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Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ClarkeRussell)

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					Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (Clarke/Russell) : Future activities meeting in Virginia Beach
Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)

Aerosol Chemistry, gas to particle conversion, size growth and internal mixing
Primary – Secondary aerosol Organic Aerosol (Natural, Anthropogenic) Interactions and Cloud Processes

Soot/Black Carbon
Dust Optical Properties and Radiative effects Cloud Condensation Nuclei

HISTOGRAMS OF MAJOR MASS FRACTIONS FOR P, BB AND NON-PLUMES: INTEX-NA

Pollution Plumes (P) and Biomass Burning (BB) Plumes
identified for 17% of flight hours based upon 95 percentile exceedences of selected trace gas data.

Remainder are regional non-plume data. Gamma determined from observed f(RH)
Clarke et al., JGR 2007

The Influence of OC and Ions upon the humidity response of light scattering, Gamma


 wet

  RHdry     1   100      dry      RHwet     1  100     

a) Gamma trends with total ions for pollution with weaker trend for BB.

b) Gamma reduced by total OC mass fraction with lower values for BB. Most OC was weakly water soluble but not hygroscopic.

Ambient column AOD(550nm) vs. PM 2.5 for INTEX NA

Ambient AOD closure over Aeronet sites Only 3 during INTEX NA, need greater effort to make similar network comparisons!

Shinozuka et al., 2007

PM2.5 about 55% of ambient AOD and Water contribution about 45% over during INTEX-NA [based upon in-situ f(RH)]
As measured

Assumes column effective RH = 80%

Shinozuka et al., 2007

Ambient SSA is constrained and linked to MAEacc and Size

SSA = [ 1 – MAEacc / MSEacc ]^-1

Size, composition and water uptake are related such that the slope of Dry SSA vs. absorption per unit mass (carried in models) shows an expected size dependency that collapses to a simpler dependency under ambient conditions. Provides constraints on models and retrievals.

Dry

Ambient

The wavelength dependence of absorption and its link to AMS (DeCarlo, Jimenez) organic mass fraction – MIRAGE & IMPEX

PRELIMINARY

April 6, 1999

April 10, 1999
Number Mass Dust
Vertical Profiles

Pollution

Subsiding Pollution provides enhanced CNN to stratus clouds and Dust provides soluble iron (limiting nutrient) mixing into MBL

(INTEX-B flights 11-13, DIAL Lidar, E.V. Browell, NASA, LaRC and aerosol vertical profiles), indicate the removal pathway for dust and pollution via subsidence into the marine boundary layer.

Understanding mixing, transport, entrainment, cloud condensation nuclei, precipitation scavenging and associated radiative effects are critical to understanding aerosol cycles and impacts and to model paramaterizations of removal flux. WE Naughton, A. TO ADDRESS CLOUDS NEED Clarke, V. Kapustin, S. Howell, J. Zhou, Y. Shinozuka C. M
c

University of Hawaii

Cloud Related Research Issues
Indirect effect - CCN and cloud microphysics and cloud radiative properties Warm Cloud Condensation Nuclei – CCN Ice Cloud Ice Nuclei (IN) Contrails Links between CCN and AOD ( PM1?, PM2.5?) Natural vs. Anthropogenic Components Aerosol and Influence on Hydrologic Cycle (Warm Clouds)– Precipitation Formation & Suppression, Amount, Location, absorption and scattering. Dust – Hurricane link etc.?? Are some aerosol fields and clouds coupled? Cloud Scavenging as Sink of Aerosol (model removal term uncertain) in-situ measurements linked to changes in satellite spectral AOD, precipitation, chemistry etc. Cloud Pumping (coupling MBL to FT chemistry) – influence on FT chemistry, key regions, altitudes, transport etc. Cloud Enhanced Chemistry (Aqueous Conversion, Surface Area Effects) ??? Airborne Sampling Issues (which clouds, what measured, new tools) liquid water sampling, droplet sampling (CVI), interstitial aerosol, artifacts

Need more new cloud sampling tools

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds

CloudSat

CALIPSO

GLORY

Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005
Cloud Halo – enhanced aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors

- support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination)
- 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO MODIS/Aqua CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

J31

Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra
from OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31
17 Mar 2006 INTEX-B

UV

Preliminary

Livingston, Redemann, Torres, …

Comparison of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra
from OMI on Aura, MODIS on Aqua, & AATS Sunphotometer on J-31
17 Mar 2006 INTEX-B

Preliminary

Livingston, Redemann, Veefkind, Viehelman

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO MODIS/Aqua CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

J31

Aerosol Single Scattering Albedo Spectra
Derived from simultaneous measurements of Radiative flux and aerosol optical depth

 UV-Vis-SWIR  Covers l range of OMIUV, OMIMW, MISR, MODIS, CALIPS O, HSRL, Glory ASP, RSP, POLDER, … Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm)  Coalbedo (1-SSA) varies by factor 4, l = 350-900 nm

Jetstream 31 (J31)

12 April 2001, ACE-Asia

Bergstrom et et al. for Earth System2004 al., JGR, Subcommittee P. Russell

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

POLDER/Parasol

MODIS/Aqua

MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

J31

P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Comparison of OMI, AATS, & AERONET AOD at T0 (Mexico City), 19 Mar 2006

Surface albedo effect?

AERONET, T0

AATS-14, T0

P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

Jetstream 31 (J31)
Specially modified by NASA
to measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate
AATS-14 SSFR CAR
POS

RSP

NavMet

Early Results from INTEX-B (2006)
 Preparing for Glory, RSP  AATS is testing aerosol retrievals by

measured polarized surface reflectance & aerosols over
ocean & Mexico City [Cairns et al.]

OMI, MODIS & MISR on Aura, Aqua & Terra, and by HSRLidar on B200, preparing for AEGIS [Redemann, Livingston,
Russell, Torres, Remer, Martins, Kahn, Hostettler, Ferrare, Clarke et al.]
Altitude [km] l [mm]

Aerosol Optical Depth

P. Russell et al. for Earth System Aerosol Extinction [km-1] Subcommittee

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO CloudSat GLORY

POLDER/Parasol

MODIS/Aqua

MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

J31

P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

Climate Change Science in INTEX-A/ICARTT
Measurements of Aerosol Effects on the Solar Energy that Drives Climate
Forcing Efficiency [W m-2] Solar energy [W m-2]

Slope = Aerosol Radiative Forcing Efficiency
Case 2, 21 Jul 2004

Jetstream 31 (J31) Scientific Conclusions

Aerosol Amount, AOD(499 nm)

Case Redemann et al., JGR, accepted 2006

1. The gradients (spatial variations) in AOD that occur frequently off the US East coast provide a natural laboratory for studying effects of aerosol particles on solar energy, and hence on climate. 2. For the average aerosol optical depth of ~0.5 in the 10 cases shown above, aerosols on average reduced the incident visible solar radiation energy flux by (near midday) 40 W m-2 (= 0.5 x -80 W m-2; see right frame above); demonstrating significant regional aerosol climate forcing.
P. Russell et al. for Earth System Subcommittee

Current Ongoing Relevant Aerosol Measurement Issues (Partial List)
Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (incl indirect radiative effect)

Satellite Validation —especially newer satellites (OMI/Aura, CALIOP/CALIPSO, ASP/Glory, …)
Surface Albedo or Reflectance (as fcn(l), polarized) Aerosol Absorption (1-SSA) Spectra Direct Measurements of Aerosol (&/or Cloud) Radiative Effects

Punch Line
In order to understand these things, you have to be willing to: -Put the necessary instruments on A/C -Fly the A/C in the necessary flight patterns

OMI/Aura

CALIPSO MODIS/Aqua

CloudSat

GLORY

POLDER/Parasol

MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200 DC-8 C-130

J31
AATS-14 SSFR CAR
POS

J31: Specially modified by NASA
to measure atmospheric constituents and surfaces via their effect on the solar energy that drives climate

NavMet Livingston/Russell, Aura ST, Boulder, Sep 2006

RSP

End of Presentation

Remaining Slides are Backup

Livingston/Russell, Aura ST, Boulder, Sep 2006

1) Aerosol direct effect: use of airborne sensors

- support satellite cloud screening (possible cloud contamination)
- 3-D effect of clouds on adjacent clear sky retrievals (much more easily done over-ocean; note that this is different from "classic" cloud contamination, by which a pixel contains an un-resolved cloud) - measure the spatial extent and properties of cloud halos - verify TOA and vertically resolved satellite-derived energy "fluxes" - validate Glory to be launched 2008 - check the consistency of AERONET retrievals of aerosol microphysics 2) Aerosol indirect effect: use of airborne sensors - support cloud screening (ensure spatial correspondence of cloudy and clear elements) - below-cloud and cloud-adjacent aerosol/CCN spectra/chemistry - validate satellite cloud properties (no AERONET-like network, therefore airborne validation may be relatively more important)

Motivation: Simultaneous satellite and airborne aerosol remote sensing in the vicinity of clouds

CloudSat

CALIPSO

GLORY

Nikolaeva et al., JQSRT, 2005
Halo effect – enhances aerosol scatter near cloud Cloud edge enhanced radiance

M. Schoeberl Thoughts on Satellites to 2010

Aura should be still flying with OMI aerosol information Aqua will probably still be going with MODIS Terra - not so sure - that would remove MISR CALIPSO will probably be dead Glory with APS will be flying in the A-train Maring: will need science/cal/val missions Cloudsat will probably be working

PARASOL will probably be dead or out of the A-train due to lack of fuel.
NPP will be up with VIIRS and OMPS nadir - but OMPS aerosol capability is uncertain.

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO MODIS/Aqua CloudSat GLORY POLDER/Parasol MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

J31

-Current: -Potential:

Coordinated satellite, in-situ and radiative missions
OMI/Aura CALIPSO MODIS/Aqua CloudSat GLORY

POLDER/Parasol

MISR, MODIS/Terra

B200

DC-8

C-130

Models of: - Chem & Trans - Rad Effects

J31


				
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