
Productivity and scanning accuracy improve considerably when the bar code location is predictable. Consistency
in the location of the bar code achieves maximum productivity in any scanning environment.

In order of preference the recommended location for the bar codes printed on trade items not sold at retail POS
is:

    •    Minimum of two adjacent vertical sides (one short side and the long side to the right)
    •    As an absolute minimum on one side only where it is not reasonably practical to apply two bar
         codes on adjacent vertical sides. IF ONLY ONE LABEL IS APPLIED IT SHOULD BE
         PRINTED AT THE HIGHER END OF THE MAGNIFCATION RANGE OR AS LARGE AS IS
         PRACTICAL. (Refer to Shallow Trays and Cases on page 28)

ALL ATTEMPTS SHOULD BE MADE TO MAINTAIN 100% SCANNABILITY AT ALL TIMES.

The bar code can be positioned anywhere along the face of the carton ensuring that the following EAN Australia
and EAN New Zealand User Manuals recommendation are followed:
•   the lower edge of the bars of the bar code are exactly 32mm from the lower edge of the base of the carton.
•   including margin areas the bar code should be located a minimum of 19mm from both vertical edges of the
    carton.

Please Note:       With the ITF-14 bar code the outer edge of the left or right bearer bar should be a minimum
                   of 19mm from both vertical edges of the side of the carton. This is to minimise damage to the
                   bar code.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             29
                                  Diagram 6: Separate Printed Bar codes / Labels




                              Diagram 7: Wrap Around Label with Edge Separation




Shallow Trays and Cases

If the height of the carton or tray is less than the height of the bar code at the magnification required, or if the
construction of the unit is such that the full bar code height cannot be accommodated, the following options
should be considered in order or preference:

     1.   Print the bar code at full height with the top of the bars located at the top of the side as close as possible
          to the recommended location




30                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                         July 2001
    2.   When the height of the unit is less than the height of the bar code including human readable digits, the
         human readable digits should be placed to the left of the bar code, always respecting the compulsory
         light margin areas.




    3.   When the height of the units is less than the bar height, the bars should run from top to bottom of the
         units side, again with the human readable digits placed to the side, (i.e. truncate the bar code by the
         minimum amount).




    4.   If placing the bar code on the side of the package is not possible, due to insufficient package height, the
         bar code may be placed on the top of the package. In this case, the bar code should be placed with the
         bars perpendicular to the shortest side, no closer than 32mm from any edge.




Large, Heavy or Bulky Bags

The preferred placement of bar codes on items of a bulky nature such as dog food is the following:

Two bar codes should be printed on bulky bags
   • One located on the front of the bag towards the top of the upper right quadrant
   • One located on the back of the bag, centred in the lower right quadrant near the edge to accommodate
        settling of contents.

In all cases at least one bar code should be visible when products are placed on pallets and care should be taken
to locate the bar code where the least amount of damage occurs to the bar code due to folds in the packaging.

Any other alternate locations should be discussed between trading partners.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                               31
Multipacks

Single items are sometimes packaged together as a trade item. This is referred to as a multipack. Multipacks
provide convenience to the consumer and/or may represent a price reduction compared to purchasing items
individually. Typical multipacks contain bottles, cans, jars and tubs.

To avoid confusion at the retail point of sale, the bar code printed on the multipack should be the only visible bar
code when both the multipack and individual items are bar coded.

Note:    Avoid placing the bar code on the top or bottom of multipacks of cans since the cans have a tendency to
         cause impressions in the cardboard and distort the bar code. These impressions may reduce the quality
         of the scanning of the bar code.

The recommended location for the bar code is towards the lower right quadrant of the back, near the edge,
respecting all light margin areas.

As an alternative and last resort the bar code can be placed towards the lower right quadrant of the side, near the
edge respecting all light margin areas.

The bar code should be no closer than 8mm or farther than 102mm from any edge of the package/container.

6.4.1 Bar code Print Quality
Whilst it is important to position the bar code in the recommended location, it is also important to ensure that the
bar code is readable first time every time.

There are a number of aspects to printing the bar code to ensure that 100% readability is achieved and
maintained.

Ensure that:
• the height of the bar code is within the recommended ranges.
• the magnification is within the recommended ranges.
• the appropriate colours are chosen when printing the bar code.
• the contrast of the bar code is acceptable.
• the light margin areas that surround the bar code are kept free from any graphics, boarders or dark colours.
• the bar code is kept clear from any seams or seals and that no distortion is caused by taping, shrink wrapping
  or excessive creasing of plastic over-wrap.
• the bar widths are not too wide or too narrow.

Ensure that print quality is of the highest standard maintaining bar clarity and definition and ensuring that there
are no print imperfections.




32                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                       July 2001
Some in-house printing methods, particularly on-line ink jet printing requires attention to the total print process
and on-going maintenance.

The EAN•UCC specifications for printing bar codes are explicit in that if the specified procedures are followed,
with routine quality control, you can produce bar codes that scan consistently.

For companies that are non-EAN accredited and to assist with 100% readability it is recommended that the bar
codes on trade items be verified by EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand.

Note:
•    Labels generally provide the best on-going quality and contrast.
•    Pre-printed codes can be affected by cardboard and printing consistency.
•    Ink Jet and Dot Matrix printing methods require attention to the total print process and
    on-going maintenance (regular checks of print heads and ink jets, fading contrast, maintaining straight bars,
    etc.). Maintaining consistency of the bar code printing, from the first carton to the last, is an important issue
    with ink jet printing.

BAR CODE ORIENTATION

When locating EAN•UCC bar codes on trade items not sold at retail POS they are to be represented in a picket
fence orientation.


                       Picket Fence                                                    Ladder Form




                                                                                                            (01)19312345678904
              (01)19312345678904




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                                           33
7. Printing Specifications
7.1 Common Recommendations Applicable for all Three
    Bar Code Types
The quality of bar codes on trade items should match the high quality bar codes on the CONSUMER UNITS. If
bar codes do not scan at checkouts, the customer notices. Similarly if the stock is not on the shelf, the customer
notices. Ensuring the trade unit bar code can be scanned “first time, every time” ensures efficient replenishment.

THE COMMON RECOMMENDATIONS RELEVANT TO ALL THREE BAR CODE TYPES ARE:

PRINT CONTRAST
•    The ideal is black bars on a white background.
•    Base cardboard colours can affect print contrast if the colour of the bars is not sufficiently dark to provide a
     suitable contrast.
•    For best scanning results avoid glossy materials.

Colours other than black on white can be used as long as the principle of very dark bars on a light background is
maintained. Red, brown or light bar colours must not be used.

Note:      Printing black bars on untreated cardboard, should not be interpreted as being “black on white”.

BAR WIDTHS
•    Bar widths must adhere to the specified widths according to the magnification factor stated in the EAN
     Australia or EAN New Zealand User Manuals.

REPRESENTATION
•    Ensure that the bar code is representative of the digits printed underneath.

CHECK DIGIT
•    Must be calculated to a mathematical formula according to the method stated in the EAN Australia and
     EAN New Zealand User Manuals.

Note:    For the UCC/EAN-128 bar code, exclude the Application Identifier digits from the check digit
         calculation.




34                         The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                       July 2001
8. Summary of Minimum Requirements
   for Printing Trade Item
As the Grocery Industry comes to rely on bar code data as an essential part of their trading processes, it is vital
that printed bar codes scan successfully first time. This means adequate procedures must be in place to ensure
that all the bar codes marked on goods are correct in every way, namely:
•    data content
•    bar code production
•    location
•    print quality
•    external packaging factors (tape, plastic, glue or other printing)

The following is a summary and bar code quality checklist which should be used to ensure that printed bar codes
comply with the Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry recommendations.

                                              EAN-13                  UCC/EAN-128                    ITF-14
                                              UPC-A
Trade Items Sold at POS
                                                þ
Trade Items NOT sold at POS
                                                þ                           þ                          þ
Magnification range                       150% - 200%                 50% - 100%**               50% - 100%**

Bar height***                                39.39mm                      32mm                       32mm
                                          (including human         (minimum height for the    (minimum height for the
                                       readable interpretation)        entire range of            entire range of
                                                                    magnifications shown       magnifications shown
                                                                           above)                     above)
Bearer bars
                                                                                                       þ
Light margins***
- Left                                        5.44mm                       5mm                       5.1mm
- Right                                       3.46mm                       5mm                       5.1mm
Print quality of a high standard
                                                þ                           þ                          þ
EAN Verification Report*
                                                þ                           þ                          þ
*   Testing should be completed with the pack in its final form.
**  Magnifications between 100-120% are acceptable based on historical specifications, but a
    migration to the 100% maximum magnification should be made on new artwork.
*** The above light margin & bar height measurements are for the minimum recommended
    magnifications. For magnifications greater than the minimum these parameters must be
    increased proportionally to the magnification.

NOTE: It is recommended that any bar code that is intended for conveyorised scanning (unattended,
      fixed mount scanning environments, where items are scanned automatically as they pass by
      on a conveyor) should be printed at the higher end of the permissible magnification range. For
      example, an EAN/UPC bar code should be between 150% & 200% and an ITF-14 or
      UCC/EAN-128 should be printed between 90% & 100%. However if the printing technique
      used is via label application on a white A-grade quality label stock, the lower end of the
      magnification range can be considered.

NOTE: If printing directly onto corrugated cartons or where environmental factors (eg chilled or frozen)
      cause an increased risk of bar code degradation or reduced scan rate, it is recommended that
      the bar code be printed at the maximum magnification range. Under either of these conditions
      it is not advisable to print the ITF-14 bar code at the lower end of the magnification range.




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                                35
  8.1 Producing EAN-13 and UPC-A Bar Codes for Trade
       Items

  This bar code must be used if the trade item is sold at the retail point of sale.


                       EAN-13                      Height                              UPC-A                    Height
                                                  at 150%                                                      at 150%
                                                  39.39mm                                                      39.39mm

                                                                Light
  Light                                           Light        margin                                             Light
 margin                                          margin       at 150%                                            margin
at 150%                                         at 150%       4.45mm                                            at 150%
5.44mm                                          3.46mm                                                          4.45mm

       9 312345 000005
             (actual size shown 150%)                                         (actual size shown 150%)


  MAGNIFICATION

  The internationally specified magnification range for use of this bar code is:

  •    Between 150% to 200% of the nominal size of 100% for trade items which will be scanned in both a general
       distribution environment and at retail POS.
  •    The magnification range is between 80% and 200% for trade items which will be sold at retail POS.

  It is recommended that any bar code which is intended for conveyorised scanning (unattended, fixed mount
  scanning environments, where items are scanned automatically as they pass by on a conveyor) should be printed
  at the higher end of the permissible magnification factor.

  The decision on the most appropriate size to print the bar code must be made by the printer taking into account
  printing processes, ink substrate and other printing considerations. The reliability of scanning will always be
  enhanced by selecting a magnification factor at the higher end of the specified range. Lower magnification
  factors reduce reading distance and make the production of quality bar codes more difficult to maintain.


  HEIGHT

  •    At the minimum recommended magnification of 150%, the correct height is 39.39mm which includes the
       human readable interpretation.

  The height of an EAN-13 or UPC-A is dependent on the magnification. The height is proportional to the width
  and is dependent on the magnification factor chosen. Bar height should not be reduced (truncated).




  36                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                    July 2001
LIGHT MARGINS

The bar code must be printed with sufficient clear area around it to enable the scanner to recognise the start and
the end of the bar code. The actual light margin area is dependent on the magnification factor chosen.

AT THE MINIMUM RECOMMENDED MAGNIFICATION OF 150% THE LIGHT MARGINS ARE:

EAN-13
•   To the left 5.44mm
•   To the right 3.46mm

UPC-A
•   To the left 4.45mm
•   To the right 4.45mm


VARIABLE DATA

This bar code does not allow variable data (maximum or minimum durability dates, batch numbers, etc) to be
added to the same bar code. If variable data is required, it will need to be added in an UCC/EAN-128 bar code
and positioned along side the EAN-13 or UPC-A, respecting the light margins.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                            37
     8.2 Producing ITF-14 Bar codes for Trade Items

     This bar code is used to identify the EAN/UCC-14 number or the EAN/UCC-13 number with a filler 0.

                                                                                                              Bar
                                                          ITF-14                                            Height
                                                                                                             32mm


 Light                                                                                                                    Light
margin                                                                                                                   margin
at 90%                                                                                                                   at 90%
 9.8mm                                                                                                                    9.8mm




                                              (actual size shown 90%)


     MAGNIFICATION

     The internationally specified magnification range for use of this bar code is:

     •    Between 50% to 100% for use in a general distribution environment.
     •    For other uses the magnification range is between 25% and 100%.

     Note:    Magnifications between 100-120% are acceptable based on historical specifications, but a migration to
              the 100% maximum magnification should be made on new artwork.

     The decision on the most appropriate size to print the bar code must be made by the printer taking into account
     printing processes, ink substrate and other printing considerations. It is recommended that any bar code which is
     intended for conveyorised scanning (unattended, fixed mount scanning environments, where items are scanned
     automatically as they pass by on a conveyor) should be printed at the higher end of the permissible magnification
     factor range. Lower magnification factors reduce reading distance and make the production of quality bar codes
     more difficult to maintain.

     If printing directly onto corrugated cartons the ITF-14 bar code should not be printed below 62.5%. However, if
     the printing technique used is via label application the lower end of the magnification factor can be considered.

     Lower magnification factors reduce reading distance and make the production of quality bar codes more difficult
     to maintain.




     38                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                    July 2001
HEIGHT

Regardless of the magnification range recommended the ITF-14 bar code should always be printed at a minimum
height of 32mm.


•   THE GREATER THE HEIGHT THE BETTER THE SCANNING POSSIBILITIES.

LIGHT MARGINS

The bar code must be printed with sufficient clear area around it to enable the scanner to recognise the start and
the end of the bar code. The actual light margin area is dependent on the magnification factor chosen.

At a magnification of 90% the minimum light margins are :
•   TO THE LEFT 9.2mm
•   TO THE RIGHT 9.2mm


BEARER BARS

Bearer bars should be included on all ITF-14 bar codes.

For pre-printed ITF-14 bar codes bearer bars should have a consistent width of 4.8mm surrounding the entire bar
code.

For printing methods that do not require printing plates it is recommended that a bearer bar at a width of 2mm be
applied to the top and bottom of the bars.


VARIABLE DATA

This bar code does not allow variable data (use by dates, batch numbers, etc) to be added to the same bar code.
If variable data is required, it will need to be added in an UCC/EAN-128 bar code and positioned along side the
ITF-14, respecting the light margins.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                            39
8.3 Producing UCC/EAN-128 Bar codes for Trade Items
This bar code allows variable data as well as the trade item number to be represented in one single bar code.
Information such as serial numbers, manufacturing plant, batch numbers, internal codes, use by dates, etc. can be
used by any partner in the supply chain to add value to the base information.


                                                 UCC/EAN-128                          Height
                                                                                       32mm




                   Light                                                                 Light
                  margin                                                                margin
                  at 50%                                                                at 50%
                    5mm                                                                   5mm
                                    (01)09312345678907

                                        (actual size shown 50%)


MAGNIFICATION

The internationally specified magnification range for use of this bar code is:

•    Between 50% to 100% for use in a general distribution environment.
•    For other environments the magnification range is between 25% and 100%

Note:    Magnifications between 100-120% are acceptable based on historical specifications, but a migration to
         the 100% maximum magnification should be made on new artwork.

The decision on the most appropriate size to print the bar code must be made by the printer taking into account
printing processes, ink substrate and other printing considerations. It is recommended that any bar code which is
intended for conveyorised scanning (unattended, fixed mount scanning environments, where items are scanned
automatically as they pass by on a conveyor) should be printed at the higher end of the permissible magnification
factor. Lower magnification factors reduce reading distance and make the production of quality bar codes more
difficult to maintain.

HEIGHT

The international recommendation is:
•    Height in general distribution environment is a minimum of 32mm regardless of the magnification.
•    THE GREATER THE HEIGHT THE BETTER THE SCANNING POSSIBILITIES.


LIGHT MARGINS

The bar code must be printed with sufficient clear area around it to enable the scanner to recognise the start and
the end of the bar code

At the minimum recommended magnification of 50% the minimum light margins are:
•    TO THE LEFT 5mm
•    TO THE RIGHT 5mm




40                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                      July 2001
9. Bar code Quality Check List
The EAN•UCC specifications for printing bar codes are explicit in that, if the specified procedures are followed,
with routine quality control, you can produce bar codes that scan consistently.

To assist with 100% readability it is recommended that the bar codes on trade items be verified by EAN Australia
or EAN New Zealand (as is currently the case with trade items sold at retail point of sale). It is mandatory that a
verification report for the trade item accompany the trade item in any product submission to retailers.

The verification report contains information such as;

Ø   Scan Rate which is measured in increments of 10 starting at 0% through to 100%. Retailers use this as a
    guide to determine scanning performance.

Ø   Symbology Check (Within specification or Not in specification) is used to ensure bar codes meet technical
    requirements (i.e. correctness of EAN•UCC number, contrast, height, colours, etc.). Products could achieve
    100% scan rate but be out of specification. All scanners should read bar codes that are in specification.
    There is no grading of bar codes, it is either 100% in specification or it is out of specification. EAN
    Australia and EAN New Zealand are the only organisation qualified to give advice on in/out of specification
    assessment. It is not expected that retailers or their buyers should give advice on this issue.

Ø   Location specifies whether the bar code is in the position given in the EAN•UCC location guidelines.


Verification reports are not only for retailer use. It is also recommended that manufacturers and suppliers send
cartons and labels to EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand for testing whenever there are changes to packaging
and on a periodical basis to ensure quality is maintained. Manufacturers should take positive action to prevent
poorly printed bar codes.

Another important factor is that verification reports are only an indication of what the bar code should be. There
is no guarantee that the quality of the sample bar code provided for verification will be consistently the same
quality (especially true with ink jet type bar codes) on all cartons.

There are a number of aspects to printing the bar code to ensure that 100% readability is achieved and
maintained.

A copy of the current symbol verification report can be obtained from either EAN Australia or EAN New
Zealand. At the time of writing this document the symbol verification format is under review and will be made
available to the industry in due course.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                              41
þ Ensure that sufficient time consideration is given at the packaging and planning stage to meet the need of
     supplying samples to EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand for verification.


þ Ensure that the correct EAN•UCC number is used for the relevant trade item. Confirm this number at
     artwork stage and after printing has occurred.


þ Check the magnification/size and height of the bar code.
þ Check that the bar code has not been truncated (reduce height).
þ Check the location of the bar code on the final finished item.
þ Ensure that the light margins are adequate. A useful device to help maintain the light margin in some
     production processes is to include a “less than”(<) and/or “greater than” (>) character in the human-
     readable field aligned with the edge of the light margin.


þ Ensure that the contrast between the bars and the background is sufficient.
þ Ensure that if printed on labels, they are not of a glossy nature.
þ Ensure that print quality is maintained throughout the print run.
þ Check that the bar code will remain readable in the environment in which the item will be stored, handled
     and distributed.


þ Ensure that no tape, plastic wrap or other printing will obscure the bar code on the finished product.
þ Ensure that no bar codes will show through from the inner pack.
þ Continue regular checks to ensure quality is maintained.




42                       The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                     July 2001
10. Global Location Numbers (GLN)

10.1 Introduction
On a daily basis information related to parties and locations is generated and communicated throughout the
business world in vast quantities. Names and addresses are put on envelopes for the mail, the point to which a
delivery is to be made is put on transport documentation, EDI network addresses are provided in an EDI
message, etc. These are just a few examples of the many applications in existence today which identify parties or
locations in trade or other communications.

With the advent of electronic communication, and particularly EDI, the need for the identification of parties and
locations has become more acute. The use of numeric identification instead of full alphanumeric names and
addresses is key to the successful implementation of an EDI project.

Global Location Numbers (GLN) offer an internationally recognised standard solution to the identification of
parties and locations.

Once assigned at source, i.e. in general by the party owning the location, the GLN becomes a unique and
universal reference which can be used by all.



10.2 Definition of the Global Location Number (GLN)
The GLN is a 13-digit non-significant reference number used to identify:
•   Legal entities, e.g. registered companies.
•   Functional entities, e.g. specific department with a legal entity.
•   Physical entities, e.g. a door of a warehouse, a particular room in a building.

Global Location Numbers (GLNs) can be used to identify anything which is, or can be addressed. Some
examples of this would include companies, departments, rooms, factories, shelves, delivery points, EDI network
addresses, etc.

Details associated with the GLN, e.g. name and address, location type, contact persons, communications
numbers, banking information, delivery requirements or restrictions, etc., are stored in the computer files of the
system users for later retrieval.

Although the GLN is strictly a reference key and does not carry any information on the location it identifies, it
has a standard format and is structured to allow each GLN to be unambiguous and unique worldwide.

The format of a GLN is a 13-digit, fixed length numeric field, structured in the same way as an EAN/UCC-13
item number.

GLNs are mainly used in Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to identify the sender and recipient of an electronic
transmission and any party relevant to the transaction, e.g. buyer, seller, carrier etc.

GLNs can also be used in bar code format to identify a physical location or to encode the identification of
relevant parties in logistic applications, e.g. “ship to” location number. The UCC/EAN-128 bar code and the
appropriate AI should be used according to the rules specified, in the EAN Australia and EAN New Zealand
User Manuals.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                               43
EAN Australia & EAN New Zealand member companies that have been allocated an EAN•UCC Company Prefix
for item identification can use the same EAN•UCC Company Prefix for assigning GLNs.

Companies that are not members of EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand can still use GLNs. These companies
should contact EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand for further information.

10.2.1 Implementation Timing
• All companies should be identified by a Global Location Number (GLN) in all EDI messages.

• All locations (warehouse, stores, manufacturing plants, etc.) in EDI messages should be identified by Global
  Location Numbers (GLNs).

• During a migration period, both Global Location Numbers (GLNs) and current internal numbers can be used
  at the discretion of the trading partners for identifying locations.




44                       The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                   July 2001
11. Numbering and Bar Coding of Assets

11.1 Introduction
The EAN•UCC system provides a system for the identification of assets. The object of asset identification is to
identify a physical entity as an inventory item. Asset identifiers should not be used for any other identification
purpose.

Each company or organisation that has been allocated an EAN•UCC company prefix may assign asset identifiers
to the assets of their organisation. The EAN•UCC Asset Identifier acts as a key to access the characteristics of
an asset stored in a computer file and/or to record movements of assets.

Asset Identification Numbers may be used for simple applications, such as the location and usership of a given
fixed asset (e.g. Personal Computer), or for complex applications such as recording the characteristics of a
returnable asset (e.g. pallet), its movements, its life-cycle history and any relevant data for accounting purposes.

The only data carrier that is used to represent the EAN•UCC Asset Identifier is the UCC/EAN-128 bar code.


11.2 Allocating Asset Identifiers
There are two types of asset identifiers defined in the EAN•UCC system: -

•   Global Returnable Asset Identifiers (GRAI)
•   Global Individual Asset Identifiers (GIAI)

Either Asset Identifier can be used to identify any fixed asset of an organisation. It is left to the discretion of the
issuer to determine which of the two are most suitable for the application concerned. The attributes of the asset
should be established on a computer files using the EAN•UCC Asset identifier as the key to the information. An
example of the type of information held would be the full name and address of the party who owns the asset, the
value of the asset, the location, the life-cycle history etc.

Asset Identifiers must not be used for any other purpose and must remain unique for a period well beyond the
lifetime of the relevant records.

In addition, if a company sells an asset to another party whom may or may not be using EAN•UCC Asset
Identification numbers, the EAN•UCC Asset Identifier issued by the previous owner should be deleted.

11.2.1 Global Returnable Asset Identifier – GRAI (AI 8003)
A returnable asset is a reusable package or transport equipment of certain value, such as a beer keg, gas cylinder,
pallet or crate. The EAN•UCC identification of a returnable asset (GRAI) enables tracking as well as recording
of all relevant data.

The Application Identifier 8003 is used to identify returnable assets. The data following the AI 8003 comprises
of: -

•   The EAN•UCC company prefix of the company assigning the asset identifier
•   The asset type number, assigned by the company issuing the number
•   An optional Serial Number.




July 2001                   The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                               45
The combination of the EAN•UCC company prefix together with an asset type will uniquely identify a particular
kind of asset, i.e. beer keg, pallet, gas cylinder etc. The asset identification number remains the same for all
identical returnable assets. It is recommended sequential numbering be used (as per a trade item), however the
structure is left to the discretion of the assigning company. The optional serial number may be used to
distinguish individual assets within a given asset type.

Note:    The use of this AI identifies the physical unit as a returnable asset. When such a physical unit is used to
         transport or to contain a trade item, AI 8003 must never be used to identify the trade item itself.

Where it is not possible to assign asset classification numbers, or where the asset type is not required by the
application then the Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI) should be used.

11.2.2 Global Individual Asset Identifier – GIAI (AI 8004)
Used for simple applications such as the location and usership of a given fixed asset the Global Individual Asset
Identifier (GIAI) gives companies a global solution for the tracking of assets such as personal computer, office
furniture, etc. In the EAN•UCC system an individual asset as those described is considered a physical entity of
any characteristic.

The Application Identifier 8004 is used to identify a physical entity as an asset. The data following AI 8004
comprises of: -

•    The EAN•UCC company prefix of the company assigning the asset identifier
•    An individual asset reference number. The structure of which is left to the discretion of the company
     assigning the number.

The GIAI must not be used for other purposes and must be unique for a period of time well beyond the lifetime
of the relevant asset records. Whether or not the assigned GIAI may remain with the physical item when
changing hands depends on the particular business application. If it remains with the physical item then it must
never be re-used.




46                        The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                       July 2001
12. ACERT
The EAN Australia & EAN New Zealand ACERT program is designed to ensure optimum bar code quality,
consistently, through all stages of the packaging process. The ultimate outcome will be EAN•UCC bar codes that
scan first time, at each point in the supply chain, from production to distribution to retail point-of-sale.

Based loosely on the ISO 9000 method of quality assurance, ACERT examines each element of the bar code
production process. From number allocation, to artwork generation to post production, ACERT identifies critical
areas where errors may occur with the view of ensuring that quality systems are in place to prevent such errors
occurring.

ACERT checks that appropriate policies and quality procedures are documented and adhered to. If followed
consistently, a company can be confident that the final bar code, destined for the market-place, will be of
sufficient quality to be scanned by the range of equipment used by all players in the grocery supply chain process.

An EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand member company who undertakes the ACERT program will enjoy a
two-fold benefit.
         1. They can be confident their systems comply with industry requirements and, if adhered to, will
             deliver quality EAN•UCC bar codes with no fear of product recall due to products not scanning at
             any level of packaging.
         2. They eliminate the requirement to submit samples to EAN Australia or EAN New Zealand for bar
             code testing and the production of a Symbol Verification Report. This removes the time delays in
             bringing product to market and the cost of such submissions both internal and external.

The ACERT process involves a desk audit and full site inspection. It incorporates training on the various aspects
of bar code development as required. ACERT is available to all members of EAN Australia & EAN New
Zealand. Further information may be obtained on the EAN Australia web site at www.ean.com.au or through
Richard Jones on 1300-366-033 or rjones@ean.com.au. For members in New Zealand information can be
obtained through Owen Dance on (04) 801-2894 or owen.dance@ean.co.nz.




July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                           47
Appendix A: List of EAN•UCC Application Identifiers

                                                                                                    Format
     AI   Notes    Content                                                                    AI           Data
 00                Identification of a logistic unit (Serial Shipping Container Code –SSCC)   n2    n18
 01                Identification number (GTIN) of a trade item                               n2    n14
 02                Identification of trade items contained in a logistic unit                 n2    n14
 10                Batch or Lot number                                                        n2    an..20
 11         a      Production date (YYMMDD)                                                   n2    n6
 12         a      Due date (YYMMDD)                                                          N2    N6
 13         a      Packaging date (YYMMDD)                                                    n2    n6
 15         a      Minimum durability date (YYMMDD) (Previously known as best before          n2    n6
                   date)
 17         a      Maximum durability date (Safety) (YYMMDD) (Previously known as use         n2    n6
                   by date)
 20                Product variant                                                            n2    n2
 21                Serial number                                                              n2    an..20
 22                Secondary Data For Specific Health Industry Products – HIBCC               n2    an..29
 23         b      Lot number (transitional use)                                              n3    n..19
 240               Additional product identification assigned by the manufacturer             n3    an..30
 241               Customer part number                                                       n3    an..30
 250               Secondary serial number                                                    n3    an..30
 251               Reference to source entity                                                 n3    an..30
 30                Variable quantity                                                          n2    n..8
 310        c      Net weight, kilograms                                                      n4    n6
 311        c      Length or first dimension, metres, trade                                   n4    n6
 312        c      Width, diameter or second dimension, metres, trade                         n4    n6
 313        c      Depth, thickness, height or third dimension, metres, trade                 n4    n6
 314        c      Area, square metres, trade                                                 n4    n6
 315        c      Net volume, litres, trade                                                  n4    n6
 316        c      Net volume, cubic metres, trade                                            n4    n6
 320        c      Net weight, pounds                                                         n4    n6
 330        c      Weight, kilograms logistics                                                n4    n6
 331        c      Length or first dimension, metres, logistics                               n4    n6
 332        c      Width, diameter or second dimension, metres, logistics                     n4    n6
 333        c      Depth, thickness, height or third dimension, metres, logistics             n4    n6
 334        c      Area, square metres, logistics                                             n4    n6
 335        c      Volume, litres logistics                                                   n4    n6
 336        c      Volume, cubic metres logistics                                             n4    n6
 337        c      Kilograms per square metre                                                 n4    n6
 340        c      Gross weight, pounds                                                       n4    n6
 37                Count of items contained in a logistics unit                               n2    n..8
 390        c      Amount payable – Single Monetary Area                                      n4    n..15
 391       c      Amount payable – with ISO currency code                                     n4    n3+n..15
Appendix A: List of EAN•UCC Application Identifiers (continued)



48                     The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                  July 2001
                                                                                                       Format
   AI       Notes   Content                                                                      AI          Data
 392          c     Amount payable for a Variable Measure Trade Item – Single monetary           n4    n..15
                    area
 393          c     Amount payable for a Variable Measure Trade Item – with ISO currency         n4    ns+n..15
                    code
 400                Customer’s purchase order number                                             n3    an..30
 401                Consignment number                                                           n3    an..30

 402                Shipment identification number                                               n3    n17
 403                Routing code                                                                 n3    an..30
 410                Ship to (deliver to) EAN•UCC Global Location Number                          n3    n13
 411                Bill to (invoice to) EAN•UCC Global Location Number                          n3    n13
 412                Purchase from EAN•UCC Global Location Number                                 n3    n13
 413                Ship for (deliver for - forward to) EAN•UCC Global Location Number           n3    n13
 414                Identification of a Physical Location, EAN•UCC Global Location Number        n3    n13
 415                EAN•UCC Global Location Number of the Invoicing Party                        n3    n13
 420                Ship to (deliver to) postal code within a single postal authority            n3    an..20
 421                Ship to (deliver to) postal code with 3-digit ISO country code prefix        n3    n3+an..9
 422                Country of origin of a trade item                                            n3    n3
 423                Country of initial processing                                                n3    n..15
 424                Country of processing                                                        n3    n3
 425                Country of disassembly                                                       n3    n3
 8001               Roll/paper products - width, length, core diameter, direction, and splices   n4    n14
 8002               Cellular Mobile Telephone Identifier                                         n4    an..20
 8003               Global returnable asset identification (GRAI)                                n14   n14+an..16
 8004               Global Individual Asset Identifier (GIAI)                                    n4    an..30
 8005               Price per unit of measure                                                    n4    n6
 8006               Identification of the components of a trade item (GCTIN)                     n4    n14+n2+n2
 8007               International Bank Account Number                                            n4    an..30
 8008               Date & time of production                                                    n4    n8+n..4
 8018               Global Service Relation Number (GSRN))                                       n4    n18
 8020               Payment Slip Reference Number                                                n4    an..25
 8100               Coupon extended code – UCC prefix + offer code                               n4    n1+n5
 8101               Coupon extended code – UCC prefix + offer code + expiration date             n4    n1+n5+n4
                    (month + year)
 8102               Coupon extended code – 0 + UCC prefix                                        n4    0+n1
 90                 Information mutually agreed between trading partners (including FACT         n2    an..30
                    data identifiers)
 91-99              Internal applications                                                        n2    an..30




July 2001                 The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                           49
 Conventions for AI Data Formats:
 a      alphabetic characters
 n      numeric characters
 an     alpha-numeric characters
 a3     three alphabetic characters, fixed length
 n3     three numeric characters, fixed length
 an3    three alpha-numeric characters, fixed length
 a..3   up to three alphabetic characters
 n..3   up to three numeric characters
 an..3  up to three alpha-numeric characters

 Notes:
 a        when indicating only a year and month, fill DD with 00
 b        indicates plus one digit for length indication
 c        indicates plus one digit for decimal point indication




50                      The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines   July 2001
     Appendix B: General Guidance on When to Change A
                          GTIN
                                  PROPOSED CHANGE                                                  REQUIRED


 Extra Contents (including promotions with extra contents)                                              YES


 WEIGHT CHANGE:

 -   DECLARED                                                                                           YES
 -   NOT DECLARED                                                                                       NO


 Item name or brand change                                                                              YES


 Significant item description change                                                                    YES


 New label for same item                                                                                NO


 Ingredient formula change not impacting consumer declaration                                           NO


 Change in packaging type:
 -   when two or more different pack types of the same item                                             YES
     remain in the market place at the same time
 -   if new packaging replacing old packaging                                                           YES

     -   Different languages on pack where substitution is NOT possible. Eg, a product
     marked in English only must have a different GTIN from the exact same product                     YES
     which is marked in Chinese only.

     -   Different languages on pack where substitution of products is possible. Eg, an
     item marked in French only can be substituted for an item marked in French &                       NO
     German therefore can have the same GTIN.


 PROMOTIONS:
 -   money back competition offer (manufacturer source not                                              NO
     affecting retail price)

 -   free gift attached                                                                                 YES
                                                                                                        NO
 -   free gift inside (unless this affects the net weight or dimensions of the trade item)
                                                                                                        YES
 -   extra contents
                                                                                                        YES
 -   the description of the promotional item differs in any way
     from that of the same standard item
                                                                                                        YES
 -   price reduction is specified on the pack


Note: A separate unique GTIN is required for every different trade item, and for every variant of an item
whenever this variation is in any way apparent and significant to any partner in the supply chain, to the final user
or to the retail customer.



July 2001                  The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             51
Appendix C:

Application Identifiers (AI) are available for the following types of dates:

     •   Production date (AI 11)
     •   Due date (AI 12)
     •   Packaging date (AI 13)
     •   Minimum durability date (Quality) AI 15)
     •   Maximum Durability date (Safety) (AI 17)
     •   Date and Time of Production (AI 8008)

Since the data field “year” consists of two positions, the century is established by the
following procedure:
.

     Subtract current           Result is                     Result is
     year from N1 N2            51 to 99                     -50 to -99
                                                 NO                           NO
                                       YES                          YES

                              Year N1 N2 is                Year N1 N2 is              Year N1 N2 is
                            previous century               next century              current century




52                      The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines             July 2001
Glossary of Terms

AI   - See Application Identifier.


AIDC – Automatic Identification and Data Capture
Algorithm            - A set of steps to be taken to effect a desired calculation.


Application Identifier (AI)                       - Prefixes which define the structure and the meaning of the data
that follows in the bar code.

Attribute Information                     - Information over and above the product identification represented in a
standard format.

Bar code           - A representation of characters in a form suitable for automatic data capture.


Bar code Symbology                     - Term used to identify a bar code language.


Check Digit        - A character included within a string of data whose value is used for the purpose of
performing a mathematical check to ensure the accuracy of that data.

Concatenation               - The ability of a reading system to join together the data from multiple symbols and
interpret it as a single message.

Consumer Unit                 - See trade item.


EAN•UCC Company Prefix                      - The EAN•UCC Company Prefix is allocated by EAN member
                                 organisations or the UCC. In Australia & New Zealand, EAN Australia and
                                 EAN New Zealand allocate seven or nine digit company prefixes.
. The EAN•UCC company prefix, item reference and check digit constitute the Global Trade Item Number
(GTIN).


   •
EAN•UCC System                  The specifications, standards and guidelines co-administered by EAN
International and the Uniform Code Council (UCC).

EAN/UCC-13 Identification number                                - The EAN•UCC identification number
comprising 13 digits used to identify trade items, locations and special applications.



EAN· UCC-14 Identification number                                  - The EAN•UCC identification number
comprising 14 digits used to identify trade items, locations and special applications.




July 2001                    The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             53
Filler Character                    - A character inserted to extend the data to achieve a desired field length.


GTIN -    Shorthand term for the EAN•UCC Global Trade Item Number. A GTIN may use the EAN/UCC-8,
UCC-12, EAN/UCC-13 or EAN/UCC-14 numbering structures

Indicator          - The first digit of the EAN/UCC-14 identification number. A different indicator identifies
different levels of packaging of the same item. Previously known as logistical variant.

Individual Asset                - An entity which is part of the inventory of a given company


Interleaved Two of Five (ITF)                              - One of the bar codes defined for use on trade items not
sold at the retail point of sale.

ITF     - Interleaved two of five.


Non-Retail Item/Trade Unit                             - See trade item


Retail Point of Sale (POS)                         - The point at which goods are purchased either in a retail or cash
and carry outlet.

Trade Item          - Any item (product or service) upon which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined
information and that may be priced or ordered or invoiced at any point in any supply chain.

Uniform Code Council (UCC)                           - The Uniform Code Council (UCC) based in the United
States, is a membership organisation that jointly manages the EAN•UCC System with EAN International. The
UCC administers the EAN•UCC System in the United States and Canada

UCC/EAN-128                  - Symbology used to represent EAN•UCC Application Identifiers.


UPC-A            - The standard bar code representing the UCC-12 identification number.


Variable Measure Trade Item-                               A trade item whose price varies continuously as a function
of its weight.




54                          The Australian and New Zealand Grocery Industry Guidelines                             July 2001

								
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