Sense of Taste and Smell

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					Sense of Taste and Smell

                    By: Alexis Birts,
                 Cameron Birts, Tailor
                   Johnson, Sophie
                 Patterson, and Nisha
                        Prabhu
                      4th period
            Chemoreceptors
• The receptors for taste and olfaction are
  classified as chemoreceptors.
• Olfactory and taste receptors both respond to
  chemical in solution.
• The receptors for smell and taste compliment
  each other.
      Olfactory Receptors



• These receptors take up about as much space
  as a postage stamp.
• The olfactory receptor cells are equipped with
  olfactory hairs, long cilia, which are constantly
  bathed in a layer of secreted mucus.
            Olfactory Receptors
Location:
• Your olfactory, smell, receptors are located in the
  roof of your nasal cavity.

Function:
• The olfactory receptors are stimulated by chemicals
  dissolved on the mucus; they transmit impulses
  along the olfactory filaments.
• The olfactory nerve conducts the impulses to the
  olfactory cortex of the brain.
• There the odor is interpreted and an “odor
  snapshot” is made.
          Olfactory Receptors
Structure:
• Olfactory receptors occupy a postage stamp-
  sized area in the roof of each nasal cavity.
• They have many tiny hair-like cilia that
  protrude from the olfactory cell’s dendrites
  into the mucus covering the surface of the
  olfactory epithelium.
   Olfactory Pathway to the Brain
• When the olfactory nerves are stimulated by
  chemicals dissolved in the mucus, they
  transmit impulses along the olfactory filament
  and to the olfactory nerve.
• From there the olfactory nerve transmits
  these impulses to the olfactory cortex of the
  brain.
• The Brain makes an “odor snapshot” and the
  odor is never forgotten.
                Taste Receptors
• Function:
   – The function of these receptors is
     to relay a message to the brain so
     that the brain can determine a
     taste.
• Location:
   – around the small structures on the
     upper surface of the tongue
   – Soft palate,
   – upper esophagus
   – epiglottis
               Taste Receptors
Structure:
• Taste buds begin on the surface of the tongue called
  the corium. The taste bud is surrounded by support
  cells. Within the buds are gustatory (taste) cells. On
  these cells are gustatory hairs.
         The gustatory pathway
• When these receptors are stimulated, they
  depolarize and send impulses to the brain. The
  cranial nerves in the brain then process the impulses
  and send them to the gustatory cortex which
  perceives taste.
       Five Basic Taste Sensations
• These tiny hairs have sweet receptors, sour
  receptors, bitter receptors, salty receptors and
  umami receptors.
       Factors that influence taste

• Sense of smell: when we are congested or
  lose our ability to smell, foods can taste
  different (coffee would simply be bitter)
• Temperature and Texture of Food: people
  may find a cold or greasy burger unfit to eat
• Spicy foods: such as hot peppers excite pain
  receptors in the mouth

				
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posted:1/20/2012
language:English
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